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RUDISTO; see RODOSTO.

RUDKIOPING, a fortified seaport of Denmark, and the only town in the island of Langeland, 70 m sw Copenhagen; considerable trade in provisions: Lg. 11.0 E, Lt. 55.1 N.

RUDOLFSWERD, a town of Austria, Carniolă, with a collegiate church, in a country producing good wine, 45 m SE Laybach.

RUDOLSTADT, a town of the principality of Schwartzburg, capital of the Uppercounty, with a castle on a mountain, on the Saal, 22 m SE Erfurt; manufactures of flannels and stuffs.

RUрSHUк, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Bulgaria, on the Danube, 30 m w Silistria.

RUFFACH, a town of France, department Haut-Rhine, 7 m s Colmar.

RUFFEC, a town of France, department Charente, 24 m N Angouleme ; P. 3094.

RUGBY, a town of England, county Warwick, with a market on Saturday, and a celebrated school; on the Avon, 11 m SE Coventry, and 83 NNW London; P. 2501.

RUGELEY, a town of England, county Stafford, on the Grand-Trunk-canal, and near the Trent, 10 m ESE Stafford, and 126 Nw London, with a market on Tuesday; manufactures of felts and hats, and a freeschool established by queen Elizabeth; P. 3165.

RUGEN, an island of Prussia, province Pommern, in the Baltic, opposite Stralsund, the channel between which town and the island is not above 1 m wide. Including the indentions of the sea, which are considerable, the island is 23 m long by 18, and abounds in corn, geese, and cattle: ceded by Sweden to Denmark in 1814, and by the latter to Prussia in 1815. The chief town is Bergen, on an eminence, 12 m NE Stralsund.

RUGENWALD, a seaport of Prussia, province Pommern, with a castle, on the Wipper, 3 m from the Baltic, and 35 NE Colberg; a good salmon fishery, and a great trade in linen: Lg. 16.17 E, Lt. 54.25 N.

RUHRORT, a town of Prussia, province Cleve-Jülich-Berg, with docks, where the greater part of the boats for Holland and the Rhine are constructed; 15 m SSE Wesel.

RUKI, a town of Asia, Russia, in Mingrelia, where the prince has a palace surrounded by a thick wall, on a river which flows into the Black-sea below Anarghia, 70 m wNw Cutais: Lg. 41.20 E, Lt. 43.5 N.

RUM, an island of Scotland, one of the Hebrides, 7 m w of the s extremity of Skye, 8 m long by 6; surface hilly and rocky, but

it feeds a considerable number of small sheep, whose flesh and wool are valuable; the only harbour is loch-Skresort, on the E coast, at the extremity of which is the village of Kinloch: Lg. 6.25 w, Lt. 57.4 N.

RUMELIA; see ROMANIA.

RUMILLY, a town of Sardinia, Savoy, on an elevated plain, at the conflux of the Seram and Nepha, 7 m wsw Annecy.

RUMIYAH see ROUM.

RUMMELSBURG, a town of Prussia, province Pommern, with manufactures of cloth, 32 m SE Köslin.

RUNGPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, capital of a district producing much rice, silk, opium, and tobacco; 124 m NNE Moorshedabad: Lg. 89.5 E, Lt. 25.47 N.

RUPELMONDE, a town of Belgium, province East-Flanders, on the Scheld, 8 m sw Antwerp.

RUPPIN, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, on the w side of a lake formed by the Rhin, and on the opposite side is Old-Ruppin, with an ancient castle, the residence of the former counts, whose burialplace is at New-Ruppin, 38 m NNW Berlin; considerable trade, manufacture of cloth, and noted breweries.

RUERMONDE, or ROERMONDE, a town of Holland, Limburg, and a bishop's see, at the conflux of the Roer with the Maas, 12 m s Venlo, and 28 NNE Maestricht.

RUSCEK, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Bulgaria, defended by a castle, on the Danube, 135 m N by E Adrianople; 20 mosques, 3 churches, and a synagogue.

RUSH, a town of Ireland, county Dublin, with a harbour for small craft on the Irishsea, 16 m NNE Dublin: the ling cured here, of which much is exported, is esteemed for its superior flavour.

RUSOER, or RISOER, a port of Norway, at the extremity of a peninsula, 56 m NE Christiansand: Lg. 9.23 E, Lt. 58.42 N.

Russ, a town of Prussia, province OstPreussen, at the mouth of the Russ, the chief branch of the Niemen, 20 m Nw Tilsit.

