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near which is a rich iron-mine, 23 m s by E Fahlun.

SATGONG, a village of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, on a creek of the Hoogly, 4 m NW Hoogly.

SATIMANGALUM, a town of Asia, Hindostan, with a large stone fort, and a considerable temple, near the Bhavani, 42 m NNE Coimbetoor. It has manufactures of coarse cotton cloths.

SAUCEDA, a town of North America, Mexico, on a river of the same name, which joins the Nassas to form the Palmas, 100 m NNW Durango: Lg. 105.36 w, Lt. 25.18 N.

SAUGOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Malwah, chief of a district, containing many hill-forts and strong holds. It is 90 m ENE Bopal: Lg. 78.47 E, Lt. 23.48 N.

SAUKS, an Indian tribe of North America, dwelling, along with the Fox-Indians, between the Mississippi and lake-Michigan. They are brave, warlike, and generous.KEATING'S Expedition to Lake Winnipeck. SAULIEU, a town of France, department Côte-d'Or, on an eminence, 38 m w Dijon, and 46 SE Auxerre.

SAUMUR, a town of France, department Mayenne-et-Loire, with an ancient castle, and a famous bridge over the Loire, consisting of 12 elliptic arches, 60 feet span. It is 27 m SE Angers, and 38 wsw Tours; P. 10,652.

SAUTGUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Barramahal, in the eastern Gauts. It is 23 m w by N Vellore, and 75 E Bangaloor.

SAUVETERRE, a town of France, department Basses-Pyrenees, with a ruined castle, 20 m wNw Pau.

SAUVETERRE, a town of France, depart. ment Aveiron, 15 m sw Rodez.

SAUVETERRE, a town of France, department Gironde, 26 m SE Bourdeaux.

SAVA, a town of Asia, Persia, in Irak, with walls of earth. The environs produce exquisite fruit, and abundance of rice and cotton, in which it has a considerable trade. It is 60 m sw Teheran.

SAVATOPOLI, or SEBASTOPOLIS, a town of Asia, Mingrelia, anciently called Dioscurias, on the borders of Russia, on the Black-sea, 220 m wNw Teflis: Lg. 42.45 E, Lt. 44.10 N.

SAVAGE-ISLE, an island of Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, 35 m in circuit, discovered by Cook in 1774, of a rounded form, covered with trees, shrubs, &c. It received this name from the rude and inhospitable behaviour of the inhabitants, who were stout well-made men, naked except round the waist; some of them had their face, breast, and thighs painted: Lg. 169.30 w, Lt. 19.2 s.

SAVANNAH, a seaport and county-town of North America, United States, state Georgia, Chatham county, on a high sandy bluff, on the s side of the Savannah, 17 m from its mouth, 167 m Milledgeville, 662 Washington. It is the largest town and only port of importance in the state. Vessels drawing 14 feet ascend to the town, but larger vessels stop 3 m below. chief exports are live stock, maize, rice, tobacco, indigo, flour, sago, tar, naval stores, canes, leather, and deer skins; P. 7303 in 1830: Lg. 81.3 w, Lt. 32.2 N.


SAVENAY, a town of France, department Loire-Inferieure, 18 m Nw Nantes, and 32 w Ancenis; P. 1845.

SAVENDROOG, a fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Mysore, on the top of a rock, rising

min perpendicular height, from a base of above 8 m in circuit, and divided at the summit by a chasm that forms it into two hills; these having each its particular defences, serve as two citadels, capable of being maintained independently of the lower works, which are also very strong. The British took it by storm, in 1791, without the loss of a man. It is 54 m NE Seringapatam.

SAVERDUN, a town of France, department Arriege, 25 m SSE Toulouse.

SAVERNE, a town of France, department Bas-Rhine, at the foot of the Vosges, produces plenty of wine, 18 m wNw Strasburg; P. 5106.

SAVIGLIANO, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, with a rich Benedictine abbey, in a fertile plain, 30 m s Turin.

