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tors. The chiefs extract one or two of the fore teeth, substituting others of gold; and strings of the teeth of tigers, a real badge of courage, are worn round the neck. The coasts of this island are divided into several kingdoms, the principal of which are Borneo and Banjermassin.
BORNEO, a kingdom of Asia, on the Nw side of the above island, governed by a sultan, who lives in great state. Borneo, the capital, 15 m up the country, on a fine navigable river, is large and populous. The Chinese frequently build junks here, and send them to China loaded with the rough produce of the country. The town resembles Venice, in having canals instead of streets; and the houses are built on each side the river upon posts, and are ascended by stairs or ladders: Lg. 112.44 E, Lt. 4.55 N.
BORNHOLM, an island of Denmark, in the Baltic, of an oval form, about 52 m in circuit, and nearly surrounded by rocks. The soil is stony, but fertile, with excellent pasture; and there are mines of coal, and quarries of freestone and marble; also different kinds of clay, which are exported to Copenhagen for the porcelain manufacture. It is 10 m SE Schonen, in Sweden. The chief town is Ronne.
BORNOU; see BERNOU.
BORODINO, a village of Russia, government Smolensk, district Viasma, or Wiaz
On the 26th of August, 1812, a sanguinary battle was fought between the Russians and French, in which the latter lost 30,000 men and 40 generals; the former lost 25,000 men and generals Koutaïsoff and Toutchkoff killed in the field; general Bagration died of his wounds: the victory was disputed, but the French retired.
BOROSDINSKAIA, or the fort of Borosdinsk, Russia, government Caucasus, on the Terek, 6 m above Kizlar, Cosaques.
BOROUGHBRIDGE, a borough of England, County West-York, on the Ure, over which is a stone bridge, 18 m Nw York, and 202 x by w London: with a market on Saturday, and a trade in hardware. Here Edward II, in 1322, defeated the rebel earl of Lancaster; P. 950.
BOROVITCHI, a town of Russia, government Novogorod, chief of district, on the Msta, 121 m Novogorod; it has 1 convent and 4 churches; P. 1000: Lg. 34.10 E, Lt. 58.16 N..
BOROOSK, a town of Russia, government Calouga, chief of district, on both sides of the Protva; it has 5 sail-cloth manufactures, 4 churches, and trades considerably in flax, hemp, leather, garlic, and onions; P. 5000. BORROMEI, islands of Italy, Austria, the largest islands in lake Maggiore, kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, NE of the Milanese, 40 m Nw Milan. One of them,
Isola-Bella, has a magnificent palace, with beautiful gårdens raised upon terraces.
BORROWDALE, a village of England, County Cumberland, 6 m 8 Keswick. It stands at the head of a narrow and crooked valley, and is famous for mines of wadd, or black-lead, a substance almost peculiar to England; P. 356.
BORROWSTONNESS, or BONESS, a town of Scotland, county Linlithgow; with a safe and commodious harbour on the frith-ofForth. It has a considerable trade in shipbuilding and coal, and extensive manufactures of salt and stoneware. It is 5 m N Linlithgow, and 18 w by N Edinburg;
BORZNA, a small town of Russia, government Tchernigow, 60 m Tchernigow; it has 6 churches, and 3 annual fairs.
BOSA, a town of Sardinia, on the w coast of the island of Sardinia, with a castle; stands at the mouth of the Bosa, 27 ms Sassari.
lasia, in the Pacific-ocean, about 10 m in BOSCAWEN-ISLAND, an island of Austracircuit: Lg. 175.10 w, Lt. 15.50 s.
BOSHUANAS, a numerous nation of South Africa, divided into several tribes, of which the Matchappin, the only one yet visited by Europeans, is the most powerful. Their capital is Sectakoo: they are skilful in working iron, and in making fire-arms, and pay great attention to agriculture. Their territory extends from the 25th to the 20th degree of s Lt.-LICHTENSTEIN's Travels.
BOSCOREL, a village of England, county Salop, 9 m SE Newport, where Charles II was concealed in an oak, after the battle of Worcester.
BOSHIEMANS, Africa, a tribe of uncivilized Hottentots, inhabiting the mountains near the cape-of-Good-Hope.