RUSSELVILLE, a county-town of North America, United States, state Kentucky, Washington; P. 1358 in 1830. Logan county, 171 m Frankfort, and 71ĺ

RUSSEL POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, province Allahabad, 43 m Nw Allahabad.

RUSSELSHEIM, a town of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Mayn, 6 m E Mainz, and 13 NW Darmstadt.

RUSSEY, a town of France, department Doubs, near the Doubs, 34 m E by s Besançon.

RUSSIA, a vast empire, partly in Europe, Asia, and in North America, bounded on the

N by the Frozen-ocean, E by the 141st degree of w Lg. in North America, from the North-Pole to Mount-St.-Elias, thence by an irregular line towards the SE, extending along the coast and about 100 m inland, terminating at Observatory-Inlet, in about Lt. 55 N, 8 by the Black-sea, Turkey, the Caspian-sea, Tataria, the Chinese empire, and North Pacific-ocean; extends from the Lg. 18E to the Lg. 141 w; its most northern point is in Lt. 78, and most southern in about Lt. 40 N; the w is bounded by Turkey, Austria, Prussia, the Baltic-sea, and Sweden. Catherine II divided these vast dominions into 41 governments, and they are now divided into 52, each of which is divided into districts; the name of the government, the number of districts in each, and the population of each government, are as follows:Pop.

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No. Districts. in 1811.
600,000
621,680
974,000
578,000
198,584
170,300
569,920

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Tchernig of
Poltava..
Podolia.
Volhinia
Georgia...
Cosaques of the Don
Province of Poland, late
a kingdom

4

62,000

8

717,124

12

1,066,198

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There were 3 countries that had the name of Russia, namely, Red-Russia, which formed the s part of Poland; White-Russia, which comprehended the E part of Lithu ania; and Black-Russia, which included the governments of Kalouga, Moscow, Tula, Rezan, Volodimir, and Iaroslav; and hence his imperial majesty takes the title of emperor and autocrat of all the Russias. This empire, exclusive of the late acquisitions from Turkey, Poland, and Sweden, forms a square, whose sides are 2000 m each. A country of such vast extent must lie in different climates, and the soil and products must be as different, but not a tenth of the country is sufficiently peopled, nor properly cultivated. The most fertile part is near the frontiers of Poland, where the inhabit798,950 ants can supply their neighbours with corn; 450,000 the N part is not only more cold, but very 407,758 marshy, and overrun with forests, inhabited 353,000 chiefly by wild beasts. The whole country 185,242 is well watered by lakes and numerous 200,000 rivers, which abound with fish: the prin579,291 cipal rivers are, the Dnieper, Volga, Don, 300,000 Dwina, and Oby. Medicinal and saline springs are not uncommon; and there are 930,000 mines of platinum, fine silver, copper, iron, 900,000 and other minerals. The red and black 890,512 juchte, or Russia leather, for colour, smell, 770,947 and softness, is not equalled in any other 904,075 part of the world: and there are manufac382,475 tures of linen, woollen stuffs, velvet, and silk; also brass, iron, steel, and tin, are wrought; and cannon, small-arms, wire, cordage, canvas, paper, parchment, candies, saltpetre, gunpowder, glass, &c. are made in Russia. This country affords a variety of commodities that are of great use to foreigners, and as its exports greatly exceed its imports, there is a considerable annual balance of trade in its favour. The home commodities are, sables, black furs, the skins 892,000 of black and white foxes, ermines, hyenas, 961,345 lynxes, bears, panthers, wolves, martens, 608,182 white hares, &c.; likewise Russia leather, 976,736 linen, copper, iron, talc, tallow, wax, honey, 835,501 corn, potash, tar, linseed and train oils, castor, isinglass, hemp, flax, thread, Sibe550,000 rian musk, soap, feathers, timber, &c. To 300,000 these commodities may be added almost all 207,000 the merchandise of China, India, Persia, 62,000 Turkey, and some European countries.

8

Novgorod

10

Tver

9

Pscow

8

Olonetz..

7

Arkhangel

8

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The established religion of the Russian governments is that of the Greek church, which is governed by a patriarch, under whom are the archbishops and bishops. But a considerable number of Russians profess the Mohamedan religion, and a greater number are still pagans. The inhabitants of the provinces conquered from Sweden are Lutherans; and the protestants, of whom there are great numbers among the Rus. sians, as also the papists, enjoy the public exercise of their religion, but the latter are not suffered to hang up bells in their churches. There are many convents for both sexes in the empire, but Peter I ordered that no man should enter on a monastic life before he is 30 years of age, and that no woman should take the veil under 50, and then not without the license of the holy synod. The Russian language is an improved version of the Sclavonian, and the letters of the alphabet have a great resemblance to the Greek characters. In former times the Russians were wholly employed in agriculture, feeding of cattle, hunting, and fishing, and he was thought a learned man who could read and write; but Peterthe-Great undertook to introduce the arts and sciences, and in 1724 he founded the first university that ever was in Russia, and an academy of sciences at Petersburg, supplied with some of the best professors in Europe; and he also invited and established great numbers of excellent artificers. The Russians, in general, are robust, well shaped, and of pretty good complexion.