SAVONA, a town of Sardinia, duchy of Genova, with two castles, and several fine churches. The Genovese, fearing that it would hurt their trade, ruined the harbour, and rendered it unfit for large vessels. It was taken by the king of Sardinia in 1746, restored in 1748, taken by the French in 1795, and by them surrendered to the Austrians in 1800, through famine. It is seated on the Mediterranean, 24 m wsw Genova.


SAVONIERS, a town of France, department Indre-et-Loire, near which caverns famous for their petrifactions. It is 8 m sw Tours.

SAVOY, a duchy of Italy, Sardinia, 50 m long by 40; bounded on the N by Swit zerland, E by Piedmont, s by the same and France, and w by France. The air is cold on account of high mountains, which are almost always covered with snow; but the valleys are fertile in corn and wine, and many of the mountains yield pasture for a vast number of cattle. The lakes abound in fish; the principal rivers are the Isere, Arc, and Arve. The Savoyards, from the

nature of their country, are generally very poor, and great numbers of them seek a livelihood in France, England, and other countries in the quality of showmen, &c. The French subdued this country in 1792; they were expelled by the Austrians and Russians in 1799, but regained possession the following year. In 1814 it was re

stored to the king of Sardinia, who, at the congress of Vienna, ceded to Switzerland the districts of Chablais and Faucigny, which now form a part of the canton of Geneva. Chambery is the capital.

SAX, a town of Spain, province Murcia, near which is an ancient citadel on the summit of a rock. It stands on the Elda, on the borders of Valencia, 25 m wNw Alicant, 42 NNE Murcia.

SAX, a town of Switzerland, canton Zurich, with a castle, 14 m s Rheineck.

SAXENBURG, a town of Austria, in Carinthia, near which are 3 forts and a strong pass. It stands on the Drave, 38 m w Clagenfurt: Lg. 13.12 E, Lt. 46.44 N.

SAXMUNDHAM, a town of England, county Suffolk, with a market on Thursday, on a hill, 20 m NE Ipswich and 89 London; P. 1048. Polling-place.

SAXONY, UPPER, obsolete, a circle of Germany, bounded on the E by Prussia, Poland, and Lusatia, s by Bohemia and Franconia, w by the circles of Upper Rhine and Lower Saxony, and N by the latter and the Baltic. It contained 31,500 square m, and included the duchy of Saxony, the margravate of Misnia, the landgravate of Thuringia, the principalities of Brandenberg, Merseburg, Nauburg, Anhalt, Coburg, and Querfurt, the counties of Barby, Mansfeld, Henneberg, Schwartzburg, Stolberg, and Hohenstein, and the duchy of Pomerania.

SAXONY, LOWER, the name of one of the former divisions of Germany, called Circles, bounded E by Upper-Saxony, s by the same and the circle of Upper-Rhine, w by Westphalia and the German-ocean, and N by Jutland and the Baltic. It contained 17,950 square m, and included the duchies of Magdeburg, Bremen, Brunswick, Lüneburg, Holstein, Lauenburg, and Mecklenburg; the principalities of Halberstadt, Ratzeburg, and Hildesheim; and the free cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and Lübec.


SAXONY, a kingdom of Europe, erected a kingdom in 1807, and then consisted of the duchy of Saxony, the margravates of Lusatia and Misnia, the greater part of Thuringia, and part of the counties of Mansfeld and Henneberg; beside other cessions from Prussia, both in Germany and Poland, by the treaty of Tilsit. But in 1815, at the congress of Vienna, the kingdom was reduced to the territories of Upper


Lusatia, Misnia, and Voigtland; and the king was to continue to bear the titles of margrave of Upper-Lusatia, landgrave of Thuringia, and count of Henneberg; P. 1,237,000. The capital is Dresden.

SAYBROOK, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, Middlesex county, with a fort; the most ancient town in the state; situated near the mouth of the Connecticut, 18 m w by s New-London: Lg. 25 w, Lt. 41.20 N.

SAYCOCK, Asia, one of the islands of Japan, divided from Niphon by a narrow channel. The Dutch factors are permitted to reside in the little island of Disnia, on the w of this: Lg. 132.28 E, Lt. 34.0 N.

SAYN, a town and castle of Prussia, 'province Westfalen, 6 m N ̊ Coblenz, and 50 Nw Frankfurt.