BOSINA, a province of Europe, Turkey, 120 m long by 70; bounded on the N by Sclavonia, E by Servia, s by Dalmatia, and w by Dalmatia and Croatia. It is the ancient Pannonia-Inferior; and is mountainous, but fertile, especially near the rivers. Bosna-Serai is the capital.
BOSRA, or BOSTRA, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, with a castle, at the s end of the plain of Haouran, 76 m s by E Damascus. The great mosque is coeval with the first era of Mohammedanism. Near to this are the ruins of a large temple, and in various parts numerous remains of edifices, columns, and inscriptions. None of the celebrated vineyards are now to be found: Lg. 36.10 E, Lt. 32.20 N.
BOSSINY, a borough of England, county Cornwall, that has no market; seated near the Bristol channel, 17 m Nw Launceston
and 233 w by s London; P. 1006. See TINTAGEL.
BosT, Asia, Persia, in Segestan, formerly strong and populous, but now inconsiderable, 140 m wsw Candahar.
BOSTAN, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Roum, which has a great trade in wheat, on the s branch of the Kizil-Irmak, 85 ms Sivas.
BOSTON, a town of England, county Lincoln, governed by a mayor, returns 2 M.P., with a market on Wednesday and Saturday, and a trade in wool. It is seated on the Witham, 5 m from its mouth, and vessels of 100 tons ascend to the town.. It has a navigation to Lincoln, partly by the Witham, and partly by a canal; also a canal to Bourn. The lofty tower of its large Gothic church is a seamark; it is 37 m SE Lincoln, and 113 N London; P. 11,240: Lg. 0.25 E, Lt. 53.1 N. Polling-place.
BOSTON, North America, United States, capital of state Massachusetts, and of Suffolk county, seated on a peninsula, at the w end of Massachusetts' bay, covered by numerous islands and rocks, and defended by a strong castle, 436 m Washington; the peninsula is formed by the harbour, and the river Charles, and contains about 700 acres; it is connected to the mainland, on the s, by an isthmus 1 m long, and about a quarter where broadest. The city extends in the form of a crescent
about the harbour; and the country rising gradually beyond, affords a delightful prospect. There is only one safe channel to approach the harbour, and that so narrow, that two ships can scarcely sail abreast. Within the harbour there is room for 500 ships to anchor; and at the Long-Pier, which is nearly 2000 feet in length, ships of the greatest burden may come close. Most of the public buildings are handsome, and some of them elegant. Franklin-Place contains a monument of Dr. Franklin (who was born here), and is encompassed on two sides with buildings of superior excellence. On the w side of the town is the Mall, a beautiful public walk; and opposite, on Beacon-hill, is a magnificent state-house. The streets are handsome, particularly that extending from the pier to the townhouse. Here are 19 edifices for public worship, belonging to various denominations; 7 freeschools supported at the public expence; and 2 elegant bridges, over the Charles, which have draws for the admission of vessels: one of them, called Charles-River-Bridge, connects the city with Charleston; and the other West-Boston-Bridge, 3483 feet in length, leads to Cambridge. The foreign and domestic trade is very considerable; and the principal manufactures consist of spirits, loaf sugar, canvass, cordage, beer, pot and pearl ash, glass, tobacco, and chocolate. Fifteen of the islands in the harbour afford pastu
rage and corn, and furnish agreeable places of resort in summer to parties of pleasure. In the neighbourhood of Boston the first hostilities commenced, in 1775, between the colonists and the troops of the mother country, who evacuated the town in 1776; P. 61,392 in 1830, and in 1700 it was 7000: Lg. 71.41 w, Lt. 42.20 x.
BOSWORTH, MARKET, a town of England, county Leicester, on a hill, 13 m w Leices ter, and 106 NNW London; with a market on Wednesday. In its vicinity was fought, in 1485, the famous battle between Richard III and the earl of Richmond, afterward Henry VII, in which the former lost his crown and life; P. 2530.
