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inhabitants, who carry on trade with America, and the West-Indies. They abound in swine, and with a sort of cedar much prized for building small vessels; they also produce coffee and cotton. Three of them are small; and the principal one is called St. George; P. 5462 white, and 4919 black.

BERN, a canton of Switzerland, and formerly the largest. The canton of Aargau was taken from it by the constitution of 1803; but in 1815, at the congress of Vienna, the greater part of the late bishopric of Basel was united to this canton. tains many large towns and villages; and is the most fertile country in Switzerland; P. 357,660.

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BERN, the capital of the canton of Bern, and the residence of the landamman of Switzerland. It is partly fortified, and is 75 m NE Geneva, 48 m s Basle, and 50 w Zurich. Here is a celebrated academy, and a rich library. The houses are built of freestone, and pretty uniform, particularly in the three principal streets, which have piazzas or arcades on both sides; and many of the

streets have marble fountains. The cathedral is a stately gothic edifice, and the other churches and public buildings are magnificent. In the arsenal are preserved the figure and armour of William Tell, in the act of taking aim at the apple on his son's head. Bern was taken in 1798 by the French; P. 13,000: Lg. 7.26 E, Lt. 46.56.55 N.

BERNARD, GREAT ST. a mountain of the Pennine Alps, on the frontiers of Piedmont, 15 m NNW Aosta. On the summit,

8000 feet above the sea, is a large convent, where the monks entertain all travellers gratis for 3 days: the highest peak, called mount Velan, is 11,006 feet above the level of the sea. The French army, under Bonaparte, crossed this mountain in 1800, previous to the battle of Marengo, and, by order of Bonaparte, a monument was erected in the church to the memory of general Dessaix, who fell in this battle.

BERNARD-CASTLE, a town of England, County Durham, with a market on Wednesday, on the Tees, 24 m sw Durham, and 246 NNW London. It has manufactures of stockings and camblets; and takes its name from a castle built by Bernard Baliol, great grandfather to John Baliol, king of Scotland, who founded a hospital here; P. 4430. Polling-place.

BERNAU, a fortified town of Prussia, province Brandenburg. The principal commerce is in beer, of which large quantities are brewed. It is seated on the Pancho, 15 m NE Berlin.

BERNAY, a town of France, department Eure, 20 m sw Rouen.

BERNBURG, a town and the capital of the principality of Anhalt-Bernberg, with a

castle on a high rock. It has manufactures of earthenware, starch, and bottles; and is seated on the Saale, 24 m s Magdeburg.

BERNE, a Swiss colony, Russia, government Saratof, on the Little Caraman. It contains about 40 families.

BERNKASTEL, a town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, on the right bank of the Moselle, about 18 m NE Trier or Treves here is good wine.

BERNOU, or BERNOH, Africa, an extensive empire of Nigritia, having Cassina on the w and Nubia on the E. It consists of a number of oases, or fertile spots, interspersed with arid wastes. The climate is said to be characterized by excessive, though not by uniform heat. Two seasons, one commencing soon after the middle of April, the other at the same period in October, divide the year. The first is introduced by violent winds from the SE and S; with intense heat, a deluge of sultry rain, and such tempests of thunder and lightning as destroy multitudes of the cattle and many of the people. At the commencement of the second season the ardent heat subsides; the air becomes soft and mild, and the weather


