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3rd, a town, state Connecticut, New-Haven county; P. 1762.-4th, a town, state Massachusetts, Worcester county; P. 2034.5th, a town, state Maine, Oxford county; P. 1101.-6th, a county, state Maine, Paris county-town; P. 35,217: all in 1830. Oxos; see RIVER-AMU.

OYSTER-BAY, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, Queen's P. 5193 in 1830. county;

OZERNAÏA-VERHNIA, a fort of Russia, government Orenburg, on the Oural, amidst various lakes: 69 m Orenburg, fortifications regular, and surrounded by a ditch: founded in 1736; garrison, one company of the line, and 100 cosaques and Bashkirs; contains 1 church and 200 houses.

OZERNOIE, 2 small forts of this name, Russia; one in government Orenburg, and is one of the military line of Tobolsk; the other in government Tobolsk, district Semipalatinsk, and appertains to the military line of Irtyche.

P

PACEM, a town of Asia, in the N part of the island of Sumatra, capital of a kingdom, 120 m SE Acheen: Lg. 97.15 E, Lt. 5.0 N.

PACHACAMAC, a town of South America, Peru, in a valley of its name, formerly beautified with a magnificent temple, in which the Spaniards, when they conquered Peru, found immense riches. It is 22 m SSE Lima,

PACHETE, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, which gives name to a hilly district, bordering on Bengal. It is 78 m ESE Ramgur: Lg. 86.50 E,

Lt. 23.36 N.

PACHUCA, a town of North America, Mexico, famous for the rich silver mines in its vicinity, 45 m N by E Mexico: Lg. 100.14 w, Lt. 20.42 N.

PACIFIC, OF PACIFIC-OCEAN, extending between Asia and America, and upward of 10,000 m in breadth. The Spaniards, on passing the isthmus of Panama, from N to s, at the first discovery of this ocean, named it the South-sea; and the part extending s of the isthmus is yet sometimes so called. When Magalhaes or Magellan entered this ocean, through the dangerous strait that bears his name, he sailed 3 months and 20 days in a uniform direction to the Nw, without discovering land. In the distress suffered in this voyage, before he discovered the Larone-islands, he had the consolation of enjoying such uninterrupted fine weather, with fair winds, that he gave this ocean the name of Pacific. On one side of the equator, it is called the North-Pacific-ocean; and on the other the South-Pacific-ocean.

PADANG, a seaport of Asia, on the w coast of Sumatra. In 1797 it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, and upward of 300 lives were lost : Lg. 99.46 E, Lt. 0.50 s.

seats.

PADDINGTON, a village of England, county Middlesex, w by N of London, to which it is contiguous, but contains many beautiful rural spots, and handsome A canal passes hence w to the Grand-Junction-canal, 6 m above Brentford; and another, called the Regent'scanal, passes hence E along the N side of the metropolis to the Thames, at Limehouse; P. of parish 14,540.

PADERBORN, a late bishopric of Germany, in Westphalia, 40 m long by 25, lying N of the duchy of Westphalia and county of Waldeck: the prince's castle was at Nienhaus. There are high mountains, and iron mines in the middle of the country; other parts are fertile in corn and pasture; and it is famous for bacon and venison.

PADERBORN, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, with a celebrated university. The rivulet Pader rises under the high altar of the cathedral; and in the collegiate church are the remains of St. Blase.

The most remarkable of the convents is the college formerly belonging to the jesuits. It is 52 m ESE Münster: Lg. 8.55 E, Lt. 51.41 N.

PADSTOW, a town of England, county Cornwall, with a market on Saturday, a convenient harbour, and some coasting trade: seated at the mouth of the Camel, on the Bristol channel, 30 m w Launceston, and 243 w by s London; P. 1822.

PADUA, a fortified city of Italy, Austria, kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, and a bishop's see. It is 7 m in circuit, but much less considerable than formerly; for great part of the area within the walls is unbuilt; and the town in general so thinly inhabited, that grass grows in many of the

streets.

