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STA.-CRUZ, a town of North America, Mexico, New-Biscay, 15 m x Durango. STA.-CRUZ-DE-LA-SIERRA, South America, province of Peru; P. 16,000.

STA.-CRUZ, a town of North America, Mexico, Honduras, 76 m NE Valladolid.

STA.-CRUZ, a seaport-town of Africa, island Teneriffe, one of the Canaries, the usual residence of the governor a wellbuilt pier and quay; defended by several forts and batteries; P. 8000: Lg. 16.14 w, Lt. 28.28 N.

STA.-CRUZ, North America, West-Indies, one of the Caribbee islands, about 24 m long by 9; good climate; produces sugar, fruit, &c.; taken from the Danes by the English in 1801, and restored in 1814; P. 3000 whites, and 30,000 slaves.

STA.-CRUZ, or AGADEER, a seaport of Africa, Morocco, constructed by the Portuguese, and taken from them in 1536, stands on the top of a hill, strong by nature and art, the harbour on a bay of the Atlantic; it is commodious: Lg. 9.30 w, Lt. 30.28 N.

STA. CRUZ-DE-MAYO-GUITIVIS, a town and small port of North America, Mexico, Sonora, mouth of the Mayo, gulf-of-California, 90 m NE Loreto, and 270 ssw Arispe: about Lg. 110.34 w, Lt. 26.8 N.

ST.-CYR, France, department Seine-etOise, with an abbey founded by the celebrated Madm.-de-Maintenon, of which she remained the abbess till her death in 1719.

ST.-DAMIANO, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piemont, on the Borbo, 9 m sw Asti; P.6110. ST.-DAVID'S, a city of Wales, county Pembroke, on the Ilen, 24 m Nw Pembroke, 270 w by N London, with a market on Wednesday; much fallen into decay. The cathedral is but a ruin, containing the tomb of the celebrated Giraldus Cambrensis ; P. 2388.

ST. DAVID, a village of Scotland, county Fife, on the frith-of-Forth, 2 m E Inverkeithing; spacious harbour, considerable manufacture of salt, and exports an immense quantity of coal.

ST.-DAVID, FORT; see FORT-ST.-DA

VID.

ST.-DAVID'S-HEAD, a cape or headland of Wales, county Pembroke, St.-George'schannel, whence Ireland is visible.

ST.-DENIS, an ancient town of France, department Seine, on the Crould, near the Seine, 5 m N Paris. The abbey of Benedictines, to which the town owes its rise, has the appearance of a palace; many of the kings are buried here; but in 1793, when royalty was abolished, the tombs were all destroyed, and great quantities of relics lost; the church has been restored to its magnificence, but not its wealth; manufactures, floor cloth; P. 9686.

ST.-DIEGO, a town of w coast of North America, New-Albion, chief of a jurisdiction; good anchorage: about Lg. 117.18 w, Lt. 32.10 N.

ST.-DIE, a town of France, department Vosges, on the Meurthe, 30 m SE Luneville; P. 7707.

ST.-DIZIER, a town of France, department Haute-Marne, on the Marne, 36 m N by w Chaumont.

ST.-DMITRI, Russia; see RoSTow.