perfectly serene. Maize, rice, the horsebean of Europe, the common kidneybean, cotton, hemp, and indigo, are cultivated; and there are figs, grapes, apricots, pomegranates, lemons, limes, and melons. most valuable tree is called redeynah, in form and height like an olive, the leaf resembling that of a lemon, and bearing a nut, the kernel and shell of which are in great estimation; the first as a fruit, the last on account of the oil it produces. Horses, asses, mules, dogs, beeves, goats, sheep, and camels (the flesh of which is much esteemed) are the common animals. Bees are so numerous that the wax is often thrown away as an article of no value. The game consists of partridges, wild ducks, and ostriches, the flesh of which is prized above every other. The other animals are the lion, leopard, civet cat, wolf, fox, elephant, buffalo, antelope, and cameleopardalis; and there are many snakes, scorpions, centipedes, and toads. The complexion of the natives is black; but they are not of the Negro cast The dress of the greater part consists of shirts of blue cotton manufactured in the country, of a red cap brought from Tripoli, and a white muslin turban from Cairo. Nose-rings of gold are worn by the principal people. But the only coVering of the lower class is a kind of girdle for the waist. In their manners the people are courteous and humane: they are passionately fond of play; the lower classes of draughts, and the higher excel in chess. More than 30 different languages are said to be spoken in Bernou and its dependencies; and the reigning religion is the


The monarchy is elective: on the death of the sovereign, the privilege of choosing a successor from among his sons is conferred on three persons, whose age and character for wisdom are denoted by the title of elders. The sultan is said to have 500 ladies in his seraglio; and his stud likewise contains 300 horses. Ilis dominions extend beyond the desert into the fertile country of Nigritia, of which he possesses a large portion. He has a vast army, which consists almost entirely of horse: the sabre, pike, bow, and shield, are their weapons.

BERNOU, Africa, the capital of the kingdom of Bernou, with a palace, like a citadel. The whole city is surrounded by a high wall, encompassed with a ditch; but the other towns of the kingdom are open. The principal trade is in gold dust, slaves, horses, ostrich feathers, salt, and civet. It is seated on the Gazel, 750 m ENE Cassina : Lg. 23.5 E, Lt. 19.45 N.

BERNSTADT, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, with a castle, 20 m E Breslau. BERRE, a town of France, department Bouches-du-Rhone, on lake Berre, at the influx of a river, 18 m wsw Aix.

BERRY, an old province of France, lying to the s of Orleanois and Blaisois, nearly in the centre of the kingdom. It now forms the departments of Cher and Indre.

BERSELLO, a town of Italy, in Modenese, with a castle, on the Po, at the influx of the Linza, 10 m NNE Parma.

BERVIE, OF INVERBERVIE, a borough of Scotland, county Kincardine, at the mouth of the Bervie, 12 m NE Montrose. It returns 1 M.P., and has a harbour for small fishing-boats.

BERWICK-UPON-TWEED, a borough on the borders of England and Scotland, governed by a mayor; returns 2 M.P., and has a market on Saturday. It was formerly a strong fortress, of great importance when England and Scotland were hostile nations, to each of which it alternately belonged, or was considered, as a district separate from both countries. It is now a county of itself, with a district 8 m in compass, on the Scotch side of the Tweed, called Berwick Bounds, which in 1747 was annexed to England, as part of the bishopric of Durham. The town is still fortified, and has good barracks for the garrison; but the castle is in ruins. It has a good trade in wool, eggs, corn, and salmon; and has manufactures of sacking, diaper, linen, muslin, cotton, stockings, carpets, and felts. It is seated on the Tweed, near the sea, 54 m SE Edinburgh, and 337 N by w London; P. 8920: Lg. 1.45 w, Lt. 55.48 N. Polling place.

BERWICK, 3 in North America, United

States:-1st, a town, state Maine, York county, on the Salmon-Fall, 14 m Nw York; P. 3168.-2nd, a town, state Pennsylvania, York county, at the head of Conwago creek, 13 m w by s York.-3rd, a town, state Pennsylvania, Northumberland county, on the E branch of the Susquehana, 34 m NE Sunbury.

BERWICK, NORTH, a borough of Scotland, county Hadington, on the frith-ofForth, 9 m NNE Hadington, and 22 ENE Edinburg; P. 1824.

