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sort; the birds beautiful and numerous, though not various. Goats, pigs, and European seeds were left by captain Cook; but the possession of the goats soon gave rise to a contest between two districts, in which the breed was destroyed. The inhabitants, in their persons, language, and manners, approach nearer to the New-Zealanders, than to their less distant neighbours, either of the Society or Friendly-islands. They are, in general, above the middle size, wellshaped, and capable of bearing great fatigue. Many of both sexes have fine open countenances; and the women, in particular, have good eyes and teeth, with an engaging sensibility of look. There is one peculiarity, characteristic of every part of the nation, that even in the handsomest faces there is a fulness of the nostril, without any flatness or spreading of the nose. The men suffer their beards to grow, and wear their hair after various fashions. The dress of both sexes nearly resembles those of New-Zealand, and they wear necklaces of small va

riegated shells. Tattooing the body is practised by every colony of this nation. The hands and arms of the women are also neatly marked, and they have the singular custom of tattooing the tip of the tongue. They live together in villages, containing from 100 to 200 houses, built closely together, without any order, and having a winding path between them. They are generally flanked, toward the sea, with detached walls, consisting of loose stones, which are meant both for shelter and defence. Some of the houses are from 40 to 50 feet long, and from 20 to 30 broad; others are mere hovels. The food of the lower class consists principally of fish and vegetables, to which the people of higher rank add the flesh of hogs and dogs. The making of canoes, mats, &c. forms the occupation of the men; the women are employed in manufacturing cloth; and the servants are principally engaged in the plantations, and fishing. Their plantations, which are spread over the whole seacoast, consist of the taro, or eddy-root, and sweet potatos, with plants of the cloth-tree, set in rows. They make salt in great abundance, and good cordage of all kinds. Their weapons are spears, daggers, clubs, and slings; and for armour they wear strong mats, which are not easily penetrated. Human sacrifices are here practised; not only at the commencement of a war, or sig. nal enterprise, but on the death of every considerable chief. The inhabitants are of a mild and affectionate disposition; and in hospitality to strangers they are not exceeded by those of the Friendly-islands. They are very industrious, and their natu ral capacity seems, in no respect, below the common standard of mankind. See OWHY


SANDWICH-LAND, a cluster of desolate

islands, South America, in the Southernocean, SE of the island-of-Georgia. The mountains are of a vast height, their summits wrapped in clouds, and covered with snow to the water's edge. The most southern island that was seen by Cook in 1775 is called Southern-Thule: Lg. about 28 w, Lt. from 57 to 59.30 s.

SANDY, a village of England, county Bedford, on the river Ivel, 3 m by w Biggleswade. It is of great antiquity, and on a hill are earth-works of large dimensions, called Cæsar's-Camp; P. 1617.

SANDY-DESERT, an extensive tract of country in Hindostan, having Moultan to the N, Ajmeer to the E, Cutch to the s, and Sinde to the w. This region has not been recently explored by any European; but from the testimonies of the natives on the E border, although the country in general consists of an arid unproductive sand, yet it contains many cultivated spots; also scattered jungle and coarse vegetation of various kinds, which supply numerous flocks with food. It is interspersed with petty chiefships and stationary tribes; water scarce, and several forts which have walls, but are destitute of water without the walls to a

great distance. The chief place known is


SANDY-HOOK, a small island of North America, United States, on the coast of state New-Jersey, 7 m s of the w end of Longisland; formerly a peninsula, but in 1778 the sea broke through the isthmus, and formed it into an island. On the N point is a lighthouse: Lg. 74.2 w, Lt. 40.30 N.

SANDY-POINT, a seaport of North-America, West-Indies, St.-Christopher, on the NW side of the island, in Figtree-bay, defended by a fort: Lg. 63.28 w, Lt. 17.20 N. United States, state Maine, York county, SANDFORD, a town of North America, N Berwick, and 20 NNW York; P. 2327 in 1830.

