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corn, which is delivered out to the miners of Harz forest at a fixed price. It is seated on the Saale, 18 m NNE Göttingen.

OSTERODE, a town of Prussia, province Ost-Preussen, with a castle, on a lake called Drewenz-see, 46 m SE Marienburg.

OSTERSUND, a town of Sweden, capital of province Jamtland. It has a trade with the Norwegians in iron ware, steel, leather, and leathern-jackets. It is seated on the E side of lake-Storsio, 76 m NW Sundswald: Lg. 16.10 E, Lt. 63.10 N.

OSTERWICK, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, woollen manufactures; 17 m w by N Halberstadt.

OSTHOMMOR, a town of Sweden, province Stockholm. It had formerly a good harbour, which is now become shallow, 36 m NE Upsala.

OSTIA, a decayed seaport of Italy, States of the Church, in Campagna-di-Roma, and the see of a bishop, who resides at Veletri. The old town was destroyed by the Saracens; and the new one consists only of the cathedral and a few mean houses. It stands near the E mouth of the Tiber (now so shallow that the harbour is ruined), 12 m sw Rome.

OSTIGLIA, a town of Italy, Austria, kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, on the Po, 15 m SE Mantua.

OSTROG, Russia, a name applied to places or forts inclosed with strong palisades.

OSTROG, a town of Russia, government Volhinia, chief of district, on the left bank of Gorynia, 115 m Jitomir, formerly of Poland; and belonging to prince Igor, after whom its possession became the subject of long and intricate controversy, in which the Polish government was compelled to interfere, the whole forming a very interesting history. Residence of the Russian archbishop of Volhinia and Jitomir; trade extensive, chiefly in the hands of the Jews; P. 4730.

OSTROGOJSK, or RYBNA, a town of Russia, government Voronéje, chief of district, at the junction of the Sosna and Ostrogojsk, near lake-Ribna, 63 m s Voronéje: Cosaques; trade extensive in horses, horned cattle, tallow, &c.; this place has raised 1 regiment of Cosaque infantry, and 1 of cavalry; 10 churches, public school, shops built of brick; 3 fairs; P.11,900: Lg. 39.03 E, Lt. 51.40 N.

OSTROLENKO, a town of Russia, kingdom Poland, voevod Plotsk, on the left bank of the Naréwa, 262 m w Plotsk; P. 1800.

OSTROV, a town of Russia, government Pskow, chief of district, partly on an island in the Velikaïa, 37 m s Pskow, and partly

on the right bank of the river. The castle is ancient, of stone, flanked by 2 towers, but falling to decay; a wooden bridge connects the two parts of the town; 2 churches, houses in general very wretched, built of wood. Trade inconsiderable in corn and flax, greater in building timber.

OSWEGATCHIE, a town of North Amestate New-York, rica, United States, St. Lawrence county; P. 3934 in 1830.

OSWEGO, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state New-York, Oswego county-town; P. 27,104.-2nd, a county-town, state New-York, Oswego county, defended by a fort, SE side of lakeOntario, at the influx of the Oswego, which forms a good harbour. In 1814 it was stormed by the British, who destroyed the works and then retreated. It is 42 m ssw Sacket's Harbour, 167 wNw Albany, and 370 Washington; P. 2703: Lg. 76.24 w, Lt. 43.23 N.

OSWESTRY, a town of England, county Salop, governed by a mayor, with a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It is an ancient place, and had a wall and castle, of which some traces yet remain. By an act obtained in 1810 the town has been much extended and improved; carries on some manufactures, and a considerable trade in shop goods, coarse linens, and Welch webs. It is 18 m Nw Shrewsbury, and 179 London; P. 8581. Polling-place.

OTABALO, a town of Quito, in a district abounding in cattle and horses. It has manufactures of bed furniture and carpets, and is 30 m N Quito.

OTAHA, one of the Society-islands, Australasia, Pacific-ocean, N of Ulitea; and is divided from it by a strait, which, in the narrowest part, is not more than 2 m. is smaller and more barren than Ulitea, but has 2 good harbours.