BERWICK, a county of Scotland, sometimes called the Merse, bounded on the N by Hadingtonshire, E by the German-ocean, s by the English border and Roxburghshire, and w by Selkirkshire and Edinburgshire. It is 34 m long by 19, containing 326,400 acres, and is divided into 32 parishes. The s part is fertile and pleasant; and being a low and flat country, is sometimes called the how [hollow] of the Merse. The E angle is occupied by Berwick Bounds; a district governed by the English laws. The principal rivers are the Tweed, Leader, Whiteadder, and Eye. Greenlaw is the capital, but Dunse is the largest town; P. 30,621 in 1801, and 34,048 in 1831.

BESANÇON, the ancient Vesontio, a fortified city of France, capital of department Doubs, on the Doubs, and an archiepiscopal see, 56 m E Dijon, and 235 SE Paris. It has a citadel, on a high rock, washed on two sides by the Doubs, which here forms a peninsula; also a university, an academy of science, a literary military society, and a public library in the abbey of St. Vincent. The triumphal arch of Aurelian, and other Roman antiquities, are still to be seen. Here are manufactures of clocks, watches, and fire-arms of the best quality; P. 30,000: Lg. 6.3 E, Lt. 47.14 N.

BESIGHEIM, a town of Würtemberg, with 2 old castles, at the conflux of the Neckar and Ens, 15 m N by w Stuttgart.

BESSARABIA, Or BUDZAC, a province of Russia, on the NW coast of the Black-sea, between the mouths of the Danube and the Dniestr. On the banks of the last river the Tartar inhabitants rove from place to place. Their common food is the flesh of oxen and horses, cheese, and mares' milk. This country belonged to the Turks, who, by the treaty of peace in 1812, ceded it, with that part of Moldavia E of the river Pruth, to the Russians. Bender is the capital.

BESSENAY, a town of France, department Le-Rhone-et-Loire, 12 m w Lyon.

BESTRICIA, a town of Austria, Transylvania, with gold mines in its neighbourhood, 85 m NW Hermanstadt.

BETANZOS, a town of Spain, province

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BETHANY, a town of North America, United States, state Pennsylvania, Wayne county, in the NE of the state, 60 m w Wilkesbarre; P. 327, in 1830.

BETHLEHEM, a town of Asia, Syria, Palestine, famous for the birth of Christ. It is seated on the ridge of a hill, and now an inconsiderable place, but much visited by pilgrims. Here is a monastery covering the Cave of the Nativity; also the Chapel of Joseph, and another of the Holy Innocents. It is 6 m s of Jerusalem.

BETHLEHEM, 3 in North America, United States:-1st, a town, state Pennsylvania, Northampton county; P. 1436.— 2nd, a town, state New-York, Albany county, on the Hudson; P. 4430.-3rd, a town, state New-Jersey, Hunterdon county, on a branch of the Raritan; P. 1738, all in 1820.

BETHUNE, a town of France, department Pas-de-Calais, with a castle, 134 m N Paris. It was taken by the allies in 1710, and restored by the treaty of Utrecht. It is seated on a rock, by the Brette; P. 6940.

BETLEY, a town of England, county Stafford, on the borders of Cheshire, 18 m NNW Stafford, and 157 London; P. 870.

BETLIS, a city of Asia, Turkey, capital of Upper-Kurdistan. It is the residence of a bey, who is neither subject to the Turks nor Persians, and has a numerous army of horsemen and infantry. It stands on the Kabour, one of the sources of the Tigris, in a fruitful valley, and has a castle on the top of a mountain that bounds the plain on the


Here are 30 mosques, and 8 Arminian churches. The bazaars are well supplied with fruit and provisions; but cloth, hardware, &c. are very dear. It is 120 m ESE Diarbeker; P. about 12,000: Lg. 42.30 E, Lt. 37.45 N.

BETTIAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, Bahar, in a district that produces large timber trees for ship-building and masts. It is 85 m NNW Patna: Lg. 84.40 E, Lt. 26.47 N.

BEUTHEN, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the frontiers of Poland, 45 m ENE Ratibor.

BEVELAND, NORTH, and SOUTH, two islands of Holland, province Zealand, be

tween the E and w branches of the Scheldt. South-Beveland is the largest of the Zealand islands, 24 m long by 6. The capital is Goas.