15 m

SANHOOR, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, in Palestine, walled on a steep hill, 8 m N Napolose.

SANGARRA, a country of West-Africa, E of Soolima, inhabited by a tall, warlike, industrious race.

SANGERHAUSEN, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, with a castle, 14 m wsw Eisleben.

SANGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malwah, near the Bunnass, 93 m ENE Bopal.

SANKEY, a village of England, county Lancaster, 2 m w Warrington. It is a place of traffic, being seated near the Mersey, from which it has a canal to the various works in the vicinity of St.-Helen's; P. 563.

SANQUHAR, a borough of Scotland,

county Dumfries, on the Nith, 25 m Nw Dumfries, 53 sw Edinburgh; with a ruined castle on an eminence. It has a trade in coal, and a manufacture of carpets and stockings; P. 3268.

SANSANDING, a large trading town of Africa, Nigritia, Bambarra, on the left bank of the Niger, 20 m E by N Sego.


SANTAREM, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, with a citadel on a mountain. It is seated on the Tejo, in a country fertile in wheat, wine, and oil, 55 m NE Lisboa: Lg. 8.25 w, Lt. 39.18 N.

SANTAREM, a town of South America, Brazil, province Para, with a fort, on the Topajos, at its conflux with the Amazon. It is a port for canoes that navigate those rivers, and the depository of a great quantity of cocoa, cultivated in the surrounding country. It is 380 m wsw Para: Lg. 54.0 w, Lt. 2.30 s.

SANTILLANA, a town of Spain, capital of Asturias-de-Santillana. It stands in a fruitful valley near the bay-of-Biscay, 96 m E Oviedo, 200 N Madrid: Lg. 3.58 w, Lt. 43.23 N.

SANTONA, a town of Spain, province Asturias, near the bay-of-Biscay, with a good harbour, strongly fortified by nature and art, 22 m E Santander.

SANTORINI, the ancient Thera, an island of the Archipelago, Mediterranean, to the s of Nio. It is in the form of a crescent, Between its two 10 m long, by 1 to 4. points, to complete the circle, are the small islands of Therasia and Aspronisi; and within these are three other islands, between which and Santorin is a road for ships, but it affords no anchorage, on account of its depth in some places, and rocky bottom in others. All these islands are of volcanic origin, but the three interior ones are evidently of much later date. Santorin, in proportion to its extent, is the richest and most populous island of the Archipelago. There are two bishops; the one Latin, whose see is Scauro, and the other Greek, whose residence is at Pirgos, near the middle of the island. The soil is very dry, and far from fertile; but it produces plenty of harley, cotton, and wine, in which, and cotton manufactures, the trade consists. Fruit is scarce, except figs, and it has only cistern water. The inhabitants about 12,000, are almost all Greeks, and though subject to the Turks, they choose their own magistrates. Scauro is the capital.

SANTOS, a seaport of South America, Brazil, province St.-Paolo, in the bay of its name, on the N side of an island, called Amiaz, which is 18 m in circuit. The entrance of the channel, which leads from the bay to the town, is defended by two forts.

The town of St. Vincent stands on the s side of the same island; it is 10 m from the sea, and 54 SSE St.-Paolo, of which it is the port: Lg. 46.24 w, Lt. 23.59 s.

SAONA, an island of North America, West-Indies, near the E end of that of St.-Domingo, from the s side of which it is separated by a shallow channel, 5 m wide; it is 18 m long, by 5 broad, uninhabited, except by fishermen during the season for tortoises; it has a port at the E end, sometimes visited by mariners, who here find water, wood, and wild cattle in abundance. Lg. 68.35 w, Lt. 18.14 N."

SAONE-ET-LOIRE, a department of France, including the s part of the old province of Burgundy. It is divided into 5 communes, and is bordered by the departments Côte-d'Or, Jura, Ain, Rhone, Loire, Allier, and Nievre. It has its name from two rivers, which flow through it in different directions. Macon, with P. 10,998, is the capital; area 3500 square miles; P. 523,970.