The houses are built on piazzas, which formerly may have had a magnificent appearance, but they now give it a gloomy air. The cathedral is one of the richest in Italy; and in the sacristy is a statue of the celebrated Petrarch, who was a canon, and left to it a part of his library. The Franciscan church is dedicated to St. Antonio, the patron of the city, whose body is enclosed in a sarcophagus, under an altar in the middle of the chapel. Near this church is the school of St. Antonio, where many of the actions of the saint are painted in fresco, some of them by Titian. The church of St. Justina is noted for a rich Mosaic pavement. The hall of the townhouse is the largest in Europe, and contains the cenotaph of Livy, who was a native of Padua. The university, once so celebrated,

is now on the decline. Here is a considerable cloth manufacture; but the city swarms with beggars, who ask charity in the name of St. Antonio. Padua was taken by the French in 1796. It is seated on the Brenta and Bachiglione, in a fine plain, 20 m w by s Venice; P. 31,000: Lg. 11.53 E, Lt. 45.14 N.

PADUANO, a province of Austria, Italy; well-watered, and one of the most fertile in Italy. Padua is the capital.

PAGAHM, a decayed city of Asia, Burman empire, capital of a province, on the Irrawaddy, 110 m sw Ummerapoor. It was the residence of a long race of kings, and is said to have been abandoned in the 13th century in consequence of a divine admonition. The remains of its ancient splendour are numerous mouldering temples, and the vestiges of a fort. It has still some trade, and manufactures of lackered ware: Lg. 94.34 E, Lt. 21.10 N.

PAHANE, a seaport of Asia, on the E coast of Malacca, capital of a kingdom famous for a great number of elephants, and for plenty of pepper. It is 140 m NE Malacca: Lg. 103.30 E, Lt. 3.55 N.

PAIMBOEUF, a seaport of France, department Loire-Inferieure, near the mouth of the Loire. Hence all the ships belonging to Nantes take their departure, and here all large vessels anchor on their arrival. It is 28 m w by N Nantes; P. 4300: Lg. 1.59 w, Lt. 47.17 N.

PAINSWICK, a village of England, county Gloucester, on the side of a hill, 7 m SSE Gloucester: manufacture of white cloths for the army, and for the India and Turkey trade; P. 4099.

PAISLEY, a town of Scotland, the largest in Renfrewshire. It has considerable manufactures of silk and linen gauze, lawn, muslin, cambric, thread, &c.; also extensive soap, candle, and cotton works, and is deemed the first manufacturing town in Scotland. The river White-Cart divides it into two parts, which communicate by 3 bridges. The part on the E side is called the Abbey parish, and contains the magnificent remains of an abbey church, the only one which Paisley formerly required. The other part, now designated by Paisley, has 3 parish churches, and several meeting-houses. By means of the river, and a canal, vessels of 40 tons can come up and unload at the quay. It is 10 m w Glasgow; P. of burg 31,460; of Abbey parish 26,006: Lg. 4.26 w, Lt. 55.52 N. PAITA, a seaport of South America, Peru, with an excellent harbour. It has frequently been plundered by the buccaneers; and in 1741 it was plundered and burnt by commodore Anson. The bay is defended by a fort. It is 270 m Nw Truxillo: Lg. 80.54 w, Lt. 5.0 s.

PAITLEY-BRIDGE, a village of England, County West-York. Polling-place.

PALACHY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Coimbetoor, with a small fort. In 1800 a pot, containing many silver coins of Augustus and Tiberius, was dug up. It is 14 m s Coimbetoor.

PALAIS, a town of France, capital of the island of Belleisle, with a citadel. It surrendered to the English in 1761, after a long siege. It stands on the NE side of the island, 30 m SSE Orient: Lg. 3.9 w, Lt. 47.19 N.

PALAMCOTTA, a town of Asia, Hindos tan, in the Carnatic, which gives name to a district; on a small lake, 41 m sw Pondicherry.

PALAMOS, a seaport of Spain, in Catalunia, on the Mediterranean, 48 m NE Barcelona: Lg. 3.4 E, Lt, 41.50 N.