ST.-DOMINGO, HISPANIOLA, or HAYTI, North America, the largest island in the West-Indies, as also the most fertile, extending from E to w about 390 m by 60 to 150, lying between Jamaica and Cuba on Lg. 67.35 to 74.15 w, and Lt. 17.37 to 20 N. the w, and Porto-Rico on the E, from Formerly divided between the French and the Spaniards; since the expulsion of the French by the blacks that part has been called Hayti. The soil in general is fertile, well watered, and produces every vegetable of use and luxury. The fertility of the plains is such that, according to Edwards, they are alone capable of producing more sugar and other valuable commodities than all the British-West-Indies put together; while the mountains themselves, extending in two great chains from E to w, with numerous diverging ridges, contribute to the fertility of the soil, by pouring down their accumulated moisture into the plains, by repelling the violence of the winds, and by varying the temperature of the air. They abound also in excellent timbers, and in mines of iron, lead, copper, silver, gold, some precious stones, and mercury. The climate is moist and hot, the thermometer in the plains rising as high as 99; in the higher parts to 72 and 77; while on some of the highest mountains, which rise to the height of 6000 feet above the level of the sea, the heat is nowise oppressive, and a fire is even at times found necessary. The principal rivers are the Ozama, the Haina, the Nigua, the Yane or Yuna, &c. The population of the French part of St.-Domingo, before it fell into the possession of the blacks, was composed, 1st, of white inhabitants; 2ndly, of people of colour and blacks in a free condition; and, 3rdly, of negroes and people of colour in a state of slavery. In 1789, previous to the revolution which finally gave the blacks the dominion of the island, the population amounted, according to the estimate of Edwards, to 30,831 whites, 24,000 free people of colour, and 480,000 negro slaves. In 1785 the Spanish part of the island contained 152,640 inhabitants. This island was discovered by Columbus in 1492, and the Spaniards retained undisputed possession of it until about the middle of the

16th century. It was in a most flourishing state in the year 1789, when the French revolution commenced. But from that period commenced the war between the white and the black population, which, after a series of unparalleled cruelties, terminated in favour of the latter. It is now in possession of the blacks, who are intent on domestic improvement, and have every where established schools; so that there is reason to anticipate that this nation of blacks will in time comprise as great a porportion of well-educated people as any other of the European-states.

ST.-DOMINGO, capital of the island-ofSt.-Domingo, North America, West-Indies, an archbishop's see, the most ancient city built by Europeans in America. The plan of the city is a quadrilateral figure; the streets are straight and broad, crossing one another at right-angles; and the whole city is surrounded by ramparts. The houses are well proportioned, with flat roofs, and a yard in the middle, with surrounding galleries inside, and balconies to the street. The cathedral, which was finished in the year 1540, is a massive pile of building, more remarkable for strength than beauty. The barracks form a good regular range of square buildings, encircling two large courts in the centre, and are adapted to contain 2000 men. On the side that faces the sea, and within the barrack-walls stands the arsenal, also a regular fine building. The palace is a good plain building. Besides the main square, there are three others. In the other parts of the town are several convents and nunneries, whose inmates deserted them when the flag changed. About the year 1586 the city was sacked by Sir Francis Drake. Population reduced from 20,000 to 12,000: Lg. 69.50 w, Lt. 18.28 N.-The name of several other settlements, villages, and rivers, in South America.

ST.-ELMO, FORT; see FORT ST.-ELMO. ST.-ELIAS, a remarkable mountain on the Nw coast of North America, 24 m inland from a low coast, and rises majestically to the height of 12,670 feet above the sea. Its snow-clad summit is visible at a great distance, and is a useful mark to mariners at sea: Lg. 140.39 w, Lt. 60.22 N. ST.-ESTEVAN-DE-ACOMA, North America, New Mexico, with a castle, 20 m sw Sta.-Fé.

ST.-ETIENNE-EN-FOREZ, a town of France, department Loire, 32 m sw Lyon; manufactures arins, hardware, cutlery, weaving of riband; coal is found in the neighbourhood, and grindstone; P. 33,064.

ST.-EUFEMIA, a town of Italy, Naples, Calabria-Utra, on a gulf of the Mediterranean of the same name, 27 m s by E Cozenza.

ST.-EUSTATIA, island of North America, West-Indies, one of the smallest of the Caribbees, 10 m NW of St.-Christopher: a mountain in form of a sugar-loaf, whose top is hollow: tobacco is cultivated to the summit: taken by the British in 1781; soon after taken by the French, and restored to the Dutch in 1783; again taken by the British in 1810, and restored to the Dutch in 1814. A town of same name, and a fort: Lg. 63.5 w, Lt. 17.31 x.

ST.-FARGEAU, a town of France, department Lyonne, with a castle, 10 m SE Auxere.

STA.-FE, a town of Spain, Granada, in a fertile plain near the Xenil, 6 m w by N Granada; built by Fernando II during the siege of Granada; suffered greatly by earthquake in 1899.