SAORGIO, a town in Italy, Sardinia, in the county of Nice. It is seated on the top of a rock, which is nearly enclosed by the Roia and the Bendola. On the opposite side of the Roia is a sharp rock, completely insulated, with an ancient fortress on the summit; and near the town is a strong fort. Saorgio was taken by the French in 1794. It is 17 m NE Nice.

SAPIENZA, an island, kingdom of Greece, Morea, department Messania, in the Mediterranean, near the s coast. It was for. merly called Sphacteria, and is famous in ancient history for a victory obtained by the Athenians over the Lacedemonians, 5 m s Navarino: Lg. 21.42 E, Lt. 36.45 N.

SAPOJOK, a town of Russia, government Riazan, chief of district on the small river Sapajok, 82 m SE Riazan; it contains 4 churches, 600 houses, a few warehouses, all of wood, and I cloth manufactory; P. 4000: Lg. 40.10 E, Lt. 53.50 N.

SARACENS, a people celebrated some centuries ago, who came from the deserts of Arabia; sarra in their language signifying a desert. They were the first disciples of Mohamed, and, within 40 years after his death, conquered a great part of Asia, Africa, and Europe, and established his religion. They kept possession of Spain till 1511, when they were expelled. They maintained a war in the Holy-land, a long time, against the Western-Christians, and at length drove them out of it. There are now no people known by this name, for the descendants of those who conquered Spain are called Moors.

SARAGOSSA, a city of Spain, capital of province Aragon, an archbishop's see, with a university, and a court of inquisition. It is said to have been built by the Phenicians;

and the Romans sent a colony hither in the reign of Augustus, whence it had the name of Cæsarea Augusta, which by corruption has been changed into Saragossa. Here are many magnificent buildings, 17 large churches, and 14 handsome convents, beside others less considerable. The Ebro runs through the city, dividing it into two parts; and on its banks is a handsome quay, which serves for a public walk. The Holy-street is the largest, and here they had their bull-fights. The cathedral is a spacious Gothic building; but the finest church is that of Nuestra-Senora-del-Pilar, and a place of the greatest devotion in Spain. They tell us that the Virgin, while living, appeared to St. James, who was preaching the gospel, and left him her image, with a handsome pillar of jasper. This image stands on a marble pillar, with a little Jesus in her arms, ornamented with a profusion of gold and jewels, and illuminated by a multitude of lamps and wax lights. The town-house is a sumptuous structure; and in the hall are the pictures of all the kings of Aragon. It has few manufactures, and but little trade. It stands in a large plain (where the Ebro receives two other rivers) which produces all kinds of fruit in great abundance. A victory was obtained here over the French and Spaniards in 1710, but it was abandoned by the allies soon after. In 1808 it sustained a siege by the French; which was renewed and lasted 63 days; the surviving besieged were obliged to surrender in 1809, being quite worn out by fighting, pestilence, and famine. During this memorable siege, the city was nearly demolished by the constant firing of an immense artillery, and about 40,000 shells. In 1813 the French surrendered it to the Spaniards. It is 150 m w by N Barcelona, and 180 NE Madrid: Lg. 0.48 Lt. 41.45 N.


SARANGPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malwah, chief of a hilly, fertile district. It is seated on the Sopra, 55 m NE Oojain: Lg. 76.30 E, Lt. 23.36 N.

SARANSK, a town of Russia, government Penza, chief of district, both banks of the Saranga, and at its junction with the Inzara, 81 m x Penza; country very fertile, requiring no manure, lying fallow 1 year in 3 is sufficient. It contains 1 convent, 10 churches, salt-warehouses, and has 1 fair; P. 6000.

SARAPOUL, a town of Russia, government Viatka, chief of district, right bank of the Cama, at the foot of an eminence on which are the ruins of a fortress, still inclosing 1 church, the courts of justice, and salt-warehouses.