PALAMOW, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, capital of a hilly and woody ter ritory, bordering on Gundwana, on the Cayle, 132 m ssw Patna: Lg. 84.26 E, Lt. 23.52 N.

PALAOS; see PELEW-ISLANDS. PALATINATE, LOWER-PALATINATEOF-THE-RHINE, a former province of Germany, on the w side of the Rhine, adjoining France. The N, since 1814, belongs to Hesse-Darmstadt, and the s to Bavaria.

PALATINATE, UPPER, the name of a former province of Germany bordering on Bo hemia, and which now belongs to Bavaria.

PALAWAN; see PARAGOA.

PALEMBANG, Asia, the capital of a kingdom of the same name, in the SE part of Sumatra, on the left bank of the Palembang, 60 m from its mouth, at the N end of the strait-of-Banca. The city is intersected by several branches of the river, and defended by a fort and extensive battery. The sultan's palace is surrounded by a high wall, and behind it is a royal-mosque. The inferior houses are made of bamboos, with mats, and thatched; and some are constructed on rafts that float on the river, and are fastened to the shore with ropes rattan. The inhabitants are principally Malays; and it is the emporium of the inland commerce of the island. On the opposite bank is a Chinese settlement; and the remains of a Dutch factory, which was razed, and the people massacred by order of the sultan. To revenge this, and other

atrocious acts, the city was taken by sur prise in 1812 by the British, who deposed the cruel sultan, and raised his brother to the throne. It is 130 m ENE Bencoolen: Lg. 104.54 E, Lt. 2.56 s.

PALENCIA, a city of Spain, province Leon, and a bishop's see, with 5 churches, 11 convents, and 2 hospitals: the chief ma

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nufactures are woollen coverlets, flannels, and serges. It is 23 m NNE Valladolid, and 70 SE Leon.

PALENZUELA, a town of Spain, province Old-Castile, 30 m sw Burgos.

PALERMO, the capital of Sicily, in Valdi-Mazara, and an archbishop's see, with an university. It stands on a bay of the same name, on the N coast, near the extremity of a kind of natural amphitheatre, formed by high and rocky mountains. The country between the city and the mountains is one of the richest plains in the world; the whole appearing a magnificent garden, filled with fruitful trees, and watered by fountains and rivulets. Two great streets, the Cassaro and Maqueda, intersect each other in the centre of the city, where is a handsome square called the Ottangolo; from the centre of this is seen the whole of these noble streets, and the 4 gates that terminate them, each at the distance of half a mile. The Porto-Felice opens to the Marino, a delightful walk, which has on one side the wall of the city, and on the other the sea; and in the centre is a kind of temple, frequently made use of as an orchestra. The royal residence is at the top of the Cassaro, and commands a view of the city and surrounding scenery; it is an extensive and irregular building, but the apartments are elegantly decorated. The palaces belonging to the princes are much admired for their situation and elegance. The houses of the nobi lity are fine buildings, but their outward effect is destroyed by converting their lower part into stables and coach-houses. Pa lermo has upward of 100 churches, many of them rich and magnificent; also 96 convents, with superb chapels to each, and innumerable spots dedicated to some favourite saint. The cathedral is a large Gothic structure, supported within by 80 columns of oriental granite, and divided into a great number of chapels; some of them are extremely rich, particularly that of Sta. Rosolia, the patroness of Palermo, whose relics are preserved in a large box of silver, enriched with precious stones. Here are also the tombs of several of the ancient Norman kings, and of the emperors Henry VI and Frederick II, of the finest porphyry. This city is crowded with statues of sovereigns and tutelar saints, placed in small courts and squares upon pedestals of colossal proportion and tasteless form. In the streets women hide their heads in black veils; a very ancient mode of dress in this island. This city has suffered greatly, at different periods, by earthquakes and inundations. The harbour, defended by a mole and two castles, is open to the sea from the NE; and even at the anchoring place, ships are in danger when a westerly wind rushes through the valley of Colli between the