It

OTAHEITEE, an island, Australasia, Pacific-ocean, discovered in 1767 by captain Wallis, who called it George-the-Thirdisland. Captain Cook came hither in 1768, to observe the transit of Venus; and it was visited twice afterward by that celebrated navigator. It consists of 2 peninsulas, connected by a low neck of land 2 m over, and is about 30 leagues in circuit. Great part of it is covered with woods, consisting partly of bread-fruit trees, palms, cocoa-nut trees, plantains, bananas, mulberries, sugar-canes, and others peculiar to the climate, particu larly a kind of pine-apple and the dragontree. The birds most common are the two sorts of parroquets, one of a sapphirine blue, another of a greenish colour, with a few red spots; a king-fisher, of a dark green, with a collar of the same hue round its white throat; a large cuckoo; several sorts of pigeons or doves; and a bluish heron. The

only quadrupeds found on the island were hogs, dogs, and rats. The people have mild features and a pleasing countenance. They are about the ordinary size of Europeans, of a pale mahogany brown, with fine black hair and eyes, and wear a piece of cloth round their middle, and another wrapped about the head like a turban. The women wear a piece of cloth, with a hole in the middle, through which they pass their heads, and it hangs down to the knees; a fine white cloth, like muslin, passes over this in various elegant turns round the body, a little below the breast, forming a kind of tunic, of which one turn sometimes falls gracefully across the shoulder. Both sexes are marked with black stains, made by puncturing the skin, and rubbing a black colour into the wounds. Long nails are a mark of distinction among them, as among the Chinese. The climate being very hot, their houses have seldom any walls, but consist only of a roof, thatched with the long prickly leaves of the palm-nut tree, and supported by a few pillars made of the bread-fruit tree. Their cloth is made of the fibrous bark of the mulberry tree, which is beaten with a kind of mallet; and a glue, made of the hibiscus esculentus, is employed to make the bark cohere. Some of these pieces are 2 or 3 yards wide and 50 long. Though the natives far excel most of the Americans in the knowledge and practice of the arts of ingenuity, yet they had not invented any method of boiling water. The two sexes eat separately, and their provisions are chiefly fish, pork, cocoa-nuts, bread-fruit, and bananas; and they employ sea-water as a sauce both to fish and pork. Nothing can exceed their agility in swimming, diving, and climbing trees; and they are praised for their gentleness, good-nature, and hospitality.—Cook's Voyages. King Pomare erected a large chapel for Christian worship in this island, and in it his remains were deposited in 1821. Point Venus, at the N end, is in Lg. 149.36 w, Lt. 17.40 s.

OTCHAKOF; see OCZAKOW.

OTLEY, a town of England, county West York, with a market on Friday, on the wharf, under a craggy cliff, 25 m w York, 202 NNW London; P. 10,163.

OTRANTO, or TERRA D'OTRANTO, a province of Italy, Naples, 70 m long by 30; bounded N by Terra-di-Bari, and all other parts by the sea. It is a mountainous country, abounding in olives, figs, and wine, and is often visited by locusts. LECCE.

See

OTRANTO, a city and seaport of Italy, Naples, capital of Terra-d'Otranto, and an archbishop's see, with a castle that commands the harbour. It has some trade with the Levant, and is seated at the entrance

of the gulf-of-Venice, 140 m Lg. 18.35 E, Lt. 40.20 N.

SE Bari:

OTRAR, a town of Asia, Western Tartary, in Turkestan, near the Sirr, 70 m wsw Taraz.

OTSEGO, 2 in North America, United States, state New-York:-1st, a county, Coopertown county-town; P. 51,372. 2nd, a town, Otsego county; P. 4,363: both in 1830.

OTTENDORF, a town of Hannover, province Bremen, with a castle, near the mouth of the Meden, 27 m Nw Stade.

OTTERBURN, a ward and village of England, county Northumberland, on the Reed, 22 m w by N Morpeth; noted for a battle in 1388 between the English under the earl of Northumberland and his two sons, and the Scots under sir William Douglas, who was slain by Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur; but the Scots obtained the victory, and the two Percies were made prisoners. On this battle the ballad of Chevy Chase was founded; P. 385.