385 m SE Viatka; trade very considerable, and a place of great resort by the river navigators during spring and summer; thus it is that although its resident P. may be taken at 2000, yet at the times abovenamed there are frequently 20,000 persons in that place: Lg. 53.10 E, Lt. 56.26.45 N.

It contains 2 churches and 400 houses, forming crooked streets, which, moreover, during the spring, are so muddy, that they are almost impassable;

SARATOF, a government of Russia, bounded on the N by Penza, Simbirsk, and part of Orenburg, E by Astrakhan, s by Astrakhan, and the territory of the Cosaques-of-the-Don, w by the last named, Tambow, and Voronege; lying between Lt. 48 and 53 N, and Lg. 43 and 50 E, divided into 8 districts, each named after its chief town, viz., Saratof, the capital, Volsk, Khvalinsk, Couznetsk, Petrovsk, Serdobe, Camychine, and Tzaritzine; there are also 2 towns which are not chiefs of districts, Atkarsk and Balachef. The Volga traverses this government from N to s, that portion on the w is exceedingly fertile, exporting much corn, but the E is very unpled; there are many salt-lakes, the Elton, fruitful, and consequently but thinly peoor Yeltone, being the most noted. The chief occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture, and working at the salt-lakes; manufactures, linen, cotton, and woollen goods; some tanneries and potash. The colonies formed under the empress Catherine II in 1764, amount in number to 101, chiefly Germans, Swiss, and French. The church is governed by the archbishop of Penza and Saratof; P. 717,124.

SARATOF, a town of Russia, capital of a government and chief of a district of the same name, on the precipitous bank of the Volga, and at the foot of 2 high mountains: one branch, following the course of the Volga, is named Sakolofskie, the other stretches to the w, and is named LysseGory, which is barren and stony; it is 300 m Nw Astrakhan. The town is divided by a steep and deep ravine, and is also separated from its suburb by some ancient ramparts. The lower town is upon ground almost level, and the streets are wide and regular. On the 13th of April, 1774, the whole having been reduced to ashes, an opportunity was thus offered for rebuilding it as it is at present. The nobles have here fine mansions. Amongst the public buildings deserving notice are the courts of justice, the colonial office, and that for salt. Saratof has acquired much wealth in consequence of the transit of merchandise, such as hides, leather, tallow, fish, salt, and Persian goods from Astrakhan, and also by the boat-transport of corn. Many thousands of carts pass through this place in every week during the winter, laden with salt, fish, and caviar. It has 1 fair, held on the 8th of July, at which a great number of Calmouks attend with horses for sale, and

of canton Underwalden, near lake Sarnen 9 m s Lucern.

SARATOFKA, a German colony of Russia, government Petersburg, district Schlüsselburg, on the Neva.

SARATOGA, a town of North America, United States, state New York, Saratoga county, with a fort. In the vicinity are celebrated medicinal springs, which are much visited in summer. Here, in 1777, an army of British and Hessians surrendered to the Americans. It is 32 m N Albany; P. 2461 in 1830.

SARAWAN, Asia, a province of Balloogistan, 220 m long by 60, bounded N by Afghanistan, E by Hindostan, s by the provinces of Jalawan and Mekran, and w by a barren desert. It is so very rugged and mountainous, that there is scarcely a level place whose circuit would exceed a few miles. It has a town of the same name on the Bale, 80 m w by s Kelat, the capital of the province.

SARBRÜCK, a town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, with a handsome palace, and a magnificent Lutheran church. It is seated on the w side of the Saar, 14 m w Zweibrücken.

SARBURG, a town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, on the Saar, 10 ms by w Treves.

SARBURG, a town of France, department Meurte, on the Sarre, or Saar, 40 m E by N Nancy.