SAYPAN, Asia, one of the Ladroneislands, 40 m in circuit, and the most fertile of them all. On the w side is a safe port called Cantanhitda: Lg. 146.10 E, Lt. 15.22 N.

SCAFELL, a mountain of England, county Cumberland, 9 m NE Ravenglass. It is one of the highest in England, and has 2 summits; the low point 3092, and the high point 3166 feet above the level of the sea. The Mite and Esk flow from it, and contribute to form the harbour of Ravenglass.

SCAGEN, a town of Denmark, in North Jutland, on a promontory of the same name, at the entrance of the passage from the ocean into the Categat. At the extremity of the promontory, called by British seamen the Scaw, is a lighthouse. It is 54 m NNE Alburg: Lg. 10.0 E, Lt. 57.38 N.

SCALANOVA, a seaport of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, with a castle. The trade consists chiefly in wine, raisins, corn, and leather. It is 40 m SSE Smyrna : Lg. 27.31 E, Lt. 37.54 N.

SCALEA, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Citra, formerly a large city, but situated now greatly decayed; on the w coast, 25 m SE Policastro: Lg. 15.54 E, Lt. 40.0 N.


SCARBOROUGH, a seaport and borough of England, county North-York, 40 m NE York, and 214 N London, with a market on Thursday and Saturday; returns 2 M.P. Situated in the recess of a beautiful bay, near a high rocky promontory that has such craggy sides as to be almost inaccessible towards the sea. On the top of this rock is a green plain, with a well of fresh water, and the remains of a castle, built by Henry II. The town is much frequented on account of its mineral waters, and for sea-bathing; and is much engaged in the fisheries.


harbour is good, with a commodious quay, several ship-yards, and a strong battery; P. 8760 Lg. 0.10 w, Lt. 54.18 N. Pollingplace.

SCARBOROUGH, a town and fort of North America, West-Indies, on the SE side of the island of Tobago, of which it is the capital: Lg. 60.30 w, Lt. 11.6 N.

SCARDONA, a town of Europe, Turkey, Dalmatia, 35 m wNw Spalatro.

SCARLINO, a town of Tuscany, with a castle, on the sea-coast, 5 m s Massa.

SCARPANTO, Turkey, an island in the Mediterranean, 18 m long by 6, sw of Rhodes; mountainous and rocky, abounds in cattle and game, and has quarries of marble. The inhabitants are Greeks; and the principal town on the w coast has a good harbour: Lg. 27.40 E, Lt. 35.45 N.

SCARPERIA, a town of Italy, Tuscany, celebrated for its steel manufactures, 13 m N Florence.

SCAURO, the capital of the island of Santorin, kingdom of Greece, department Cyclades, and the see of a Latin bishop, on a lofty volcanic rock, which projects into the road, on the w coast of the island: Lg. 25.26 E, Lt. 36.28 N.

SCHABRAN, a small town of Asia, Persian Armenia, near the w coast of the Caspian sea, left bank of the Balbola: Lg. 66.50 E, Lt. 41.15 N.

SCHAFFHAUSEN, a canton of Switzerland, 15 m long by 10, bounded w and N by Baden, E by the canton of Zurich and the district of Constance, and s by the same and Thurgau. The reformation was introduced here in 1529, and the religion is Calvinism. The country abounds in vineyards, and affords but little corn; so that the latter is procured from Baden in exchange for wine; P. 28,560.

SCHAFFHAUSEN, the capital of Schaffhausen-canton, on the Rhine, 22 m N by E Zurich, and 39 E Basel, and owes its origin to the interruption of the navigation of that river by the cataract at Lauffen. Though a frontier town, it has no garrison; it had a celebrated wooden bridge over the Rhine, which was burnt by the French, when they evacuated the town, after being defeated by the Austrians, in 1799.

SCHAMACHI, Asia, the capital of Schirvan, surrounded by a wall and a deep ditch, in a plain on the Aksui, 120 m s Derbend, and 250 NE Tabriz. It has manufactures of silk and cotton, and is supplied with most Russian commodities: Lg. 48:30 E, Lt. 40.20 N.