mountains. About the middle of the 11th century, the Norman king Roger established silk manufactures in this city, by means of prisoners taken in his war with the Greeks, and they still flourish, though not so lucrative since the manufacture has extended to Italy. A mile from Palermo is a celebrated convent of Capuchins, in which is a vault made use of as a receptacle for the dead. It consists of four wide passages, each about 40 feet long, with niches along the sides, in which the bodies are set upright, clothed in coarse garments; in some of the higher niches they are laid out at full length. In 1799 Palermo became the residence of the court, when the French made themselves masters of Naples; and here it continued till 1815, when Naples was regained, and the court returned to that city. It is 110 m w Messina, and 180 s by w Naples; P. 120,000: Lg. 13.34 E, Lt. 38.12 N.

PALESTINE, a country of Asia, sw part of Syria, so called from the Philistines, who inhabited the seacoast. In the Scriptures it is styled the Land of Canaan, and the Promised Land; it is also called the HolyLand, as consecrated by the residence of the Deity through all ages of Jewish history, and as having been the scene of the ministry of Jesus-Christ. It is divided from the Libanus, and on the E by the river Jordan other parts of Syria on the N by mount and the Dead-sea; on the s it is bounded by Arabia-Petræa, and on the w by the Mediterranean-sea. It is fertile in general, abounding, where cultivated, with corn, wine, honey, and oil; and might supply the neighbouring country with all these, as it anciently did, were the present inhabitants equally industrious. This country was by seditions, in the reign of Rehoboam, divided into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel; and after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, it was divided into three parts, called Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Even yet it is considered as divided into the same three parts, the capitals of which are Jerusalem, Napolose, and Nazareth.

PALESTRINA, Italy, Austria, one of the largest of the islands called the Lagunes, near Venice. It has a town of the same name, 6 ms Venice.

PALESTRINA, an episcopal town of Italy, States of the Church, Campagna-di-Roma, with the title of a principality; the ancient Præneste, noted for a temple, dedicated to Fortune, the ruins of which may yet be It is 25 m E by N Rome: Lg. 13.5 E,

seen.

Lt. 41.52 N.

PALHANPOOR, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, chief of a district, on the border of Ajmeer. It is 80 m N by w Ahmedabad: Lg. 72.20 E, Lt. 24.11 N.

PALIGAUT, a town and district of Asia, Hindostan, in Malabar, between 2 rivulets, near their junction, at the foot of the s extremity of the Gauts, 68 m SE Calicut. The fort here was built by Hyder on his conquest of that province, and around it are scattered many villages, which contain a considerable population, and have some trade: Lg. 76.38 E, Lt. 10.45 N.

PALK-STRAIT, a strait of Asia, at the N end of Ceylon, in the bay-of-Bengal, which separates that island from the coast of Tanjore, in Hindostan. A considerable fishery is carried on in it, on the s side.

PALLISER-ISLANDS, Australasia, a group of islands in the Pacific-ocean; the largest about 15 m long by 10: Lg. 146.30 w, Lt. 15.38 s.

PALMA, one of the Canary-islands, Africa, N of Ferro, 50 m in circuit, and very fertile. It has a town of the same name, much frequented for its excellent wine, and safe harbour: Lg. 17.50 w, Lt. 28.37 N.

PALMA, a fortified city of Spain, capital of the island of Majorca, and a bishop's see. The public squares, the cathedral, the palace of the ancient kings, and the episcopal palace, are magnificent. It is built after the antique manner, and contains a university, 7 parochial churches, beside the cathedral, and many convents. The townhouse is a noble building, and the exchange a curious Gothic structure. The harbour is small, safe, and commodious. Palma was taken by the English in 1706, and retaken in 1715. It stands at the head of a bay on the sw part of the island: Lg. 2.45 E, Lt. 39.35 N.