They are great eaters, and very fond of brandy. With respect to dress, a long beard is in high estimation among the fair nymphs of Russia, and the commonalty have still a great veneration for this fringe of human hair, notwithstanding the efforts of their monarchs. Those who retain their beards retain likewise the ancient dress, the long swaddling coat, either of skins, or of coarse cloth lined with skins, in winter, and in summer of cloth only. About their middle they have a sash of any colour, but green and yellow are the favourite colours; they wear trowsers and stockings; their legs are, besides, wrapt in folds of woollen stuffs to keep them warm, and over all they wear boots. Their shirts are without collars, and their necks exposed to the cold. Government endeavour to compel the subjects to adopt the German dress; and, the clergy alone excepted, none can procure any place or favour at court, upon other condition than banishing the Asiatic sheep-skin robes. The dress of the women is the reverse of the men, both in fashion and colour, every part of it being as short and tight as decency will allow, and very gaudy. It is the same with that of the Highland women in Scotland; both have the short jacket, the striped petticoat, and the tartan plaid, and both

too, in general, have a napkin rolled about their head; the Russian women are, however, far more elegant and rich in their attire, nor are gold lace and red paint wanting to set off their charms. The young generation are modernizing these ancient vestments; the stiff embroidered napkin is supplanted by one of flowing silk, the jacket and petticoat are of muslin or other fine stuffs, and the plaid is exchanged for a silk or satin cloak, in the cold season lined with fur; the better class of females wear velvet boots. The dress of the higher ranks is after the French and English fashion, and all wear a covering of fur six months in the year. Persons of both sexes wear a cross on their breasts, which is put on when they are baptized, and never laid aside; the peasants' crosses are of lead, but those worn by the better sort are of gold or silver. The sovereign of Russia is absolute and despotic in the fullest sense of those terms. He was formerly called grand-duke, which is now the title of the heir apparent; he afterward assumed the title of czar, which the inhabitants pronounce tzar, or zaar, a corruption of Cæsar, emperor, from some fancied relation to the Roman-emperors, on account of which they also bear the eagle as a symbol of their empire. The first who bore the title of czar was Basil, son of Basiledes, who freed his country from its subjection to the Tartars, about the year 1470. The title of emperor was first assumed by Peter I, who, by his actions, justly acquired the surname of Great, and finished his glorious course in the year 1725. Perhaps no country ever exhibited, in so short a time, the wonders that may be effected by the genius and exertions of one man. Peterthe-Great, at his accession to the throne, found his subjects of all ranks involved in the grossest ignorance and barbarism; his numerous armies ferocious and undisciplined, and he had neither merchant ships nor men-of-war; which, added to the remoteness of situation, rendered the influence of Russia in the politics of Europe of little consideration. Peter civilised his barbarous subjects, disciplined his armies, built cities and fortresses, and created a navy. These national improvements have been continued since his time, and Russia now holds a considerable rank among the nations of the world. In 1812 this country was invaded by the French and their confederate allies with a well-disciplined army of 400,000 men, under Buonaparte. This mighty host met with little opposition in the early part of its progress, the Russians generally evacuating their towns, burning the magazines, and destroying the bridges, &c. as they retreated: but at Smolensk a great stand was made, afterward a dreadful battle at Borodino, and then Moscow given up in flames. This sacrifice of the ancient capital probably saved

the empire; for the French not being able to subsist in the city, nor to obtain supplies from without, were compelled to make a retreat, in which, by war, want, and cold, scarce 50,000 men escaped out of Russia: these were afterward abandoned by the presumptuous chief, who fled in disguise for France, and above half of them perished. Petersburg is the metropolis of the empire. European-Russia contains about 37 millions, and the whole empire has 56 millions.

RUSTCHUк, a fortified city of Europe, Turkey, in Bulgaria; it contains 20,000 houses, and numerous mosques: the commerce with Vienna is considerable, and it has an extensive trade in cloth, indigo, corn, and wine. In 1812 the Russians got possession of it, and on their departure destroyed the fortifications, but some modern works have since been erected; on the Danube, 58 m Nw Shumla: Lg. 25.44 E, Lt. 44.3 N.

