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in the lake, and have a communication with the town by a drawbridge. It is 35 m wsw Güstrow: Lg. 11.33 E, Lt. 53.56 N.

SCHWERTE, Prussia, province Westfalen, on the Ruhr, 7 m s Dortmund.

SCHWEITZINGEN, a small town of Baden, 6 m w of Heidelberg, visited on account of its palace and beautiful gardens.

SCHWINBURG, a town of Denmark, on the s coast of the island-of-Fünen, with the best harbour in the island, and manufactures of woollen and linen. It is 23 m SSE Odensee: Lg. 10.30 E, Lt. 55.10 N.


SCIATI, or SKIATHOS, a Turkish island of the Archipelago, 14 m NNE of Negropont, and almost at the entrance of the gulfof-Salonica, 10 m long by 4: Lg. 23.32 E, Lt. 39.10 N.

SCIGLIO, a town of Naples, in CalabriaUltra, on the side of a rocky promontory, called Scylla, or cape-Sciglio. In the terrible earthquake of 1783 the sea was thrown furiously 3 m inland, and on its return swept off the prince of Sciglio, with 2473 of the inhabitants, who, hoping to find security, were then on the Scylla strand or in the boats near the shore. It is 10 m N by E Reggio.


SCILLY, a group of isles or shoals of Australasia, in the Pacific-ocean, discovered by captain Wallis in 1767, and described as very dangerous: Lg. 155.30 w, Lt. 16.30 s.

SCIND, or SINDE; see RIVER-INDUS. SCIO, or CHIO, Asia, a Turkish island of the Archipelago, near the coast of Natolia, NW of Samos, 36 m long by 13; mountainous, yet various kinds of fruit grow in the fields, such as oranges, citrons, olives, mulberries, and pomegranates, interspersed with myrtles and jasmines. The wine of Scio, so celebrated by the ancients, is still in great esteem; but the island is now principally distinguished by the profitable culture of mastic; it has also some trade in silk, cotton, and figs. The Turks took it from the Genovese in 1566. Beside the town of Scio it contains 68 villages, all inhabited by Greeks; and those that furnish mastic are the most rich and populous; P. variously estimated from 100,000 to 150,000.

SCIO, a seaport and capital of the island of Scio, and a bishop's see. It is the best built town in the Archipelago; the houses being commodious, some of them terraced, and others covered with tiles. The castle is an old citadel, built by the Genovese, in which the Turks have a garrison. The harbour is a rendezvous for ships that go to or come from Constantinople: it can contain 80 vessels, is protected by a mole, and has 2 light-houses. Situated on the E side of the island, 67 m w Smyrna: Lg. 26.12 E, Lt. 38.26 N.

SCIPIO, a town of North America, United States, state New-York, Cayuga county, on the E side of Cayuga-lake, 59 m w Cooperstown; P. 2691 in 1830.

SCILLY, a cluster of 38 isles and numerous rocks at the entrance of the English and St.-George channels, lying 9 leagues w of the Land's-end, in Cornwall. these only 6 are inhabited, which are, in the order of their size, called St.-Mary, Tresco, St.-Martin, St.-Agnes, Bryher, and Samson. They are a resort for seafowl, and feed some small oxen, sheep, and hogs. The inhabitants principally subsist by fishing, gathering sea-weeds, making kelp, and acting as pilots. The chief isle, St.-Mary, is 2 m long by 1; it has a good port, and is fortified. On this isle, and two or three others, are various antiquities, particularly the remains of a Druidical temple and ancient sepulchres. Tresco has some remains of an abbey, on the sw side of a fine pool of fresh water; and the rocks around this isle are noted for producing abundance SCITUATE, 2 in North America, United of the finest samphire. On the w side of States:-1st, a town, state Massachusetts, St.-Agnes is a lighthouse, 52 feet high, and Plymouth county; a harbour on an inlet in a fine conical tower, surmounted by a lanMassachusetts-bay, 15 m N Plymouth; tern 20 feet high. At the point of the P. 3470.-2nd, a town of state RhodeE extremity of St.-Martin is a white seamark, as conspicuous by day as the light- Island, Providence county; has a foundry for cannon and bells; 11 m ssw Providence; P. 6853; both in 1830.

house on St.-Agnes, but not so high and large. The Scilly rocks have been fatal to many ships entering the English-channel. One of the most disastrous events of this kind happened in 1707, when 3 men-of-war perished, with admiral sir Cloudesley Shovel and all their crews; P. of St.-Agnes, 289; of St.-Martin's, 230; of Bryher, 128; of Sampson-isle, 37: Lg. 6.19 w, Lt, 49.54 N.