PALMA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, 30 m sw Cordova.

fic-ocean, discovered by Cook in 1774. It consists of about 10 islets, connected by a reef of coral rocks, forming a circle; the principal one not exceeding 1 m in circuit, nor more than 3 feet above the level of the sea abounds with cocoa-nuts, scurvy-grass, and the wharra-tree, but it is uninhabited: Lg. 162.57 w, Lt. 18.0 s.

PALMIRAS, a celebrated point of land, Asia, at the head of the bay-of-Bengal, which all vessels bound to Calcutta endeavour to make, and off which they are met by the pilot cruizers: Lg. 87.5 E, Lt. 20.44 N. PALMOS; see CANARY.

PALMYRA, or TADMOOR, once a magnificent city of Asia, Syria, the Tadmoor of king Solomon. On the decline of the Macedonian empire it became the capital of a principality, under the name of Palmyra; and declared for the Romans, on Adrian marching his army through Syria to Egypt. The city flourished to the time of Aurelian, when it resisted the Roman power, under queen Zenobia, who was at length taken captive, and sent to Rome. Soon afterward the inhabitants massacred the soldiers who had been left in garrison; which outrage occasioned the return of Aurelius, who destroyed the inhabitants, and gave the pillage of the city to the soldiers. The stupendous ruins are in the midst of a sandy desert, bounded on three sides by high mountains. They were visited, in 1751, by Mr. Robert Wood, who published a splendid account of them. The inhabitants then consisted of about 40 families, living in mud cottages, erected within the spacious court of a once magnificent temple. It is 150 m SE Aleppo; Lg. 39.2 E, Lt. 34.35 N.

PALMYRA, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a town, state New-York,

PALMA, a town of Portugal, province Wayne county; P. 3434.-2nd, a countyEstremadura, 20 m E Setuval.

PALMA, a town of Sicily, in Val-di-Mazara, near which is a rich sulphur mine. It is 15 m SE Girgenti.

PALMA, a town of South America, Colombia, in Bogota, with manufactures of cotton, linen, and sugar, and very fine copper-mines, 54 m NW Bogota.

PALMA, or PALMA-NUOVA, a frontiertown of Italy, 10 m SE Udina, and 55 NE Venice.

PALMA-DI-SOLO, a seaport, island of Sardinia, on the sw coast, 38 m sw Cagliari Lg. 8.56 E, Lt. 39.5 N.

PALMAS, Asia, one of the Philippine islands, 16 leagues SE of Mindanao: Lg. 127.0 E, Lt. 5.33 N.

PALMELA, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, with a castle, situated on a mountain, 8 m NNE Setuval.

PALMERSTON-ISLES, Australasia, Paci

town, state Virginia, Fluvianna county, 59 m Richmond, and 136 Washington.

PALOONSHA, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Hydrabad, in a rich valley, surrounded by lofty mountains, 77 m E Warangol.

PALOS, a town of Spain, province Anda. lusia, with a tolerable harbour; celebrated for being the place whence Columbus sailed on his first adventurous voyage in 1492. It is seated at the mouth of the Tinto, 50m w by s Seville: Lg. 6.52 w, Lt. 37.10 x.

PALPAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, capital of a district in the Nepaul territories, on the borders of Oude, 94 m w by s Gorcah: Lg. 82.53 E, Lt. 28.10 N.

PAMIERS, a town of France, department Arriege, lately a bishop's see; has a mineral spring. It is seated on the Arriege, 36 m s by E Toulouse: Lg. 1.35 E, Lt. 43.6 N. PIMLICO-SOUND, a kind of inland sea,

North America, United States, on the coast of North Carolina. It is 100 m long by 10 to 20 broad, separated, in its whole length, from the Atlantic, by a beach of sand, hardly 1 m wide. It has several inlets, but that of Oerecoke is the only one that will admit vessels of burden: Lt. 34.54 N.

PAMPAS, great plains of South America, in Buenos Ayres, extending to the Andes, and abounding in cattle. Also extensive plains nearly 8000 m in length, running N and s through Peru.

PAMPER, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Cashmere, chief of district Vehy, on the Jhylum, 10 m w by s Cashmere.