BOTANY-BAY, Australasia, on the E coast of New-South-Wales, discovered by Cook, in 1770, so called from the great variety of herbs found on the shore. The promontories that form its entrance are named Cape-Banks and Point-Solander. It was originally fixed on for a colony of convicts from Great-Britain, which, in the sequel, took place at Port-Jackson, 13 m further to the N. This colony now contains the four districts of Sydney, Paremitta, Hawkesbury, and Newcastle, at each of which there is a town. The climate is generally temperate; spring commencing about the end of September, and winter in the month of May. The summers are often inneral productions hitherto found: but the soil tensely hot. Iron and coals are the only miis fertile, and produces corn and vegetables in abundance. The indigenous animals are few; the most singular is the kangaroo. The natives are an ugly, ignorant, and barbarous race. - WENTWORTH'S Account of New-South-Wales. See NEW-SOUTHWALES.
BOTANY-ISLAND, a small island of Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, SE of NewCaledonia: Lg. 167.17 E, Lt. 22.27 s.
BOTESDALE, a town of England, county Suffolk, with a market on Thursday, seated in a valley, 15 m NE Bury, and 87 London; P. 655. Polling-place.
BOTHWELL, a village of Scotland, county Lanerk, on the Clyde, 9 m from Glasgow. Here are the ruins of Bothwell-castle; and at Bothwell-bridge the Scottish Covenanters were defeated in 1679; P. 5545.
BOTLEY, a village of England, county Hants, 6 m E Southampton, on the river Hamble, noted for a considerable trade in flour; P. 722.
BOTNIA, EAST, a province of Russia, Finland, on the E coast of the gulf-of-Botnia. It is 259 m in length, by from 90 to 189. On the seacoast, and toward the s, the land is low and marshy; but it is the most fertile province in Finland. The principal exports are deals, tallow, dried fish, pitch and tar.
The capital is Ulea: the Tornea forms the boundary between it and Sweden.
BOTNIA, WEST; see WEST-BOTHNIA.
BOTHNIA, GULF, the most northern portion of the Baltic-sea, having Russian Finland along its eastern shore, and Sweden on the w; on the s it joins the sea of Bothnia, at the strait-of-Quarkin, in Lt. 63.20 N.
BOTHNIA, SEA, a portion of the Balticsea between Russia and Sweden, extending from the strait-of-Quarkin on the N to Alund island on the s, where it joins the Baltic. It extends from Lt. 60.20 to 63.20 N, and from Lg. 17.20 to 20.25 E.
BOTTESFORD, a village of England, County Leicester, 7 m w by N Grantham. Near it, on a lofty eminence, is Belvoircastle, the ancient seat of the dukes of Rutland: many Roman antiquities have been found in the neighbourhood; P. 1320.
BOTZEN, or BOLZANO, a town of Austria, Tyrol, capital of district of Etschland, with a castle; it is famous for excellent wine, and has 4 noted annual fairs. It stands on the Eisack, surrounded by high hills, 22 m sw Brixen.
BOUCHAIN, a fortified town of France, department du-Nord, divided into two parts by the Scheld, 9 m w Valenciennes. It was taken by the allies in 1711, but retaken the year following; and was invested by the Austrians in 1793, but soon relieved; P. 1200.
BOUCHART, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire, on an island in the Vienne, 15 m ssw Tours.
BOUCHEMAIN, a town of France, department Mayenne-et-Loire, 4 m s Angers. BOUCHES-DU-RHONE, a department of France, on the coast of the Mediterranean, at the influx of the Rhone. It contains the sw part of the old province of Provence, is 70 m long by 30, and bordered by the departments of Gard, Vaucluse, and Var. The area is 2000 square m; P. 293,000. Aix is the capital.
BOU DAKOV-BOUERAK, a German colony, Russia, government Saratof, on the Volga: it contains 45 Lutheran families.
BOUDRY, a town of Switzerland, canton Neufchatel, 4 m sw Neufchatel.
BOUGOULMA, a town of Russia, government Orenbourg, the chief of a district; it contains 2 churches, and 300 houses: Lg. 52.50 E, Lt. 54.39 N.
BOUHOUROUSLANE, a small town of Russia, government Orenbourg, on the Kinelia; it is chiefly inhabited by veteran soldiers, and contains 1 church; P. 1060.