SCIRO, or SKYRO, an island, kingdom of Greece, one of the Cyclades, department Cyclades, 15 m long by 8, and mountainous; has excellent wine, with sufficient corn and wood. It contains only the village and convent of St. George, both on a conical rock, 10 m from the harbour of St.-George: Lg. 24.32 E, Lt. 38.54 N, of Mount-St.Elias, in the centre.

SCLAVONIA, a district of Austria, between the Drave and Danube on the N, and the Save on the s; bounded w by Croatia, from which to the conflux of the Save with the Danube it is 15 m in length, and from 25 to 45 in breadth; is fertile and level. The E part is called Ratzia, and the inhabit

ants Rascians. These form a particular nation, and are of the Greek-church. The ancient Sclavonia contained many large countries; some have extended it from the Adriatic to the Euxine-sea, and say that it had its name from the Sclavi, a Scythian nation, who conquered Greece and this country, in the reign of emperor Justinian. The language of Sclavonia is the mother of 4 others, namely, those of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland, and Russia. The principal town is Essek.

SCONE, or SCOON, a village of Scotland, E side of the Tay, 2 m N Perth. Here is a noted palace, on the site of a more ancient one, where the kings of Scotland used to be crowned, and on a celebrated stone, which is now removed to England; P. of parish

2268. See CASHEL.

SCOPIA, or USKIUB, a town of Turkey, in Macedonia, and an archbishop's see. It is celebrated for the manufacture of Morocco leather; situated on the Vardar, over which is a bridge of 12 arches, 90 m E Scutari, and 170 NNW Salonica: Lg. 21.15 E, Lt. 42.40 N.

SCOPINE, a small town of Russia, government Riazan, chief of district, on the high bank of the Verda; 59 m s Riazan, a fertile country in corn and pasture. It has 5 churches, and 2 houses of charity; P. 5643: Lg. 39.10 E, Lt. 54.15 N.

SCOPINE, a fort of Russia, government Tobolsk, belonging to the military line of Ichime, between forts St.-Peter and St.-Hanovaia, 17 m from the former, and 23 from the latter.

SCOTLAND, or NORTH BRITAIN, the N of the 2 kingdoms into which the island of Great-Britain was formerly divided; bounded on the N by the North-sea, E by the German-ocean, s by England and the Irish-sea, and w by the Atlantic-ocean. To Scotland also appertain the islands on its w coast, called the Hebrides, or Western islands, and those to the NE called the Orkney and Shetland islands. From N to s it extends 270 m, and the greatest breadth is 150, but in some places not above 30. It is situated between Lt. 54.40 and 58.40 N, but including the Shetland and Orkney islands it extends to Lt. 61.12, and between Lg. 1 and 6 w from Greenwich; but the Western islands extend much farther. Its greatest extent from N to s is 244 m.

The breadth under different parallels is various, from 147 to 70, and even to 36 m. Area of Scotland and its isles 29,600 square m, or 18,944,000 English acres, of which 5,043,450 are cultivated, and 13,900,550 uncultivated lands, besides 638 square m occupied by lakes and rivers. Scotland is divided into 34 counties, viz. Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Dumfries,

Kirkcudbright, Wigton, Ayr, Renfrew, Lanerk, Peebles, Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, Dumbarton, Clackmannan, Kinross, Fife, Forfar, Perth, Argyle, Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, Nairn, Inverness, Ross, Sutherland, Caithness, Cromarty, Orkney-islands, and Bute. These are subdivided into 877 parishes. Scotland is of a most diversified surface: in the N parts it is mostly mountainous and barren, while towards the s it extends into fertile plains. It has been separated into the 2 great divisions of the Highlands and the Lowlands, and also into the N, the middle, and the s. The first, or N division, is cut off from the middle by the chain of lakes which stretch from the MorayThe second or frith to Loch-Linnhe. middle division is separated from the s by the friths of Forth and Clyde, and the Greatcanal. The N division consists generally of an assemblage of vast and dreary mountains, with some fertile valleys intervening, chiefly towards the s and E coasts. A portion of them is clothed with green herbage, more especially when sheep-farming prevails; but in general they are covered with heath, vegetating above peat, rock, or gravel; and they frequently terminate in mountain caps of solid rock, or in vast heaps or cairns of bare and weather-beaten stones. The middle division is also very mountainous, the Grampian ranges intersecting this the Western sea, and being from 40 to 60 m district, and extending from the Eastern to in breadth. The w parts of Argyleshire, which are also included in this district, are rugged, mountainous, and deeply indented by inlets of the sea. In these 2 divisions, which comprehend more than two-thirds of Scotland, the arable ground bears but a small proportion to the mountainous regions. On the E coast, however, the country bears a greater resemblance to England, and the proportion of the cultivated to the uncultivated land is much greater. In the s division we find every variety: verdant plains, watered by copious streams, and covered with innumerable cattle; gently rising hills and bending vales, fertile in corn and wood, and interspersed with meadows, lofty mountains, craggy rocks, deep narrow dells, and tumbling torrents; nor are there wanting, as a contrast, barren moors and wild uncultivated heaths. In this district are the different ranges of the Cheviot-hills; the Sidlaw hills, terminating at Perth; the Ochil hills, forming the middle division; and a third called the hills of Kilsyth and Campsey. Between the Sidlaw ridge and the Grampian mountains lies the extensive, pleasant, and fruitful valley of Strathmore. Few countries in Europe display a greater extent of sea-coast. From Berwick, at the SE extremity of the kingdom, the coast