BEVERLEY, a borough of England, county East York, governed by a mayor; returns 2 M.P., and has a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It is seated near the Hull, 30 E by S York, and 183 N London. It has 2 churches, and the Minster; and a large market-place, adorned with a beautiful cross. The chief trade is in malt, oatbeing the retirement of John de Beverley, meal, and tanned leather. It is famous for archbishop of York, who lived here 4 years, built a monastery, and died in 721. In honour of whom several kings, particularly Athelstan, who chose him guardian saint, endowed the place with many privileges; P. 8302. Polling-place.

BEVERLEY, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Essex county, on a peninsula, and connected with Salem by a long bridge, 22 m NE Boston.

BEVERSTEDT, a post town of Hannover, province Bremen, German m by post road, sw Stadt.

BEVERWYCK, a town of Holland, province North Holland, on the Wyckermeer, which communicates with the Wye, 7 m x Haarlem, and 11 sw Alkmaar.

BEWDLEY, a borough of England, county Worcester, with a market on Saturday, and returns 1 M.P. It is seated on the Severn, 14 m N Worcester, and 129 Nw London. It has a good trade in malt, leather, salt, and iron ware; and a freeschool founded by James I; P. 3908.

BEX, a town of Switzerland, canton Bern, noted for its salt rocks, and its exten

sive salt works, 43 m sw Bern.

BEXIS, a town of Spain, province Valencia, and the chief place of a district belonging to the order of Calatrava. It stands on an eminence, surrounded by mountains, 22 m NW Segorbe.

BEYHAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, capital of the territory of CoochBahar, which extends along the frontiers of Bootan. It is the modern residence of the Cooch-Bahar rajas, and stands on the Toresha, 40 m NNE Rungpoor: Lg. 89.22 E, Lt. 26.18 N.

BEZIERS, a city of France, department Herault, near the Royal-canal, on a hill, at the foot of which flows the Orbe, 40 m sw Montpellier. The remains of an amphitheatre and some inscriptions bespeak its ancient grandeur. The learned Barbeyrac was born here in 1674 ; P. 14,120.

BHADRINATH, a town and temple of Asia, Hindostan, in Gurwal, situated in a narrow valley on the right bank of the


The town contains about 30 huts for the accommodation of the Brahmins and other attendants on the temple, during the six months of pilgrimage. The temple is a very ancient structure, in the

form of a cone, and visited annually by about 50,000 pilgrims. It is 30 m NNE Serinagur.

BHAG, a town of Asia, Balloogistan, in Cutch Gundava, on the Naree, 46 m NE Gundava.

BHATGONG, a city of Asia, Hindostan, in Nepaul, inferior in size to the capital, but its palace and buildings are of a more striking appearance, and the streets much cleaner. It is 8 m E by 8 Catmandoo.

BHATNUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Ajmere, capital of the Bhally country. It stands on an immense plain; it is scanty of water, and near the E border of the Sandy desert, 130 m NNE Bicanere: Lg. 73.55 E, Lt. 29.36 N.

BHEHERA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, and the territory of the Sheiks; on the river Bhehera or Bhember, 98 m w by N Lahore.

BHUKER, a city of Asia, Hindostan, in Sindy, with a fortress. It stands on an island in the middle of the Indus, and has the towns of Sukor and Rohree as its suburbs on each bank of the divided stream. The fortifications are in ruins, but it is yet a place of some note, 140 m NNE Hydrabad: Lg. 69.37 E, Lt. 27.15 N.

BнOOJO, OF BOOJE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, capital of the province of Cutch. It is a strong but irregular fort, and has a high wall of great thickness. The houses are in the centre of a stone enclosure; they are terraced, and provided with loop-holes; each is a small fort. To the E is a high hill fort, called Bhoojea. The town is situated 40 m inland from the gulf-of-Cutch, and 143 SE Tatta: Lg. 69.52 E, Lt. 23.15 N.