SARDINIA, an island of the kingdom of Sardinia, Mediterranean, 160 m long by 70. It is separated from Corsica, on the N, by the strait-of-Bonifacio, and has 44 small islands belonging to it. Exclusive of the mountains, the chief part of the country may be regarded as waste, but where cultivated it is fertile in corn, wine, oranges, citrons, and olives. Here are mines of silver, lead, sulphur, and alum, and quantities of cheese and salt are made. The frequent wastes abound with wild ducks; but the cattle are not numerous, and the morasses yield pernicious exhalations. On the coast is a fishery for anchovies and coral. The little islands abound in game; and in that of Asinara are a great number of turtles. Sardinia has undergone various revolutions:-In 1708 it was taken from the Spaniards by the English, and allotted to the Emperor of Germany at the peace of Utrecht. The Spaniards recovered it in 1717, but were obliged to abandon it 2 years after; and, in 1720, it was ceded to the duke of Savoy, as an equivalent for Sicily. It was then erected into a kingdom, but his Sardinian Majesty continued to keep his court at Turin, till expelled from his Piedmontese territories by the French, in 1796, when this island became the sole remnant

of his possessions till 1814, when he was restored to his former dominions. Cagliari is the capital; P. 450,000.

SARECTO, a town of North America, United States, state North Carolina, D'uplin county, on the NE branch of the cape-Fear, 80 m N by w Wilmington.

SAREPTA, a fortified town, Moravian colony, Russia, government Saratof, near Tzaritzine, founded 1765, on the banks of the Sarpa, m from the Volga. The inha bitants are a very industrious and thriving people, and the place contains several substantial stone buildings. It has manufac tures of handkerchiefs, cotton and linen cloths of all colours, night caps, velvet, rel veteens, serge, &c. Fortifications, earthramparts, dry-ditch with chevaux-de-frieze, 6 batteries, each containing 2 pieces of cannon; small garrison; a detachment furnished by that of Tzaritzine. The colony possesses various privileges and immunities; P. in 1773 about 2500, in 1823 4000.

SARGANS, a town of Switzerland, capital of a county, canton St.-Gall, with a castle; on the summit of a hill, near the Rhine, 14 m N by w Coire, and 47 SE Zurich. It has mineral springs, and the richest iron mine in Switzerland.

SARNEL, a seaport of Africa, Algiers, province Mascara, with a castle; on the sea-coast, 25 m ssw Algiers: Lg. 2.15 E, Lt. 36.30 N.

SAROFSKAIA-POUSTINIA, Russia, a very rich convent or hermitage, government Tambow, district Temnikof. It is under very severe regulations, and contains 170 monks, all exercising various trades useful

to the institution.

SARGUEMINES, a town of France, department Moselle, on the Sarre, or Saar, 9 m s by E Sarbrück; P. 4189.

SARI, a city of Asia, Persia, capital of Mazanderan, and the residence of a Persian prince, in a country abounding in rice, oranges, cotton, sugar, and silk, 20 m ssW Ferabad, and 120 NE Teheran. It is surrounded by a wall and deep ditch, and crowded with inhabitants, among whom are many merchants, who carry on a brisk trade with Astrakhan: Lg. 52.42 E, Lt. 36.38 x. SARJOU; see GOGRAH.

SARK, a British island, in the Englishchannel, 5 m long by 3, and 6 m E from the island of Guernsey, on which it depends. It is naturally strong; P. about 300.

SARLAT, a town of France, department Dordogne, surrounded by mountains, 27 m SE Perigueux; P. 6056.

SARLOUIS, a fortified town of France, department Moselle, on the isthmus of a peninsula formed by the Sarre, or Saar, 32 m NE Metz.

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SAROWY, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Ajmeer, capital of a district, the Nw part of which extends into the Sandy desert. It stands on the Bonass, 63 m w Odeypoor: Lg. 73.15 E, Lt. 24.52 N.

SARP, or SARPEN, a town of Sweden, Norway, province Christiansand. Near it is a great cataract, which may be heard at the distance of 20 m. It is 10 m wsw Frederickstadt.

SARREAL, a town of Spain, province Catalunia, with quarries of alabaster so transparent that it is used for windows; on the Francoli, 11 m N Tarragona.