OTTERSBERG, a town of Hannover, province Bremen, with a fort, 17 m NE Bre

men.

OTTERY; see ST. MARY-OTTERY.

OTUMBA, a city of North America, Mexico, once a large city, but now wretched and deserted.-BULLOCK's Six Months in Mexico.

OUBY, an island of Asia, one of the Moluccas, s of Gilolo, subject to the sultan of Bachian, and abounds in clove-trees. The Dutch have a small fort on the w side: Lg. 126.50 E, Lt. 1.30 s.

OUCHITZA, a small town of Russia, government Podolia, chief of district, at the junction of Ouchitza with the Dnestr, 33 m Caménetz-Podolskoie. It has distilleries and cloth manufactories.

OUCLI-CARAGAÏSKAÏA, a fort of Russia, government Orenburg, on the Oucli, one of the military posts of the line of Ouisk.

OUCZALOMP, a small island, Russia, government Olonetz, district Serdobol, in lakeLodoga.

OUDE, a province of Asia, Hindostan Proper, 250 m long by 100, bounded on the N by Nepaul, E by Bahar, s by Allahabad, and w by Agra and Delhi. The whole surface is flat and extremely fertile. It is intersected by the Gograh, and the Ganges flows on its w border. It is subject to a nabob, whose dominions, in 1790, occupied all the flat country lying on both sides of the Ganges (with the exception of the district of Rampoor) between that river and the N mountains, as well as the principal part of that fertile tract lying between the Ganges and Jumna (the Doab) to within 40 m of Delhi. The nabob is in alliance

with the British, who protected these dominions by a subsidiary force, at his expense, till 1801, when several cessions were made to the British, in commutation of the subsidy and every other claim, and also to defend his remaining territories without any further demand. The capital is Luck

now.

OUDE, a decayed city of Asia, province Oude, said to have been the capital of a great kingdom, 1200 years before the Christian era. It is frequently mentioned in the Mahaberat, a famous Hindoo work in Sanscrit, under the name of Adjudiah; no traces of it are left, but it is considered as a place of sanctity, to which the Hindoos come in pilgrimage. Seated on the Gograh, nearly adjoining Fyzabad.

OUDENAARDE, a town of Belgium, province East-Flanders, with a fort. It has a manufacture of very fine linen and of cu rious tapestry: besieged by the French in 1702, but the duke of Marlborough entirely routed their army. In 1745 it was taken by the French, who restored it by the peace of 1784; and in 1794 it surrendered to the French. Seated on both sides of the Scheld, 12 m ssw Ghent, and 27 w Brussels.

OUDEWATER, a fortified town of Holland, province South-Holland, the birthplace of the celebrated James Arminius, 10 m wsw Utrecht.

OUEN-TCHEOU, a city of Asia, China, of the first rank, in Tche-kian. It stands at the mouth of a river, and has a good harbour, 300m SSE Nanking: Lg. 121.10 E,

Lt. 28.2 N.

OUFA, a city and archbishopric of Russia, capital of government Orenburg, chief of district, on the Belaia, below the influx of the Oufa, 1319 m Petersburg, 856 Moscow; formerly fortified or defended by some extensive field works, now fallen into decay. It has 7 churches, 2 monasteries, 1 seminary, 1 grammar and 1 district school; P. 2500: Lg. 56.13 E, Lt. 54.42 N.

OUGEIN; see OOJAIN.

OUGLITCHE, a fortified town of Russia, government Iaroslav, chief of district, on the right bank of the Volga, 67 m Iaroslav; divided into 2 parts, the one enclosed by a rampart of earth and a ditch, the remainder a suburb, called Possa, also surrounded by a rampart of earth, but no ditch. On the opposite side of the river is another suburb, called Pzarnia, formerly very considerable and wealthy. In 1607 it contained 150 parishes, 12 convents, and 30,000 males; but was reduced to ashes by the Lithuanians, in which state it remained until the reign of the Tzar Michel Feodovoritch, who sent there a colony of 5000 people, since which this place has been partly rebuilt. Here are manufactures of

leather, paper, candles, &c., and it has 25 parish churches, an ecclesiastical school, another fororphans, 3 asylums for the poor, many shops, and 2 fairs. The brick-built house, vaulted and painted in fresco, which prince Dmitri and his mother, the dowager tzarine, occupied is still shown; P. 5,500: Lg. 38.49 E, Lt. 57.27 N.