BнOWNUGGUR, a seaport of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, on the w coast of the gulf-of-Cambay. The town was founded in 1742, and is now the chief mart of commerce for Ahmedabad and Marwar. It is 60 m sw Cambay: Lg. 72.16 E, Lt. 21.48 N.

BHURTPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra, with a fort, surrounded by a wide and deep ditch. In 1805 the British attempted to take it by assault, and lost a great number of men; but it ultimately surrendered to the besiegers, and the raja entered into a treaty of peace. It is 30 m w by N Agra: Lg. 77.23 E, Lt. 27.17 N.

BIAFRA, Africa, a country of Guinea, to the SE of Benin, of which little is known; but it is said to have a capital of the same name, on the river Jamour, or Camarons,

which enters the Atlantic by several mouths, opposite the island of Fernando Po.


BIANA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra. It was the capital of the province while Agra was a village; it is still considerable. It is 50 m wsw Agra.

BIAR, a town of Spain, province Valencia. Exports honey, celebrated for its whiteness and solidity; 6 m E Villena.

BIBERACH, a town of Würtemberg, with a manufacture of fustians; in a fertile valley on the Reuss, 24 m ssw Ulm.

BIBRA, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, frequented on account of its mineral spring; 15 m s Querfurt.

BICANERE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Ajmeer, capital of a Rajpoot principality, on the E border of the Sandy desert. "It is spacious, well built, and surrounded by a wall, with many round towers. It contains some temples, one of which has a lofty spire, and on the sw side is a fort, where the rajah resides; but the chief security of both the town and fort arises from the scarcity of water in the surrounding country. It is 180 m NNW Ajmere: Lg. 73.12 E, Lt. 27.57 N.

BICESTER, a town of England, county Oxford, with a market on Friday, 11 m NNE Oxford, and 55 w by N London;

P. 2868.

BIDACHE, a town of France, department Basse-Pyrenees, with a castle, 16 m E Bayonne; P. 2350.

BIDDEFORD, a seaport of England, county Devon, governed by a mayor, with a market on Tuesday, on the Torridge, 16 m s by w Ilfracomb, and 204 w London. It has a trade in coal, culm, timber, and oak bark, also in the herring and Newfoundland fisheries. A great quantity of Welch limestone is burned here; and there is a large pottery; P. 4846: Lg. 4.12 w, Lt. 50.57 N.

BIDDEFORD, a town of North America, United States, state Maine, county York, on the 'seacoast, at the mouth of the Saco, 14 m ssw Portland; P. 1995 in 1830: Lg. 70.35 w, Lt. 43.23 N.

BIDJEEGAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Allahabad, with a fort on a steep and lofty hill, which was taken by the British in 1781, and has since then been neglected. It is 59 m s by E Benares.


BIEL, or BIENNE, a town of Switzerland, capital of a small territory in the canton of Bern. It stands near lake Biel, on the river Suss, 18 m SSE Porentru.

BIELA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, in Piedmont, near the river Cerva, 24 m w Vercelli.

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BIELGOROD, or AKKERMAN, a fortified town of Russia, province Bessarabia, on the right bank of the Dniestr, 10 m from the Black-sex. The exports are corn, wood, hides, wine, and wool; 70 m SSE Bender: Lg. 30.15 E, Lt. 46.8 N.


BIERVLIET, a town of Holland, province Zealand, in Flanders, on the s side of the West-Scheldt, and on a small island of its name, 20 m N Ghent.

BIOGAR, a town of Scotland, county Lanark, with a handsome church, seated on a hall, 10 m SE Cornwath; P. 1915.

BIGGLESWADE, a town of England, County Bedford, with a market on Tuesday, seated on the Ivel, 10 m ESE Bedford, and 45 NNW London; P. 3226. Polling-place.