BOUILLON, a town of Belgium, duchy Luxemburg, with a castle, near the Semoy, on an almost inaccessible rock. The French took it in 1676, when Louis XIV gave it to the duke of Bouillon. In 1794 it was taken by storm, by general Beaulieu, after defeating a body of French republicans, and given up to pillage. It is 6 m NE Sedan, and 46 WNW Luxemburg.
BOUILLY, a town of France, department Aube, 7 m s Troyes.
BOUISNK, a town of Russia, government Simbirsk, chief of district on the Carla, 45 m from Simbirsk; contains 1 church; P. 1250.
BOUJEIAH, a seaport of Africa, Algiers, 90 m E Algiers; it is very strong, and has a much larger port than Algiers, though not so secure : Lg. 4.53 E, Lt. 36.44 N.
BOULIMER, a town of Russia, an ancient city of Bulgaria, the ruins of which attest its former grandeur; the site is now occupied by the village Billarsk.
BOULOGNE, a seaport of France, department Pas-de-Calais, divided into 2 towns, the upper and lower; the former is walled. It stands 24 m s Calais, and 154 x by w Paris; amid high ground. The harbour, formed by the Lianne, is shallow, though basons were dug here by order of Napoleon, to hold the flotilla for the invasion of England. Near the town, on the Calais road, a noble marble pillar marks the spot on which his army encamped; P. 17,750: Lg. 1.37 E, Lt. 50.44 N.
BOURBON, an island of Asia, in the Indian-ocean, 60 m long by 45, 300 m E Madagascar. It has no safe harbour, but there are many good roads for shipping, except in the hurricane seasons. On the SE is a volcano. It is a fertile island, producing cocoa, cloves, coffee, sugar-canes, and excellent tobacco. The French settled here in 1672, and built some towns; and here their India-ships touch for refreshments. It surrendered to the British in 1810, and was afterward restored. The chief town is St. Denis, situated on the NE coast: Lg. 55.20 E, Lt. 20.52 s.
BOURBON, a county of North America, United States, state Kentucky, on Licking and the Kentucky; P. 18,434 in 1830. Paris is the county town.
BOURBON-LANCY, a town of France, department Saone-et-Loire, 28 m sw Autun, celebrated for its hot mineral waters, and a large marble pavement, called the Great Bath, which is a work of the Romans.
BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAUD, a town of France, department Allier, near the Allier, 15 m w Moulins, celebrated for its hot baths, and for giving name to the family of the late kings of France.
BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, a town of France, department Haute-Marne, 18 m ENE Langres, famous for its hot baths.
BOURBONNOIS, an old province of France, which now forms the department of Allier.
BOURBOURG, a town of France, department du-Nord, near the Aa, on a canal that communicates with Calais and Dunkirk, 10 m sw Dunkirk
BOURDEAUX, a city and seaport of France, capital of department Gironde, and an archiepiscopal see, 90 m s by E Rochelle, and 325 sw Paris. It is built in the form of a bow, of which the Garonne is the string; the harbour is large, with grand and extensive quays. It has 12 gates, and is deemed the second city in France, for magnitude, riches, and population. The cathedral is much admired. Here are a university, an academy of arts and sciences, a public library, a splendid theatre, and a large hospital, in which are many manufactures. The most remarkable antiquities are the palace of Galienus, built like an amphitheatre, and several aqueducts. By the river Garonne and the canal of Languedoc, to the SE, it has an inland navigation to the Mediterranean-sea; and by the same river and the Gironde, to the Nw, it has a communication with the Atlantic-ocean. From these advantages it is a place of great commerce, and has a very considerable trade, particularly in claret and brandy. The theatre is an elegant structure, and in the city are several beautiful walks. A noble bridge has been recently erected over the Garonne. The Latin poet, Ausonius, was born here: and in the vicinity were born Michel Montaigne, and the president Montesquieu. Here Edward the Black-Prince, of England, resided several years, and his son, afterward Richard II, was born; P. about 100,000: Lg. 0.34 w, Lt. 44.50 N. BOURG-EN-BRESSE, a city of France, capital of department Ain, in a marshy but fertile country, on the Ressousse, 36 m NE Lyon, and 260 SSE Paris. Near it is the magnificent church and monastery of the Augustins. The principal commerce is in corn, horses, cattle, and white leather.