OULEABORG, a seaport and town of Russia, Finland, on a peninsula at the mouth of the Oulea, the most considerable of East-Bothnia. The streets are long and straight, and it has a good harbour and salmon-fishery. It suffered twice severely by fire in 1773. Near here, on a small island, is the well fortified castle of Ouleaborg, built in 1500.

OULF, or VOULF, an island; see WOLF. OUMANE, a small town of Russia, government Kiew, chief of district, on the left bank of the Oumane, 160 m Kiew. It has handsome shops, built of brick, and mansions belonging to several nobles; P. chiefly Jews.

OUNDLE, a town of England, county Northampton, with a market on Saturday, on the Nen, over which are 2 bridges, 26 m NE Northampton, and 78 N by w London; P. 2450. Polling-place.

OUNJA, or UNZA, a village of Russia, government Costroma, on the Ounja: 3 churches.

OURAL, a chain of mountains, Russia, marking a considerable portion of the boundary betwixt Europe and Asia. They extend in a direction N and s from Novaïa-Zemlia to between the Caspiansea and lake or sea-of-Aral, with va rious inferior yet important branches departing towards the E and the w. The highest parts, about 4500 feet above the sea, are in government Orenburg, where the summits of granite are angular, the sides rugged, and some of them constantly covered with snow; and the w declivities are These mounmuch steeper than the E. tains abound in minerals, such as coal, lime-stone, fine marbles, jaspers, agates, asbestos, native sulphur, naphtha, ame thysts, chrysolites, turpentine, carn-goram, pipe-clay, &c.; and amongst the metals, gold, copper, and iron, for the manufacture of which various works have been profitably established. The principal rivers which rise in the Oural mountains are the Sosva, Toura, Iset, Oui, Tobol, Emba, Oural, Belaia, Tchoussovaia, Cama, Petchora, &c.

OURALSK, Cosaque capital, Russia, on the Oural, just above the junction of the Tchagana, 840 m Moscow. The streets are narrow and irregular, and the male inhabitants are formed into 7 stanitzis or regi ments, governed by their own chancellery;

divided into 2 departments, civil and military, presided by the attaman of the troops under the superintendence of the governorgeneral of Orenburg. Their chief occupa tion during peace is catching fish, which are in high estimation. The town is enclosed by a palisaded rampart, and has 5 churches; P. 3,600 males: Lg. 52.2 E, Lt. 51.11 N.

OUREM, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, on a mountain, 12 m w To

mar.

OURIQUE, a town of Portugal, Alentejo, celebrated for a victory obtained by Alphonso-Henriques, 1st king of Portugal, over 5 Moorish kings, in 1139. It is 26 m sw Beja.

OUSTIOUG-JELEZGPOLSKI, a fortified town of Russia, government Novgorod, chief of district, on the Mologa, 164 m E Novgorod; ramparts of earth, 18 churches, 569 houses; P. 2000; iron is very abundant, even on the surface, of which nails are made for trade: Lg. 36.56 E, Lt. 58.39 N.

OURJOUME, a town of Russia, government Viatka, chief of district, on the Ourjoume, 127 m s Viatka; its district contains a few iron-works, manufactories of soap and potass, and distilleries; P. small.

OUSMANE, a town of Russia, government Tambow, chief of district, on the right bank of the Ousmane, 105 m sw Tambow. It has 4 churches, 20 shops, 472 houses, and 1 seven-days' fair; P.2500: Lg. 40.14 E, Lt. 52.47 N.

OUSSOOR, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Mysore, 20 m SE Bangaloor.

OUST-CAMENNOGORSKAÏA, a small fort of Russia, government Tomsk, district Büsk, on an extensive fertile plain, one of the military line of the Irtyche, 549 m Tomsk, with 2 churches and 130 houses; founded in 1720.