STA.-FE, a city of South America, Buenos-Ayres, enclosed by a wall, on the Paraguay, at the influx of the Salado, 240 m NNW Buenos-Ayres; produce silk, corn, wine, fruit, game, and cattle: Lg. 61.10 w, Lt. 31.35 s.

STA FE, a city of North America, capital and bishop's see of New-Mexico, on a river which, 27 m below, joins the Riodel-Norte, 510 m N Chihuahua. In the centre is a large square, with the governor's and guard-houses. The houses are generally of one floor. with flat roofs, having but a mean appearance, yet many of them are richly furnished: manufactures, leather, cotton, coarse woollen cloths, blankets, tobacco, pottery, and copper vessels; P.3600: Lg. 104.53 w, Lt. 36.12 x.

STA.-FE-DE-BOGOTA, a city of South America, the capital of Colombia, with an university streets wide and regular, with 4 large handsome squares; also a palace, a mint, a magnificent cathedral, and many other noble edifices. The inhabitants are mild, polite, and cheerful; the women most commonly handsome and well formed.MOLLIEN'S Colombia. It stands in a luxurious plain, elevated 8720 feet above the sea; hence it is a healthy place. Two rivers flow through the city, and join the Funza, or Pati, which runs into the Magdalena; 470 m NE Quito; P. about 30,000 : Lg. 74.8 w, Lt. 4.6 N.

ST.-FELIX, an island of South America, Pacific-ocean, lying NNW of Juan-Fernandez: Lg. 86 w, Lt. 26 s.

ST.-FELIPE, a town of South America, Venezuela, in Colombia, 150 m w Caraccas, hot and unhealthy; country fertile, produces coffee, indigo, and cotton.

ST.-FELIPE, or ST.-PHILIP-DE-XATIVA, a considerable town of Spain, province Valencia, the Setabis of the Romans, 29 m ssw Valencia.

ST.-FELIX, island of the South-Pacific,

135 m w of Cape-St.-Nicolas, coast of Peru, sive trade, arising chiefly from linen-manuin South America, and 15 m E of the island of St.-Ambrose.

ST.-FERNANDO, a fortified city of South America, Colombia, province Llanos, on the left bank of the Orinoco, at the influx of the Atabans, 400 m E Bogota: Lg. 68 w, Lt. 4.20 N.

ST.-FERNANDO, a town of South America, Chili, 90 m s by W St.-Iago: Lg. 71.20 w, Lt. 34.40 s.

ST.-FIORENZO, a seaport town of Corsica, enclosed by walls and towers, in the Mediterranean, at the head of a gulf 7 m w Bastia; taken from the French by the English and Corsicans in 1794.

ST.-FIUME, or ST.-VITO, a seaport of the Austrian empire, with a castle, and many fine churches and convents; noted for wine, good figs, and other fruits; has a sugar refinery, and a wax manufacture. The harbour is formed by the Fiumara, which enters the head of the gulf-of-Carnero: chief exports salted provisions of Hungary; 37 m ESE Capo-d'Istria: Lg. 14.12 E, Lt. 45.18 N.

ST.-FLORENT, a town of France, department Maine-et-Loire ; on the Loire, 20 m wsw Angers.

ST.-FLORENTIN, a town of France, department L'Yonne, 15 m NE Auxerre, 80 SE Paris.

ST.-FLOUR, a city of France, capital of department Cantal, a bishop's see; on a mountain, 53 m s Clermont; P. 6464.

ST.-FOY, a town of France, department Gironde; on the Dordogne, 38 m E Bordeaux.

SAN-FRANCISCO, a seaport town of South America, Brazil, province SanPaolo; on a small island in a bay, about Lt. 26.15 s.

SAN-FRANCISCo, North America, w coast, New-Albion, capital of jurisdiction, a citadel and good harbour; founded in 1776; about Lg. 122.13 w, Lt. 37.49 N. ST.-FRANCISCO, river; see RIVERS. ST.-FULGENT, a village of France, department La-Vendee; P. 1650.