BIGNOR, a parish of England, county Sussex, 3 m NNW Arundel; famous for one of the finest tesselated pavements in England, discovered in 1811, and the remains of a bath, with other Roman antiquities, which have since been found by excavation; P. 130.

BIGORRE, an old province of France, lying to the E of Bearn, and on the confines of Spain. It now forms the department of Hautes-Pyrenees.


BIGUBA, a town of Africa, Senegambia, capital of a kingdom of the same name. is seated on the Rio-Grande, 100 m from its mouth: Lg. 13.50 w, Lt. 11.12 N.

BIJANAGUR, a celebrated city of Asia, Hindostan, in Bejapoor, once the capital of a kingdom, 110 m SSE Bejapoor. In 1564 it was plundered and destroyed by the Deccony princes, and extensive ruins yet remain on the right bank of the Toombudra. Between the large piles of rocks crowned with pagodas, several streets can be traced from 30 to 45 yards wide, and there is one remains yet perfect. A number of streams flow through the ruins of the city, which by the natives is called Allpatna. The part on the opposite bank of the river, named Arragoondy, did not suffer so much, and it has been allowed to be retained by nominal rajahs for several generations. In 1786 Tippoo entered this place and burnt the rajah's palace: Lg. 76.37 E, Lt. 15.14 N.

BIJEYGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra, with a fort, which was taken by the British in 1803, 45 m NNE Agra.

BIJORE, a town of Asia, Afghanistan, in Cabul, capital of a small district, seated near a river of the same name, 126 m ESE Cabul: Lg. 70.44 E, Lt. 34.8 N.

BILBOA, a seaport of Spain, capital of province Biscay. The upper part built mostly of wood, and has narrow streets, which terminate in a great square; the lower part is of freestone and brick, with fine broad streets. The principal exports are wool, iron, oil, chesnuts, sword-blades, and other manufactures in iron and steel. In 1812 the French evacuated this town, and were effectually resisted by the Spaniards in two attempts to regain possession. It is seated in a fertile country, on the Ibaicabal, which forms a good harbour near the bay of Biscay, 50 m w by s St. Sebastian, and 220 N by E Madrid: Lg. 2.48 w, Lt. 43.14 x.

BILDESTON, a town of England, county Suffolk, with a market on Wednesday, on the Breton, 12 m SE Bury, and 63 NE London; P. 830.

BiledulgeriD, or BILUDULGERID, Africa, a country of Barbary, bounded on the N by Algiers and Tunis, E by Tripeli, s by Sahara, and w by Tafilet. The air is hot and unhealthy. The country sterile and sandy, producing little sustenance, except dates, which are in such great abundance that it is frequently called the Land of Dates; and this fruit is exchanged with the neighbouring countries for wheat. It has also a race of horses, famous for their swiftness and rapidity of travelling. The inhabitants are treacherous, thievish, and cruel. They are a mixture of ancient Africans and wild Arabs; the former living in towns, and the latter in tents. The capital is Tuggurt.

BILINBAEFSKOI-ZAVOD, Russia, government Perm, district Ecaterinbourg. It has extensive iron-works.

BILIN, a town of Austria, Bohemia, district Leitmeritz, 17 m w Leitmeritz.

BILITZ, a town of Austria, Moravia, with a castle, and a considerable manufacture of cloth, on the Biala, and the verge of Poland, 13 m ENE Teschen.

BILLERICA, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, county Middlesex, near the Concord, 20 m NNW Boston; P. 1374 in 1830.

BILLERICAY, a town of England, county Essex, with a market on Tuesday, seated on a hill, 9 m sw Chelmsford, and 23 E London. Polling-place.

BILLESDON, a town of England, county Leicester, with a market on Friday, 8 m E Leicester, and 93 N by w London; P. 908.

BILMAH, an arid desert of Africa, between Fezzan and Bernou, caravans are 10 days in passing over it.

BILSAH, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Malwah, chief of a district producing excellent tobacco, on the Betwah, 32 m ENE Bapal: Lg. 77.55 E, Lt. 23.33 N.

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