OUST-LABINSKAÏA, a small fort of Russia, government Caucasus, district Stavropol, on the banks of the Couban. One regiment of Cosaques was raised there, named the regiment of Couban.

OUST-QUISKAÏA, a small fort of Russia, government Orenburg, district Tcheliabinsk, at the junction of the Oui and Tobol. It has 1 church, 400 houses, and a garrison of 1 troop of dragoons, a few infantry, and about 300 Cosaques. Country very fertile.

OUST-SYSOLSK, a small town of Russia, government Vologda, chief of district, on the left bank of the Syssole, 573 m NE Vologda. The chief trade is in furs. It has 2 churches; P. 3500: Lg. 50.32 E, Lt. 61.55 N.

OUVAROFSKOI-REDOUBT, a small fort of Russia, government Tomsk, district Büsk,

one of the military line of the Irtyche, on a mountain, surrounded with woods.

OUVELSKAÏA, a fortified village of Russia, government Orenburg, on the Ouvelka, fortifications, palisades, and chevaux-defrize; 120 houses.

OUTEIRO, a town and fortress of Portugal, province Traz-oz-Montes, on a mountain, 9 m SE Braganza, and 21 Nw Miranda.

OVERFLACKEE, an island of Holland, province South-Holland, between the mouths of the Maas. Sommerdyck is the principal

town.

OVERYSCHE, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, 6 m NE Brussels.

OVERYSSEL, a province of Holland, bounded N by Friesland and Drenthe, E by. Hannover and Prussia, sw by Gelderland, and w by the Zuider-Zee. It contains many morasses, and but few inhabitants in comparison with the rest. Its greatest riches consist in turf, which is dug up, and sent to the neighbouring provinces. Deventer is the capital.

OVID, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, Seneca county; P. 2756 in 1830.

OVIDIOPOL, a fortified town of Russia, government Kherson, Turkish name Hadgider, said to have been the site of the ancient Tomj, the place to which Ovid was banished; 13 m from the Black sea, on the left bank of the Dnestr; it may be viewed as a sea port, as the river is wide and navigable, and here 20 gun boats are constantly stationed; surrounded by ramparts of earth. The streets are ill built, and it has a customhouse, and about 100 houses. It is 133 m Kherson.

OVIEDO, a city of Spain, capital of Asturias d'Oviedo, and a bishop's see, with a university. Here are the hot springs of Rivera-de-Abajo, which bear semblance to those of Bath; Leon: Lg. 5.53 w, Lt. 43.20 N.

some re

55 m NNW

OVROUTCHE, a town of Russia, government Volhinia, chief of district, on the Narynia, 81 m N Jitomir, formerly belonging to Poland.

OWEGO, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, Tioga county, on the E branch of the Susquehana, 29 m w Union; P. 3,934 in 1830.

OWHYHEE, the largest and most E of the Sandwich-islands, in the Pacific ocean. Its length from N to s is 84 m, and its breadth 70. Near the middle is Mowna-Roa, a mountain that rises in 3 peaks, perpetually covered with snow, and may be seen at 40 leagues' distance. To the N of this mountain the coast consists of high and abrupt cliffs, down which fall many beautiful cascades, and the whole country is covered

with cocoa-nut and bread-fruit trees. The peaks of the mountain on the NE side appear to be about half a mile high. To the s of this mountain the ground is covered with cinders, and in many places has black streaks, which seem to mark the course of a lava that has flowed from the mountain to the shore. The projecting headland is composed of broken and craggy rocks, piled irregularly on one another, and terminating in sharp points; yet amid these ruins are many patches of rich soil, carefully laid out in plantations. The fields are enclosed by stone fences, and are interspersed with groves of cocoa-nut trees. Here captain Cook, in 1779, fell a victim to a sudden resentment of the natives, with whom he unfortunately had a dispute. Captain Vancouver afterward visited this island, and left a breed of cattle, horses, and sheep, which have increased abundantly. In 1788 the king of Owhyhee, with the assistance of a ship carpenter, built a small tender; and soon afterward he constructed a first decked vessel. In 1810 this king had reduced nearly all the Sandwich islands under his dominion, and had removed his residence to Woahoo. The E point of Owhyhee is in Lg. 154.56 w, Lt. 19.34 N.