SCHAMKOR, a small town of North Armenia, Asia, on the small river Schamkor, which falls into the Kur, about 90 m SE Tefflis.

SCHANDAW, a town of Saxony, frequented for its medicinal springs. It extends along the right bank of the Elbe, at the foot of impending rocks, 22 m ESE Dresden.

SCHARDING, a town of Bavaria, province Unter-Donau, with a fortified castle, on the Inn, 7 m s Passau.

SCHARNITZ, a fortified-town of Austria, in Tyrol, which defends a pass over the mountains, of considerable importance. It surrendered to the French and Bavarians in 1805; on the confines of Bavaria, 12 m x Inspruc.

SCHAUENBURG-LIPPE, a small principality, bounded N by Hannover, E and s by Hesse-Cassel, and w by Prussia. It is mountainous and woody, but fertile; has quarries of lime-stone, and mines of alum

rock, coal, copper, and iron. Bükeburg is the capital.

SCHEIBENBERG, a town of Saxony, near which are mines of silver and iron, 22 m s Chemnitz.

SCHELESTAT, or SCHLESTAT, a fortified town of France, department Haut-Rhine, on the Ill, 20 m sw Strasburg.

SCHELLENBERG, a town of Saxony, frequently called Augustusburg, from a castle Schellenberg, close by the town, on the of that name standing on the mountain of Zschopa, 8 m E Chemnitz.

SCHELLENBURG, a town of Bavaria, where a victory was obtained by the allies over the French and Bavarians, in 1704. It is 12 m w Neuburg.

SCHELLING, an island of Holland, 12 m long by 3, at the entrance of the Zuider-zee: Lg. 5.0 E, Lt. 53.20 N.

SCHEMNITZ, a town of Austria, Hungary, with 3 castles, famous for mines of silver and other metals, and for hot baths. Here is a college for students in mineralogy, which has a spacious chemical laboratory. All the imperial mines are connected by a subterraneous passage of above 3 m in length. It is situated in the bosom of a mountainous country, 94 m E by N Presburg; P. 24,000: Lg. 18.59 E, Lt. 48.27 x.

SCHENCK, a fortress of Holland, province Gelderland, in the angle where the Rhine divides into 2 branches, the Rhine and the Waal; it is of great importance, as the centre of communication between Holland and Germany, 13 m ENE Nymeguen.

SCHENECTADY, 2 in North America, United States, state New-York:-1st, a county; P. 13,081 in 1820, and 12,334 in 1830. 2nd, a county-town, Schenectady county, w side of the Mohawk above the falls, 15 m Nw Albany, and 391 Washington; has a seminary called Union-college; trades with the interior; P. 4258 in 1830,

SCHENINGEN, a town of the duchy of Brunswick, near which is a Lutheran convent, and a salt-mine, 18 m E Wolfenbuttle.

SCHENNIS, a town of Switzerland, canton St.-Gall. Here is a chapter of noble canonesses, who are allowed to leave the convent to marry. Situated on the Limmat, 18 m N by w Glaris.

SCHERMBECK, a post-village of Prussia, province Cleve-Jülich-berg, near the Lippe, 12 m by post-road ENE Wesel, post-road to Münster.


SCHEVELING, a large and beautiful village of Holland, province South-Holland, 2 m N of the Hague.

SCHIEDAM, a town of Holland, province South-Holland, formerly celebrated for its numerous distilleries of geneva. Situated

on a canal, called the Schie, which communicates with the Maas, 6 m w by s Rotterdam.

SCHILLERSLAGE, a post-town of Hannover, province Lüneburg, 3 German m by post-road Hannover, post-road to Lüneburg. SCHINZKNACH, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern. Here are tepid

mineral waters; and near it, on a lofty eminence, the remains of the famous castle of Hapsburg. Situated on the Aar, 10 m w Baden, and 20 SE Basel.


SCHIRVAN, a province of Asia, Persia, bounded by Daghestan, E and SE by the Caspian-sea, sw by Aderbijan, and w by Georgia. The soil produces abundance of rice, wheat, and barley, and feeds many cattle. The vines are planted along the hedges, and fastened to the trees. This country has also abundance of silk, cotton, and timber. Schamachi is the capital.