bends Nw to the frith-of-Forth, which is an extensive inlet of the sea. The E part of Fife divides this frith from that of Tay, whose breadth does not exceed 2 or 3 m; and N on the coast of Caithness there is a vast bay, of a triangular form, the base or E line of which is 70 m. The interior part of this bay is subdivided into the ffiths of Moray, Cromarty, and Dornoch, separated by narrow peninsulas. The N coast, between Duncansby-head and cape-Wrath, along the Pentland frith, is bold, rocky, and dangerous. Along the w shores are many openings or inlets, where the sea runs far inland, forming safe and commodious harbours. The entrance into the frith-of-Clyde is a capacious bay, bounded on the one side by Ayrshire, and on the other by Cantyre, Arran, and Bute. Thence the coast extends s to the Mull of Galloway, the sw extremity of Scotland. Between that point and the bottom of the Solway frith lie the deep bays of Wigton and Glenluce. Scotland has numerous rivers, the chief of which are, in the N division, the Beauly, Naver, Conon, &c.; in the middle division, the Spey, the Dee, the Don, and the North and the South-Esk. About 30 m farther s is the Tay, one of the largest rivers in Britain. In the s district we have the Forth, the Clyde, and the Tweed, and the numerous rivers which empty themselves into the Irish-sea and the Solwayfrith, the Ayr, the Girvan, the Southern Dee, the Nith, the Annan, and the Liddal. Besides these there are numerous other rivers and streams of inferior note. The lakes or lochs of Scotland are numerous and extensive. Scotland cannot at present boast of mines of the more precious metals. No mines are now solely wrought for silver; but the lead mines contain that metal. Ironstone, iron ore, and septaria-ironstone are abundant. Copper has been discovered in many places. The other metallic substances hitherto discovered are cobalt, bismuth, manganese, wolfram, plumbago, and mercury, the latter in very small quantities. Coal is abundant in the s and middle districts. Limestone, sandstone, and slate, are found in every district. Marbles are also found. Most of the gems and precious stones have been found among the mountains of Scotland, the diamond excepted. The Scotch-pebbles are of many beautiful hues; blue and white, red and white, and frequently to be met with of all these colours, blended together in veins, and in every gradation of shade. Jasper is also found in great variety; and rock crystal, commonly denominated cairngorm, from the mountain of that name in Banffshire; and chalcedony is found. The nature of the soil is various. There are many valleys or straths, even in the Highlands, which are exceedingly productive; and the s and