BOURG, a town of France, department Gironde, with a tide harbour on the Dordogne, near the point of land formed by the junction of that river with the Garonne. It has a great trade in wine, and is 15 m N by E Bourdeaux.
BOURG, a town of Guyana, in the island of Cayenne: Lg. 52.50 w, Lt. 5.2 N.
BOURG-LASTIC-SUR-MER-D'OISANS, a town of France, department Isere, on the Romanche, 20 m ESE Grenoble; P. 2000.
BOURGANEUF, a town of France, department Creuse, 20 m NE Limoges. Here
is a lofty tower, faced with stones cut diamondwise, erected by Zisim, brother of Bajazet II, emperor of the Turks, when he was obliged to exile himself, after the loss of a decisive battle.
BOURGES, a city of France, capital of department Cher, and an archiepiscopal see, at the conflux of the Auron and Evre, 25 m NW Nevers, and 155 s Paris. It has a university, founded by Leo XI, the Nero of France, who was born here in 1423. The cathedral is a noble pile; and the great tower, formerly used as a prison, is deserving of notice. This city, in ancient times, was first called Avaricum, and afterwards Biturigæ, from its inhabitants. The principal manufactures are cloth, woollen stuffs, and stockings; but the trade is inconsiderable; P. 18,500.
BOURGET, a town of Sardinia, duchy Savoy, on lake Bourget, near the Rhone. In a monastery in this town are the tombs of the ancient dukes of Savoy. The lake is 7 m long by 2 to 3; in it is a fish called lavaret, unknown elsewhere.
BOURGNEUF, a seaport of France, department Basse-Loire, on a bay to which it gives name, between the isle of Noirmoutier and the continent, 20 m sw Nantes. The chief trade is in salt, made from the adjacent marshes; P. 2000: Lg. 2.3 w, Lt. 47.4 N.
BOURGUEIL, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire, 22 m w Tours.
BOURN, a town of England, county Lincoln, with a market on Saturday. It has a navigable canal to Boston, and is seated at the source of a rivulet that flows to Spalding, 35 m s Lincoln, and 97 N London; P. 2355. Polling-place.
BOURO, Asia, one of the Molucca islands, to the w of Ceram, 80 m long by 50. Some mountains in it are very high, and the sea on one side is uncommonly deep. It produces nutmegs, cloves, cocoa, and banana trees, and many vegetables introduced by the Dutch. The chief town is Cajeli, seated on Cajeli-bay: Lg. 127.4 E, Lt. 3.24 s.
BOURTHES, a town of France, department Pas-de-Calais, 12 m se Boulogne.
BOUSA, a town of Africa, Nigritia, in the country of Housa, near the Niger, where Mungo Park is reported to have been killed, 55 m w by N Housa.
BOUTON, one of the Molucca islands, Asia, in the Indian-ocean, 85 m long by 20, its N end lying 10 m E from the SE point of Celebes.
BOUVINES, or BOVIGNES, a village of Belgium, province Namur, on the Maas, 12 ms by E Namur.
BOUZOULOUK, a town of Russia, government Orenbourg, chief of district, on the Samara and Damachnaïa, fortified and well
It contains 2 churches and 300 linen and yarn: on the Boyle, over which houses: Lg. 52.20 E, Lt. 53.08 N. are two bridges, 23 m N Roscommon.
BOVELLES, a town of France, department Somme, 6 m wsw Amiens.
Bow, a village of England, county Middlesex, 2 m ENE London. It has many mills, manufactures, and distilleries, on the Lea, over which is a bridge. The original bridge had one stone arch, and was built by Matilda, queen of Henry I; it is said to be the first of stone in England, and that from its arch the village received the name of Bow; the present bridge has three arches, and bears marks of considerable antiquity.