ST.-GALL, canton of Switzerland, bounded by Austria, and cantons Grisons, Glarus, Schweitz, and Zurich; watered by the Rhyne, Tanim, Saar, Sitter, part of lakes Zurich and Constance, and Wallenstadt; P. 134,000.

ST.-GALL, or GALLEN, Switzerland, capital of canton St.-Gall; on a narrow valley, 35 m E Zurich. It has a rich abbey, whose abbot formerly possessed the sovereignty of the town, but his territory is now distinct. The town is entirely Protestant, and the subjects of the abbot are mostly Catholics. The town has an exten

facture and bleaching.

ST.-GALLAN, an island, coast of Peru, about 8 m off the bay-of-Pararca.

ST.-GALMIER, a town of France, department Loire, 18 m E Montbrison; medicinal spring of a vinous taste.

ST.-GAUDENS, a town of France, department Haute-Garonne, on the Garonne, 13 m ENE St.-Barnard; P. 6179.

ST.-GEMINIANO, a town of Italy, Tuscany, in Florentino, on a mountain; a mine of vitriol; 25 m ssw Florence.

ST.-GENEVIEVE, 2 in North America, United States:-1st and 2nd, a county and a county-town, state Missouri; P. of 1st 2182, in 1830.

ST.-GENGOUX-LE-ROYAL, a town of France, department Saone-et-Loire, at the foot of a mountain, 17 m sw Chalons: excellent wine; P. 2500.

ST.-GEORGE, an island of the Atlantic, one of the Azores, Africa, 26 m long by 4: town of Ursulina and several farm-houses destroyed by a volcano in 1808, previous to which it was rich in corn, cattle, and wine; chief town Velas: Lg. 28.15 w,

Lt. 38.39 N.

a

ST.-GEORGE, a small island, gulf-ofVenice, Mediterranean, s of Venice; Benedictine monastery, with the finest church in Italy.

ST.-GEORGE, a town of France, department L'Isere, 35 m Nw Grenoble; P. 3450. ST.-GEORGE, GYORGY, or GEORGEN, a town of Austria, Hungary; about 15 m N of Presburg; P. 2200.

ST.-GEORGE, a town of England, Gloucester, 2 m E Bristol; P. of parish 6285. ST.-GEORGE-IN-THE-EAST, a parish of England, Middlesex; P. 32,528.

ST.-GEORGE, a town of Austria, Croatia, sea-coast, 5 m s Zengg; P. 1590.

ST.-GEORGE, island, North America, the largest of the Bermudas, about 15 m long; its capital is of the same name: about Lg. 63.30 w, Lt. 32.45 N.

ST.-GEORGE, a cape; see CAPES.

ST.-GEORGE, a town of North America, West-Indies, capital of the island of Granada, and one of the best harbours in the West-Indies; chiefly built of brick, and defended by Fort-Royal: Lg. 61.49 w,

Lt. 12.4 N.

ST.-GEORGE, Brazil; see ILHEOS.

ST.-GEORGE, a village of Scotland, Perthshire, 36 m Nw Perth.

ST.-GEORGE's, a town of France, department Vienne; P. 1668.

ST.-GEORGE, a post township, North America, United States, state Delaware, County Newcastle; P. of the hundred, 2880

ST.-GEORGE's-BANK, E coast North America, off Massachusetts state, United States.

ST.-GEORGE, a town of France, department L'Ille-de-Villaine; P. 3200. Another, department La-Mayenne-et-Loire; P. 2400.

ST.-GEORGE'S-CHANNEL, part of the Atlantic, between Ireland and Wales. ST.-GEORGE'S-KEY, a small island of North America, bay of Honduras.

ST.-GEORGE'S-D'OLERON, a village of France, department La-Charente Inferieure;

P. 3500.

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ST.-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, France, department Seine-et-Oise, near the Seine, 12 m Nw Paris. The houses are in general good, the streets wide, regular, and well-paved. Here are also several handsome squares; but the object of greatest interest to the traveller is the magnificent terrace on the side of the river, upwards of 2 m long, and affording a delightful view of nearly 15 m in circuit. The ancient castle, built by Charles V of France, is a spacious but heavy building, chiefly of brick, in which the room is still shown where James I of England died; P. 10,000.