middle districts contain excellent land, and are as productive as any in the island. Scotland produces wheat, rye, barley, oats, peas, beans, hay, potatoes, turnips, &c.; flax and hemp, but in no great quantities; and, in general, all the sorts of crops which are raised in the s part of the island. Horticulture is making rapid increase in every part. Apples and other fruits are produced in abundance. Of late many extensive tracts of waste land have been planted with wood. The alga marina, or sea-weed, which grows in great luxuriance on the rocky coasts, constitutes a valuable article of commerce from the burning of it into kelp. Owing to its situation in the midst of a great ocean, and in a high N latitude, the climate of Scotland is extremely variable. From its insular situation, however, the cold in winter is not so intense, nor the heat in summer so great, as in similar latitudes on the continent. The greatest height of the thermometer that has ever yet been observed is 92 degrees of Fahrenheit, and the lowest at Edinburgh, 31st December, 1783, is 3 degrees below zero. Its ordinary range is from 84 to 8 degrees, though it seldom maintains these extremes for any length of time. The annual average temperature may be estimated at from 45 to 47 degrees. Like most other mountainous countries, it is subject to rain, especially on the w coasts. The general average quantity of rain that falls appears to be from 30 to 31 inches. The wild animals of Scotland are, the fox, the badger, the otter, the wild-cat, the hedgehog; these are now becoming scarce: the stag, wild roe, hare, rabbit, weazel, mole, and other small quadrupeds. The domestic animals are the same as those of England; but the native breed of black cattle and sheep is considerably different, being smaller in size, but reputed to afford more delicious food. Of the feathered tribe, pheasants are to be found in the woods, though scarce; also that beautiful bird called the capercailzie, or cock of the wood, now become exceedingly rare; the ptarmigan, the black game, and grouse, are abundant in the heathy mountains; and in the low grounds are partridges, snipes, plovers, &c. Scotland has also most of the English singing birds, except the nightingale. The aquatic fowls are numerous in the islands. Scotland has made great advances in all the finer manufactures. Flax and hemp are manufactured into a variety of fabrics, such as sheetings, osnaburgs, bagging, and canvas. The ma

nufacture of finer linen has fallen off in Scotland, having been partly superseded by the importation of Irish cloth. Spinning machines have now been generally introduced in different parts of Scotland. The cotton manufactures have also been carried, by means of machinery, to an astonishing

degree of extent and perfection. Muslins and other fabrics are executed in great perfection. To these have been added brocades, lappets of all sorts, imitation shawls, plain and Linoe gauzes, spidered, seeded, and numerous species of draw-loom, and other work of the most fanciful, delicate, and ornamental kinds. Immense quantities of cambrics, shirtings, sheetings, tweels, stripes, checks, pullicates, ginghams, shawls, &c. are manufactured in Scotland in a superior manner. Within these few years also cotton has been manufactured into thread, which has become an article of general use, and of which large quantities are exported to the West-Indies. Glasgow, Paisley, and the surrounding districts, are the chief seats of the cotton manufacture. Calico printing, in all its branches, is also carried to a great extent. The great ironworks established in Scotland deserve particular attention, and that at Carron, near Falkirk, is the largest manufactory in Europe. A considerable proportion of Scottish ironmongery is exported to America, the West-Indies, and other British colonies, such as anchors, bolts, waggon-axles, sugarmill gudgeons, wedges, and various articles of mill and steam-engine work, with domestic utensils of every kind, as well as hoes, axes, adzes, hammers, and similar tools. Almost all kinds of articles into which timber is manufactured are produced in great plenty and perfection in Scotland; and since the introduction of machinery to such an extent, a numerous class of workmen are occupied in making and upholding the different machinery which is at work. Coach-making, musical instrumentmaking, &c. are carried on in all the principal towns; ship-building also forms a most important branch of national industry, and dockyards for building and repairing vessels are established in the different seaports. There are manufactories of glass for all the different sorts of bottle, window, and flint glass; also of soap, candles, starch, salt, &c. There are tanneries and breweries in all of the considerable towns, and distilleries for spirits in different parts, on an extensive scale; and it may be generally remarked that almost all articles of ordinary use are manufactured in Scotland. The different fisheries have been prosecuted with great industry and success. The whale fishery to Davis' straits and Greenland at present employs a greater number of ships than at any former period. The white fishery is also prosecuted with great industry along the Moray-frith, Shetland, and the Western-islands, which bring profitable returns. The herring-fishery is carried on along the whole coast of the kingdom with great success; as also the salmon fishery in all the different rivers. From the ports on the E coast of Scotland a great