Bow, a town of England, county Devon, with a market on Thursday, at the source of a river which flows into the Taw, 14 m xw Exeter, and 188 w by s London;
Bow-ISLAND, a low coral island in the Pacific-ocean, discovered by Bougainville, 1768; visited by Cook, 1769; and by Beechey, 1826; 30 m long by 5; P. 100: Lg. NE end 140.51.15 w, Lt. 18.06.18 s.— BEECHEY.
BOWLING-GREEN, a town of North America, United States, state Kentucky, Warren county, 115 m ssw Louisville; P. 815 in 1830.
BOWNES, a town of England, county Westmorland, E side of Windermere, 9 m w by N Kendal: it is a great mart for fish and charcoal, and the chief place for trading and pleasure boats used in navigating the lake.
BOWNESS, a village of England, county Cumberland, at the w end of the Picts wall, on Solway-frith, 13 m w by N Carlisle: it was a Roman station, called Blatum-Bulgium; and hence Antoninus began his Itinerary; P. 388.
BOXFORD, a village of England, county Suffolk, 5 m from Sudbury: it has a great trade in malt, and a manufacture for dressing sheep and deer skins in oil; P. 1088.
BOXLEY, a village of England, county Kent, 4 m N Maidstone: famous for an abbey, founded in 1146, some remains of which still exist; in this abbey Edward II granted the charter to the city of London, empowering them to elect a mayor; P. 1391.
BOXTEL, a town of Holland, province North-Brabant, on the Bommel, and furnished with sluices: here the British and Dutch troops, under the duke of York, were defeated by the French in 1794; 8 m s Boisle-duc.
BOXTRUDE, a town of Hannover, province Bremen, on the Este, which flows into the Elbe, 12 sw Hamburg.
BOYLE, a town of Ireland, county Roscommon: here are the ruins of an abbey, near lake Key; and it has manufactures of
BRACCIANO, a town of Italy, patrimony of St. Peter: celebrated for the warm baths in its vicinity; on the lake Bracciano, 12 m NW Rome.
BRACKLEY, a borough of England, county Northampton, governed by a mayor, with a market on Wednesday: it contains 2 churches, and had formerly a college, now a free-school; on the Ouse, 18 m SSW Northampton, and 64 Nw London; P.2107. Polling-place.
BRACLAW, a town of Russia, Poland, on the Bog, 85 m E Kaminieck.
BRADFIELD, 7 in England:-1st, parish, county Berks; P. 956.-2nd, parish, county Essex, with a market on Thursday, on the Blackwater, 16 m N Chelmsford, and 44 NNE London; P. 964.-3rd, parish, county Norfolk; P. 210.-4th, a chapelry, county West York; P. 5504.—5th, Brandfield-Combust, parish, county Suffolk; P. 154.-6th, St. Clair-Bradfield, parish, county Suffolk ; P. 226.-7th, St. George-Bradfield, parish, P. 226.
BRADFORD, 13 in England:-1st, hundred, county Wilts; P. 11,604.-2nd, parish, county Devon; P. 487.-3rd, town, county Lancaster; P. 166.-4th, town, county Northumberland; P. 36.-5th, town, county Northumberland; P. 32.-6th, parish, county Somerset ; P. 525.-7th, parish and town, county West York, returns 2 M P., with a market on Thursday, 10 m w Leeds, and 196 from London; here is a grammar-school endowed by Charles I, a piece-hall for stuff goods, a canal (a branch of the Leeds and Liverpool), and manufactures of tammies, calamancos, woollen cloths, and leather boxes, together with iron-works; P. of parish 76,996, of town 23,233: polling-place.-8th, Bradford-Abbas, parish, county Dorset; P. 595.-9th, Great-Bradford, town and parish, county Wilts, with a market on Monday, and manufactures of superfine cloths, on the side of a rocky hill, near the banks of the Avon, 10 m N by w Warminster, and 100 w London; P. 10,102.-10th, North-Bradford, hundred, county Salop; P. 26,867.—11th, South-Bradford, hundred, county Salop; P. 37,982.-12th, Peverel and MucklefordBradford, parish, county Dorset; P. 330.— 13th, West-Bradford, town, county West York; P. 522.
BRADFORD, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Essex county, on the Merrimac, opposite Haverhill,