RUTCHESTER, a village of England, county Northumberland, the Vindobala of the Romans, 6 m N Hexham. The fort has been very considerable, and the ruins of it are remarkable. Severus'-wall runs on the middle of the E rampart, and Adrian's vallum passes at a little distance to the s of it.

RUTHERFORDTON, a county-town of North America, United States, state NorthCarolina, chief of Rutherford county, on a branch of Broad-river, 223 m Raleigh, and 484 Washington.

RUTHERGLEN, a borough of Scotland, county Lanark, formerly considerable, but reduced by the influence of Glasgow, near the Clyde, 3 m SE Glasgow; P. 4741.

RUTHIN, or RHUтHYN, a corporate-town of Wales, county Denbigh, on an eminence by the Clwyd, 16 m w by N Wrexham, and 192 Nw London, with a market on Monday: a castle, now in ruins; and the church, before the reformation, was collegiate; the assizes for the county are held here; P. 3376.

RUTIGLIANO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Bari, 12 m se Bari.

RUTLAND, 3 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state Vermont, Rutland county-town; P. 31,295.-2nd, a county-town of above, on Otter-creek, 67 m ssw Montpelier, and 462 Washington; P. 2753.-3rd, a town, state Massachusetts, Worcester county, 56 m w Boston; P. 1276: all in 1830.

RUTLAND, the smallest county of England, bounded on the w and Nw by Leices tershire, N and NE by Lincolnshire, and s and SE by Northamptonshire, 15 m long by 11, and containing 95,360 acres, divided into 5 hundreds and 52 parishes, and has 2 market-towns; returns 2 county M.P., and has 1 polling-place. The soil varies much, but in general is fertile, particularly the

rich vale of Catmose, which runs from the w to the centre of the county; the principal rivers are, the Welland and the Guash, or Wash; Oakham is the county-town; P. 16,356 in 1801, and 19,385 in 1831.

RUTTUNPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindos tan, in Gundwana, capital of the district Ruttunpoor, called also Choteesgur, the most fertile in the province. A large straggling place, consisting of about 1000 huts; its chief is frequently styled the raja of Choteesgur, or Thirty-six fortresses. In the vicinity are numerous pools and tanks, also many ruins, indicative of a former state of greater prosperity; 200 m ENE Nagpoor: Lg. 82.25 E, Lt. 22.21 N.

RUWENWELLE, a town of Asia, Ceylon, with a fort and bazaar, in the angle formed by the confluence of the Kalang and Gooragooya, 30 m ENE Colombo.

RYACOTTA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Barramahal, with a fort, and a high fortified rock, considered as the key to the Mysore dominions; 9 m w by N Kistnaghery, and 45 SE Bangaloor.

RYAN, LOCH, a bay of Scotland, in the NW part of Wigtonshire: the sea flows into it through a narrow pass, which will admit vessels of any burden, and it affords excellent anchorage.

RYBINSK, a town of Russia, government Iaroslaw, chief of district, on the right bank of the Volga, 51 m NE Iaroslaw; a trade in corn, a few manufactures, and 2 fairs; 3 churches, and extensive corn warehouses;

P. 2200.

RYCHOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bejapoor, capital of a district lying between the Kistnah and the Toombuddra, in the nizam's territories, 130 m sw Hydrabad: Lg. 77.17 E, Lt. 15.59 N.

RYDROOG, a town and fortress of Asia, Hindostan, in Balagaut, capital of a fertile district, 19 m s by E Balhary, and 59 NE Chitteldroog.

RYE, a borough and seaport of England, county Sussex, 28 m SSE Maidstone, and 63 SE London, with a market on Wednes. day and Saturday; an appendage to the Cinque-ports, and governed by a mayor and jurats; returns 1 M.P.; the church is very large. On the edge of the cliff is a small battery, and behind it Ipres-tower, a square building, now a jail. The old port, on the Rother, is so choked up with sand that it can admit small vessels only: in 1726, a new harbour was opened, in which vessels of 360 tons may safely ride. The exports are corn, malt, hops, and other products of the country, and it sends considerable supplies of fish to London; P. 3715: Lg.0.44 E, Lt. 50.57 N.

RYE, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, county West

chester, on Long-island-sound, 24 m NE New-York; P. 1606 in 1830.