ST.-GERMAIN-DE-BELAIR, a town of France, department Lot; P. 1250.

ST.-GERMAIN-DE-BOURGUEIL, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire ; P. 1500.

ST.-GERMANO, a town of Sardinia, Piedmont, on the Naviglio, 9 m s Vercelli. ST.-GERMANO, a town of Italy, Naples, Terra-di-Lavora, foot of Monte-Casino, on which is a celebrated monastery; 17 m SSE Sora.

ST.-GINGOU, a town of Switzerland, Valais, on lake-Geneva, 4 m w of the influx

of the Rhone; 30 m WNW Sion.

ST.-GOAR, a town of Prussia, province Lower-Rhine, on the left bank of the Rhine, 24 m by post-road SSE Coblenz, post-road to Mainz, under a high rock, and castle; both surrendered to the French in 1794; trade in wines and hides.

ST.-GOBIN, or FERE, a town of France, department Aisne, at the conflux of the Serre and Oise, 20 m N Soissons, and 75 NE Paris; powder-mills and artillery

schools. Near is the castle of St.-Gobin, with a manufacture of plate-glass; P. 2350.

ST. GOTHARD, a celebrated mountain of Switzerland, canton Uri, 22 m s of Altorf; 9075 feet above the sea, and contains a prodigious number of fossils. Though not the highest mountain, it is deemed the principal summit of the Helvetian Alps, for in its vicinity rise the rivers Tesino, Reuss, Rhone, and Rhine, which flow hence in different directions.

ST.-HELENA, Africa, an island of the Atlantic, detached from any group, about 1200 m from the nearest land (South Africa); discovered by the Portuguese in 1501, afterwards possessed by the Dutch, and in 1651 by the English; 10 m long by 63, 28 m in circumference. It presents to the sea, throughout its whole circuit, an immense wall of perpendicular rock, from 600 to 1200 feet high, like a castle in the midst of the ocean. On entering, however, and ascending by one of the few openings which nature has left, verdant valleys are found interspersed with the dreary rocks. The loftiest eminence is called Diana'speak, situated nearly in the centre of the island, and rising to the height of 2700 feet. In the sw quarter there is a conical hill called High-Peak, or High-Knoll, the elevation of which is not much inferior. There are also lofty peaks, called Sugar-Loaf and Ladder-Hill. The other rocks and hills are thrown together in the wildest confusion, like nature in a state of chaos. There are only four openings in the great wall of rock, by which it can be approached with any kind of facility: these are James's, or Chapel-bay, being the one on which the town is built, and on which alone there is any beach; Rupert's-bay, Lemon-valley, and Sandy-bay: these are all strongly fortified. The climate is not liable to the extremes of heat or cold, but is moist, and liable to strong gusts of wind: it is exempt, however, from thunder and lightning, storms and hurricanes. The sky, in consequence of the superabundance of moisture, is often clouded, and only about one day in three is supposed to be illumined by sunshine. Of the small portion of ground which is fit for cultivation, a part is exceedingly fertile: potatos, which are the principal object of culture, have, in fourteen years, produced, on an average, more than two crops in the year: its chief indigenous trees were ebony, red-wood, and gum-wood. About 1720 the plain was nearly stripped of trees, and in its place there began, in a few years, to spring up a species of wiregrass, which converted the ground into excellent pasture. Since that time the rearing of sheep and goats has been the principal object of agricultural industry. There is only one place in the island which

can be called a town, situated in a narrow valley, between lofty mountains, called James's-valley. The town is entered by an arched gateway, within which is a handsome parade, about 100 feet square: on the left side are the government-house and the main guard-room; the former, enclosed with a wall, is called the castle, within which is the residence of the governor and public offices. The church, a handsome building, fronts the gateway, and on the right of it is a neat little theatre. The principal street begins between the church and a small palisaded enclosure, called the Company's garden; it consists of about 30 houses, most of them neat and well built: at the top two other streets branch off to the E and w; in the latter are the barracks, the new garden, the hospital, and a number of shops, well stored with all sorts of European, Indian, and Chinese commodities; but the houses are in general far inferior to those in the lower part of the town, where the principal inhabitants reside. St. Helena was chosen as the place of banishment for Buonaparte, after his capture by the British, and he died there in 1821: Lg. 15.55 w, Lt. 5.49 s.