SCHLACKENWALD, a town of Austria, Bohemia, in the circle of Saatz, with an excellent tin-mine, 5 m s Carlsbad.

SCHLADEN, a town of Hannover, province Hildesheim, 28 m ESE Hildesheim.

SCHLAWA, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, 18 m N Glogaw.

SCHMALKALDEN, a post-town of Germany, Hesse-Cassel, on a small river of the same name; has salt and iron mines, the latter is converted into steel and various articles. Here, in 1531, the Protestants formed their celebrated league: 21 m sw Gotha, post-road to Würzburg; P. 4820.

SCHMALENBERG, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, 14 m E Altendorn.

SCHMIEDEBERG, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, at the foot of a mountain, near the source of the Bauber, 25 m wsw Schweidnitz. The vicinity abounds in iron ore, and almost all the inhabitants are smiths.

SCHMIEDEBERG, a town of Saxony, 14 m s Dresden.

SCHMIEDEBERG, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, noted for excellent beer, 13 m s Wittenburg.

SCHNEEBERY, a post-town of Saxony, on an eminence near the left bank of the Mulda; has manufactures of smalt, thread, silk, and gold and silver lace; near silvermines, 53 m sw Dresden; P. 4400.

America, United States, state New York, SCHOHARIE, a county-town of North Schoharie county, on the Schoharie, which runs N into the Mohawk, 40 m w Albany; P. 5146.

SCHÖNBECK, a town and castle of Prussia, province Sachsen, with some salt-works; situated on the Elbe, 10 m SE Magdeburg. SCHÖNECK, a town of Saxony, 15 m sɛ Plauen.

SCHÖNECK, a town of Prussia, province West-Preussen, belonging to the knights of the Teutonic order, 20 m ssw Dantzig.

SCHONEN, OF SCANIA, a former name of a province of Sweden, in Gothland, almost surrounded by the Sound and the Baltic, 70 m long by 50; now forms the modern provinces of Christianstadt and Malmshus.

SCHONGAU, a town of Bavaria, province Izar, surrounded by a plain wall and some towers. The great square has 3 fountains of a kind of marble, the product of the country. It stands on the s side of an eminence, by the Lech, 14 m s Landsburg,

SCHLAWE, a town of Prussia, province and 40 sw München. Pommern, 10 m wsw Stolpe.

SCHLEUSINGEN, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, with a castle, 18 m SE Schmalkalden, and 19 NNE Schweinfurt. SCHIEIZ, a town of the principality of Reusse, with a castle, 13 m Nw Plauen.

SCHLUCHTERN, a post-town of HesseCassel, near the source of the Kinsig, 42 m NE Frankfurt, post-road to Leipzig. SCHLÜSSELBURG, Prussia; see CHLüs


SCHONOVEN, a town of Holland, province South-Holland, with a commodious haven, celebrated for its gardens and salmon fishery, on the Leck, 14 E by N Rotterdam.

SCHÖNAU, a post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, 20 m by post-road sw Leignitz, post-road to Schmiedeberf; P. 1400.

SCHONSTEDT, a post-town of HesseCassel, 43 m sw Cassel, post-road to Frankfurt.

SCHORNDORF, a town of Würtemburg,

with a strong castle. Here are salt springs, from which much salt is made. It is 17 m ESE Stuttgart.

SCHOUTEN'S-ISLAND, an island of Australasia, Pacific-ocean, 60 m long by 20, near the N coast of New-Guinea, discovered by Schouten, a Dutchman, in 1616: Lg. 136.30 E, Lt. 0.50 s.

SCHOUWEN, an island of Holland, forming the N part of Zealand, at the mouth of the Scheld. It is 15 m long by 6. Zieriekzee is the capital.

SCHRATTENTHAL, a town and castle of Austria, on the frontiers of Moravia, 9 m ssw Znaim.

SCHURGARST, a post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the Neisse, 38 m by post-road SE Breslau.

SCHWAAN, a post-town of Duchy-Mecklenburg, 11 m NNW Güstow, post-road to Rostock.