OWRAM, NORTH, a town of England, County West-York, with various woollen manufactures, 3 m NE Halifax. SOUTHOWRAM is 2 m SE Halifax; P. of North, 10,184; of South, 5,751.

OXFORD, a city and county-town of England, county Oxford, a bishop's see, with a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It is seated on the Thames, at the influx of the Cherwell; and has a canal to Braunston, in Northamptonshire. The city, with the suburbs, is 3 m in circuit, and was anciently surrounded by walls, of which there are considerable remains, as also of its extensive castle, the tower of which now serves for a county gaol. It has, beside the cathedral, 13 parish churches, a famous university, a noble market-place, and a magnificent bridge. The university is supposed to have been a seminary for learning before the time of Alfred, although it owed its revival and consequence to his liberal patronage. It has 20 colleges and 5 halls, several of which stand in the streets, and give the city an air of magnificence. The colleges have sufficient revenues for the maintenance of a master, fellows, and students. In the halls the students live, either wholly, or in part, at their own expense. The colleges are University, Balliol, Merton, Exeter, Oriel, Queen's, New, Lincoln, All Souls, Magdalen, Brasenose, Corpus-Christi, Christ-Church, Trinity, St. John-Baptist, Jesus, Wadham, Pembroke Worcester, and Hertford. The most ancient is University college, founded before the

year 872; and to Christ-Church college, begun by cardinal Wolsey, and finished by Henry VIII, belongs the cathedral. The halls are, Alban, Edmund, St. Mary, NewInn, and St. Mary-Magdalen. Among the libraries in the university the most distinguished are the Bodleian, All-Souls, ChristChurch, Queen's, New, St. John, Exeter, and Corpus-Christi. Among other public buildings are the theatre, the Ashmolean museum, the Clarendon printing-house, the Radcliffe library, and an observatory. Magdalen-bridge is noted for the beauty of its architecture, and covers 2 small stripes of the Charwell. At Oxford, king John, compelled by his barons, summoned a parliament to meet in 1258; the proceedings of which were so disorderly, that it was known afterward by the name of the Mad-Parlia ment. Charles I assembled a parliament here, in 1625, in consequence of the plague then raging in London; and, in 1644, he summoned such of the members of both houses as were devoted to his interest, and seceders from the parliament then sitting at Westminster. This city was distinguished for its attachment to that unfortunate king, who here held his court during the whole civil-war. Without the town are many ruins of the fortifications erected in that It is governed by a mayor, and returns 4 M.P., 2 for the university, and 2 for the city. It is 50 m s by E Coventry, and 54 WNW London; P. 20,649: Lg. 1.15 w, Lt. 51.46 N.

war.

OXFORD, a county of England, bounded E by Buckinghamshire, w by Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire. The extreme shire, s by Berkshire, and N by Warwicklength is 48 m by 26; and contains 481,280 acres: is divided into 14 hundreds, and 219 parishes, has 1 city and 12 market-towns; returns 3 county, and 6 borough and university M.P.; and has 4 polling-places. The soil, though various, is fertile in corn having a continuation of the Chiltern hills and grass; the SE is hilly and woody, running through it; the Nw is also elevated and stony; the middle is, in general, a rich country, watered by numerous streams running from N to S, and terminating in the Thames: of these, the most considerable are the Windrush, Evenlode, Charwell, and Thame. The products are chiefly those common to the midland farming counties: the hills yield ochre, pipe-clay, and other useful earths. Corn and malt are conveyed from it, by the Thames, to the metropolis; P. 109,620 in 1801, and 151,726

in 1831.

OXFORD, 6 in North America, United States:-1st, a county-town, state North Carolina, Granville county, 47 m Raleigh, and 259 Washington.-2nd, a town, state New-York, Chenango county; P. 2947.

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