ST.-HELENA, an island of North-Ame rica, on the coast of South-Carolina.

ST.-HELENA, a parish of North-America, South-Carolina, Beaufort district: consists of a cluster of small islands.

ST.-HELENS, a village of England, county Hants, E end Isle-of-Wight, 2 m NE Brading; the bay is a noted rendezvous for ships

bound down channel.

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in French, and 1 in English; P. 10,118; Lg. 2.14 w, Lt. 49.13 N.

ST.-HIPOLITE, 3 towns of France:-1st, department Doubs, on the Doubs, 40 m E by N Besançon; P. 3500.-2nd, department Haut-Rhin, 10 m N by w Colmar; P. 1700.-3rd, department Le-Gard, on the Vidourle: manufactures, leather and woollen stuffs; 20 m wNw Nismes; P. 3500.

ST.-HUBERT, a town of Belgium, province Liege, in the forest of Ardennes, 14 m w by N Bastogne: a celebrated abbey.

ST.-IAGO, a fortified seaport of North America, island of Cuba, and a bishop's see, with a good harbour, formerly capital of the island, but now fallen to decay; in 1810 it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake: Lg. 76.3 w, Lt. 20.1 N.

The

ST.-IAGO, Africa, the largest and most fertile of the Cape-de-Verde islands, about 120 m in circumference: it abounds with high barren mountains, and the air, in the rainy season, is unwholesome to strangers. animals are beeves, horses, asses, mules, deer, goats, hogs, civet-cats, and monkeys. Here are fowls, and birds of almost all sorts; and maize, plantains, bananas, pompions, oranges, lemons, tamarinds, pineapples, and sugar-canes; it has also some Ribeiracedar trees, and plenty of cotton. Grande is the capital, but the governor resides at Porto-Praya.

ST.-IAGO, a city of South America, capital of Chili, and a bishop's see, on the Mapocho, over which is a beautiful bridge, which connects the city with the suburbs. The streets, like those of all the other cities and villages in Chili, are straight, and intersected at right-angles, and are 36 geometrical feet in breadth. The great

square is 450 feet on each side; and in the midst is a handsome fountain of bronze. The most remarkable edifices are the cathedral, the church of St. Dominick, and that

ST.-HELENS, England, one of the Scilly- of the great college formerly belonging to islands, about a mile N Fresco.

ST.-HELIER, capital of the island of Jersey, on the E side of St.-Aubin's-bay, 4 m E St.-Aubin's: within the last 20 years it has been greatly enlarged and improved, having become, from an insignificant village, with thatched houses and ill-paved streets, a genteel and respectable-looking town, consisting of several streets diverging from a square, in which stands a gilt statue of George II. It has a court house, a governor's house, workhouse, a public hospital, a new prison, a small theatre, and public library, 1 parish church, and chapels for Calvinists, and Methodists, and a RomanCatholic meeting-house. The bay-of-St.Aubin is defended by the strong castle-ofElizabeth, on a rocky island about a mile from the town, and another work lately constructed; 3 gazettes are published weekly

the Jesuits. The private houses are handsome and pleasant, but, on account of earthquake, are usually of but one story. Besides the suburbs on the other side of the river, there is one to the s, called St. Isidore. There are 4 parochial churches, several convents of monks, besides 7 nunneries, a house of correction for women, a foundling hospital, several private endowments, a college of nobility, which was under the direction of the Jesuits, and a Tridentine seminary. St.-Iago contains a royal-university, a mint for coining gold and silver, and barracks for the soldiers; 55 m ESE of the port of Valparaiso; P. 46,000, and rapidly increasing: Lg. 70.44 w, Lt. 38.26 s.

ST.-IAGO, a town of North America, Mexico, capital of Veragua, 150 m wsw Panama; has an elegant hospital, and is celebrated for spun cotton, dyed of a durable

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