RYEGATE, a borough of England, county Surry, in a valley called Holmesdale, 16 m E Guildford, and 21 sw London, with a market on Tuesday; returns 1 M.P. A castle, now in ruins, built in the time of the Saxons, and called Holms-castle, of which a long vault remains, with a room at the end, where, it is said, the barons who took up arms against king John held their private meetings. The market-house was formerly a chapel, dedicated to Thomas-a-Becket. Polling-place.

In a

RYEPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gundwana, and on the NE side is a stone fort, with a deep and wide ditch. rich country, 80 m s by w Ruttunpoor: Lg. 82.13 E, Lt. 21.15 N.

RYLSK, a town of Russia, government Coursk, chief of district, on both banks of the Rylo, at its junction with the Seim, 76 m w Coursk; very ancient, and its former name Rylesk; country fertile; 2 fairs, 14 churches; P. 3000: Lg. 35.28 E, Lt. 51.35 N.

RYMENAM, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, on the Dyle, 5 m E Mechelen.

RYNBACH; see RHEINBACH.

RYNPESKI, a sandy desert of Russia, government Saratof, about 26 m in extent, called Narin by the Calmouks, and situate about Lt. 49 N, between lake-Ouxen and the salt-lake Elton, or Altannor; a compound of moving sand-hillocks, and rich pasture between them.

RYSWICK, a town of Holland, province South-Holland, where the prince of Orange has a palace: a treaty was concluded here in 1697, between England, Germany, Holland, France, and Spain; 1 m s of the Hague.

S

SAADA, or SAADE, Asia, Arabia, in Yemen, the residence of a sheik. Here are manufactures of Turkey leather, and a customhouse that brings in a considerable revenue; it is 140 m wNw Sanaa : Lg. 44.55 E, Lt. 17.50 N.

SAALFELD, a town of Saxe-Coburg, with a castle on a mountain. Here are manufactures of cloth, and of gold and silk stuffs. On an eminence near the town stands the abbey of St.-Peter. In 1806 prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed here in a skirmish with the French. It stands on the Saale, 34 m NNE Coburg, and 46 sw Altenburg.

SAALFELD, a town of Prussia, province East-Prussia, 27 m SE Marienburg.

SAALMÜNSTER, a post-village of Hesse-Cassel, on the Kinsig, 32 m ENE Frankfurt, post-road to Leipzig.

SAARDAM, a town of Holland, province North-Holland, on the N shore of the Wye, with extensive establishments for ship-building. Here Peter-the-Great resided for some time, in private, and worked as a common shipwright. It is 7 m Nw Amsterdam.

pital of a circle, which yields hops of the SAATZ, a town of Austria, Bohemia, cabest quality; 48 m wNw Prague.

SABA, a fertile island of North America, West-Indies, 12 m in circuit, inhabited by a few Dutch families, almost all shoemakers. It was taken by the British in 1781, in 1801, and in 1810. It has no port, and lies a little w of St.-Christopher: Lg. 63.17 w, Lt. 17.39 N.

SABANJA, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia. All the roads from Asia to Constantinople meet here; it stands on the sw side of a beautiful lake (10 m long by 2), 60 m ENE Bursa, and 62 ESE Constantinople: Lg. 29.40 E, Lt. 40.30 N.

SABARA, a town of South America, Brazil, province Minas-Geraes, capital of a district. It is a flourishing place, surrounded by mountains, and seated on the Sabara, near its conflux with the Velhas, 100 m Nw Villa-Rica.

SABARATO, Asia, district of Georgia, a few miles s Tefflis.

SABATZ, or SABACZ, a town and fortress by the Austrians in 1719. It is seated on of Europe, Turkey, in Servia. It was taken the Drave, 22 m s Peterwardein, and 28 w Belgrade.

SABBAH, a town of Africa, Fezzan, noted for the extensive remains of a castle and other edifices in its vicinity; seated in a rich country, 40 m N Mourzouk.

SABIA, a kingdom of Africa, on the coast of Caffraria, bounded N by Sofala, E by the Mosambique-channel, s by Inhambane, and w by Manica. The country is fertile and populous, traversed by the Sabia; it has mines of gold, and many elephants. Manbona is the capital.

SABIE, a seaport of Denmark, on the E coast of North-Jutland, at the mouth of the Sabie, 23 m NNE Alburg: Lg. 10.18 E, Lt. 57.20 N.

SABINA, a province of Italy, in the Ecclesiastical States, 28 m long by 20; bounded N di-Roma, and w by the patrimony of St.by Spoleto, E by Naples, s by CampagnaPeter. It is watered by several small rivers, and abounds in oil and wine. Magliano is the capital.

in Milanese, with a citadel. It is 20 m E SABIONETTA, a town of Italy, Austria, Cremona.

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