SARSANA, a town of Sardinia, duchy of Genova, with a fortress; and near it is a fort in the mountains called Sarsanello. It stands on the Magra, 5 m from its mouth, and 45 ESE Genova.

SARSINA, a town of Italy, in Romagna, on the Savio, 21 m wsw Rimini.

SARSKOE-SELO, a magnificent palace of the Russian monarchs, near St.-Petersburg.

SART, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia. It was the ancient Sardis, capital of Lydia, and under the Romans was a large city, but almost destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius. Here are many remnants of massive buildings, a mosque, which was formerly a Christian church, and a large caravansary. The inhabitants are chiefly shepherds. It is 35 m ENE Smyrna.

SARTHE, a department of France, 55 m long by 50, including the E part of the old province of Maine. It is bordered by the departments of Orne, Eure-et-Loir, Loir-etCher, Indre-et-Loir, Mayenne-et-Loir, and Mayenne. It is named after a river, which

flows in a transparent and placid stream by Le Mans to Angers, where it joins the Mayenne. The capital is Le Mans; area 2430 square m; P. 457,372.

SARUM, OLD, a borough of England, County Wilts, now reduced to a single house. It once covered the summit of a steep hill, and was strongly fortified, but nothing is to be seen except the ruins and traces of the walls. It is 2 m N NewSarum, or Salisbury.

SAS-VAN-GHENT, a town and fortress of Holland, province Zealand, on the canal from Ghent to the Scheld, and fortified with sluices, by means of which the country can be laid under water. It was built by

the inhabitants of Ghent, as a bulwark to that city, but was taken in 1664 by the Dutch, from whom the French took it in 1747, and again in 1794. It is 10 m N Ghent.

SASSAFRAS, a town of North America, United States, state Maryland, Kent county, on the Sassafras, near its entrance into

Chesapeake-bay, 20 m s Elkton.

SASSARI, a city of Italy, Sardinia, and an archbishop's see, with a castle and a university. Here is a fountain called Rossel, said to be more magnificent than the best at Rome. In the neighbourhood are mines of gold and silver, whence the city is sometimes called Logudori. It is seated on the Fiuminargia, 9 m from its mouth at Tormes, which is its port, and 108 NNW Cagliari: Lg. 8.45 E, Lt. 40.48 N.

SASSERAM, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, 84 m sw Patna. Here is a great reservoir of water, and in the centre of it rises the magnificent mausoleum of Shere Khan, the Afghan, who expelled emperor Humayoon, the father of Acber, from Hin


SATALIA, or ADALIA, a city of Asia, Turkey, in Caramania. It extends round a small harbour, and has a superb mosque, which was formerly a church. It is governed by a pacha, and contains many remains of antiquity. The country is fertile, and the citrons and oranges are extremely fine. The chief trade is in wool, cotton, goats'-hair, agaric, tragacanth, opium, and bees'-wax. Ít is seated on the gulf-ofSatalia, in the Mediterranean, 150 m sw Cogni: Lg. 30.46 E, Lt. 36.52 N.

SATARAH, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Bejapoor, on the w point of a long hill. The fort is on the highest part, and the passage up to it admits only one person at a time. It was taken in 1651 bý Sevajee, the founder of the Mahratta empire, and here, for more than a century, the descendants of the sovereign of Bejapoor continued to be imprisoned by their nominal paid them great respect. In 1818, on the deputies, the peshwas, who nevertheless expulsion of the peshwa by the British, it was determined to reinstate the Satara raja in a portion of his ancient dominions; and the tract of country allowed him is bounded on the N by the Neera and Beema rivers, E by the Nizam's dominions, s by the Kistna and Warner rivers, and w by the Gaut-mountains. Satara is 56 m s Poona, and 120 wNw Bejapoor: Lg. 74.12 E, Lt. 17.42 N.

SATTIAVARAM, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in the Circars, at the mouth of the Gulgundah, 75 m sw Vizagapatam.

SATER, a town of Sweden, in Dalecarlia,

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