PAMPLONA, a fortified city of Spain, capital of Upper-Navarre, and a bishop's see, with a university. The squares are handsome, and adorned with shops full of rich merchandise. In 1813, the French garrison in this city surrendered to the Spaniards, after a blockade of 3 months; seated on the Arga, 47 m s Bayonne, and 197 NE Madrid: Lg. 1.42 w, Lt. 42.47 N.

PAMPLONA, a province of South America, Colombia, bounded N by Maracaybo, and w by Carthagena, of which the capital bears the same name. It abounds in corn, cochineal, olives, cotton, indigo, amber, and rich copper-mines. The most flourishing towns are St. Joseph, and Rosario-deCucuta; P. about 43,000.-MOLLIEN'S Travels.

odious reptiles engendered in the putri

waters.

PANAMA, a city and seaport of South America, Colombia, capital of province Panama, on the bay of the same name, s coast of the isthmus, and is the see of a bishop. The trade and commerce is considerable, and among the islands in the bay is a pearl fishery. The city is surrounded by a wall and other fortifications. The port is bad, the streets narrow and dark, and the climate insalubrious.-MOLLIEN'S Colombia. It is 40 m s by E Porto Bello: Lg. 79.18 w, Lt. 9.0 N.

PANARAGA, a town of Asia, island of Java, capital of a district 60 m E by N Mataram.

PANARIA, one of the Lipari-islands, between Lipari and Stromboli, 9 m in circuit, and generally barren, but produces some olives.

PANAROOCAN, a town and fort of Asia, on the E coast of the island of Java, at the mouth of a river, 8 m ESE Sourabaya.

PANAY, one of the Philippine-islands, Asia, between those of Paragoa and Negros. It is of a triangular form, 250 m in circuit, with many rivers and brooks: the chief export is rice. Iloila is the capital.

PANGASENA, one of the Molucca-islands, Asia, East-Indies, 45 m long by 10, lying between Celebes and Bouton.

PANGBOURN, a town of England, county

PANAGIA, a town of European Turkey, Berks, on the Thames, 6 m WNW Reading, in Romania, 14 m N Gallipoli.

PANAGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gundwana, with numerous Hindoo temples, and a magnificent tank in its vicinity. It is 11 m N Gurrah.

PANAMA, South America, the Nw province of Colombia, on the coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and particularly distinguished by the name of the Isthmus of Panama. In the narrowest part it is not above 25 m broad; and it extends 360 m in the form of a crescent-round the bay-of-Panama on the s, having the gulf-ofMexico on the N, the province of Darien on the SE, and that of Veragua in New Spain on the w. This isthmus, which unites the continents of North and South America, has a chain of mountains stretching through its whole extent, which renders it a barrier of solidity sufficient to resist the impulse of two opposite oceans. The mountains are covered with forests; and the valleys are marshy and often overflowed, for it rains here two-thirds of the year. The chief river is the Chagre, in which are many alligators. The natives go naked; and in many places build their houses upon trees, to be elevated from the damp soil, and the

and 43 w London; P. 692.

PANGO, a town of Africa, kingdom of Congo, capital of province Pango, 95 m NNE St. Salvador: Lg. 14.45 E, Lt. 4.20 s.

PANIANY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malabar, near the mouth of a river which only admits boats, and scattered over a sandy plain, 36 m s by E Calicut. It contains above 40 mosques, 500 houses belonging to traders, and 1000 huts inhabited by the lower orders: the exports are rice, cocoa-nuts, teak, and iron: Lg. 75.58 E, Lt. 10.45 N.

government Saratof, district Volsk, on the PANINSKAÏA, a German colony, Russia, lies. Volga; founded in 1763; contains 54 fami

PANIPUT, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, celebrated for a battle, in 1761, between an army of 200,000 Mahrattas and 150,000 Mohamedans, in which the former were defeated. It is seated in an extensive plain, 49 m NNW Delhi.

PANNAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Allahabad, which contains many handsome temples, and is celebrated for the rich diamond mines in its vicinity. It stands on

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