SCHWABACH, a town of Bavaria, province Rezat, with numerous manufactures, 10 m s Nürnberg.

SCHWALBACH, a town of the principality of Nassau, frequented for its mineral waters, on the Aa, 32 m w Frankfurt.

SCHWALLUNGEN, a small post-village of Germany, Gotha, Meiningen, on the Werra, 70 m by post-road sw Gotha, postroad to Würzburg.

SCHWANENSTADT, a town of Austria, near which the French gained a decisive victory over the Austrians in 1800. It is situated on the Ager, 25 m sw Lintz.

SCHEVANEBECK, a small post-town of Prussia, province Sachsen, 7 m by postroad NE by N Halberstadt.

SCHWARZBURG, an ancient castle of the principality of Schwarzburg. The county is divided into 2 parts, the upper and lower, of which Rudolstadt and Sondershausen are the chief towns. Situated on the Schwartz, 7 m sw Rudolstadt.

SCHWARZENBURG, a town of Saxony, with wire and lace manufactures, also ironforges, and mines of tin and lead; 10 m wsw Annaberg.

SCHWARZENBURG, a town of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern, 10 m Friburg, and 17 ssw Bern.


SCHWARZENFELD, a town of Bavaria, province Regen, on the Schwarzach, 14 m WNW Neunburg.

SCHWAZ, a town of Austria, in Tyrol, with a silver and copper-mine; situated on the Inn, 14 m NE Inspruc.

SCHWEDT, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, with a magnificent castle, on the Oder, 24 m SE Prenzlio.

SCHWEIDNITZ, a city of Prussia, pro

vince Silesia, with a castle. Half of the mágistrates are catholics, but most of the inhabitants are protestants, who have a church without the town, as also a public school. All kinds of leather are manufactured here. In 1716 the greatest part of the city was burnt down, but was rebuilt in an elegant manner. In 1755 the Austrians took it from the Prussians, who retook it the next year. Situated on an eminence, by the Weistritz, 22 m sw Breslau: Lg. 16.32 E, Lt. 50.44 N.

SCHWEINFURT, a post-town of Ger. many, Bavaria, Franconia, province LowerMayn, with a palace; has a trade in wine, woollen cloth, goose-quills, and feathers; on the N side of the Mayn, 19 m NE Würz burg, post-road to Gotha.


SCHWEITZ, a canton of Switzerland, bounded on the N by Zurich and Zug, E by Glaris, s by Uri, and w by the WaldstadterThis canton, with that of Uri and Underwalden, threw off the yoke of Austria in 1308; and they formed a perpetual alliance in 1315, which was the grand foundation of the Helvetic confederacy. The name of Schweitzerland, or Switzerland, which originally comprehended only these 3 cantons, was afterward extended to all Helvetia. It derived that appellation, either from the canton of Schweitz, as being the most distinguished by the revolution of 1308, or because the Austrians called all the inhabitants of these mountainous parts by the general denomination of Schweitzers. The cantons of Schweitz and Uri have the same kind of soil, and the same productions. The whole country being rugged and mountainous, consists chiefly of pasture, raises little corn, and has no wine; but this soil, naturally barren, has been improved by the natives to a great degree of fertility. The Roman-catholic religion is here exclusively established; P. 36,390.

SCHWEITZ, Switzerland, the capital of canton Schweitz, near the Waldstadter-see, on the slope of a hill, at the bottom of 2 high and rugged rocks, called the Schweitzer Haken. Here are 2 churches, 2 convents, an arsenal, and a mint. It is 18 m E by s Lucern: Lg. 8.31 E, Lt. 46.56 N.

SCHWELM, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, near which are medicinal springs, 28 m E by N Düsseldorf.

SCHWERIN, the capital of the duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. It is divided into 4 parts; namely, Schwerin, the New-Town, the island-of-Schelf, and the Moor, which are all nearly encircled by a beautiful lake. Schwerin was the seat of a count, which title is still borne by the grand dukes of Mecklenburg. The principal church is a fine Gothic pile, with a lofty spire. The ducal palace and gardens are on an island

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