trade is carried on to Holland, Norway, Sweden, and the different states on the shores of the Baltic. This trade has greatly increased of late years. The imports principally consist of flax, hemp, yarn, linen, iron, corn, wood, tallow, and other commodities produced in these countries; and in return, colonial produce, cotton goods, and other manufactured articles, are exported. The chief shipping ports are Leith, Dundee, Arbroath, Montrose, Aberdeen, Peterhead, Banff, and Inverness. The trade with Spain, Portugal, and the Mediterranean, is carried on from Leith and other ports; and the connexion with Canada extends to all the most considerable towns on the E coast of Scotland. The commerce of the w coast centres almost entirely in the Clyde, which is the grand emporium of the American, West-Indian, and South American trade. Several vessels have sailed from Greenock, to carry on the trade to India. The inhabitants of Scotland may be divided into 2 great classes, viz. Highlanders and Low. landers. The language, dress, and customs of these 2 classes are very different. The language of the Highlanders is that species of the Celtic called in Scotland Gaelic or Erse. The ancient dress of the Highlanders is fast giving way to a more modern costume, although it is still retained in many places, and often worn by gentlemen on particular occasions. It is formed of woollen stuff, checkered with different colours, well known by the name of tartan. dress is said to bear some resemblance to that of the ancient Romans. The inhabitants of the low country more resemble the English in their dress and manners, though in the country parts some peculiarities remain. The language of the low country is English, with a mixture of the Scotch, which, however, in the ordinary dialect of the better classes more especially, is fast giving way to the English. The Presbyterian system of religion was established in Scotland by act of Parliament, in 1696, and was afterwards secured in the treaty of union. This system is founded on a parity of ecclesiastical authority among all its presbyters, excluding all pre-eminence of order, all its ministers being held equal in rank and power. It is also exceedingly simple in its forms, admitting of no outward splendour or cere mony, nor of any of those aids to devotion which are supposed to be derived from painting or music. There are in Scotland 839 parishes, and 938 established clergymen, who discharge the duties of the pastoral office in their several parishes. They are assisted by elders, who are selected from their congregation, for the propriety of their conduct; these, with the minister, compose a kirk session, which is the lowest ecclesiastical judicature in Scotland. The mi.


nisters of several contiguous parishes constitute what is called a presbytery, which has cognizance of the conduct of the clergy, and of all ecclesiastical matters within its bounds. Synods form the next gradation in the scale of ecclesiastical judicature. They are composed of several presbyteries, and of a ruling elder from every kirk-session within their bounds. They are courts of appeal, and review the procedure of the presbyteries. The general assembly, which is a representative body, consists of delegates from presbyteries, universities, and royal boroughs, in the following proportions, namely, for the presbyteries 200 ministers and 89 elders; for royal boroughs 67 elders; and from the universities 5 ministers or elders; in all 361. Besides the Presby terians, the established religion, there are numerous dissenters, namely, the Episcopalians, Burghers and Antiburghers, Quakers, Bereans, Baptists, Glassites, &c. There are Catholic-churches in the principal towns, and in the N parts of Scotland this religion has not been entirely superseded by the reformation. In no country is there, perhaps, such ample provision for education as in Scotland. An act, passed in the reign of William and Mary, ordains that there shall be a school, and a schoolmaster, in every parish. These establishments, in which are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, and also Latin and Greek, have been attended with the happiest effects, having spread the spirit of improvement among all classes. Scotland has also 4 universities, namely, at Edinburgh, St. Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen. The ancient constitution of Scotland was superseded at the time of the union with England. In the parliament of England the Scotch nobility are represented by 16 peers. In the House of Commons the freeholders of the counties, amounting to about 2429, are represented by 30 commissioners or knights of the shire. The royal burghs, which are 65 in number, exclusive of the city of Edinburgh, which sends 1 member, are divided into 14 districts, which return as many members, elected by a delegate from each burgh. Scotland, however, still retains her own ancient laws and institutions. Civil and criminal justice is administered by the College of Justice, instituted by James V in 1532, after the model of the French parliament. It is the highest court in Scotland, and consists of a president, and 14 ordinary lords. In 1807 the Court of Session was formed into 2 divisions: the first, consisting of 7 members, under the lord president; the second division, under the lord justice clerk, consisting of 6 members. In 1815 a jury court was established under a lord chief commissioner, and 2 other commissioners, for the trial of civil cases. The Court of Justiciary is the highest cri

minal court in Scotland. The Court of Exchequer has the same powers, privileges, jurisdictions, and authority over the revenue of Scotland, as that of England over the revenue of England. In the High-Court of Admiralty there is only one judge, who is the king's lieutenant and justice-general upon the seas, and in all ports and harbours. He has a jurisdiction in all maritime causes; and by prescription he has acquired a jurisdiction in mercantile causes not maritime. The Commissary Court consists of 4 judges, nominated by the crown, and has an original jurisdiction in questions of marriage and divorce, and reviews the decrees of local commissary courts. Besides the above national judges, every county has a chief magistrate, called a sheriff, whose jurisdiction extends to certain criminal cases, and to all civil matters, which are not, by special law or custom, appropriated to other courts. In cases of inferior importance, also, the magistrates of cities and royal burghs have a jurisdiction which is subject to the review of the sheriff. Scotland was first visited by the Roman troops under Agricola, who penetrated to the foot of the Grampian mountains. It was afterwards the prey of hostile tribes, and was exposed to the ravages of the Norwegians and Danes, with whom many bloody battles were fought. Various contests were also maintained with the kings of England. Robert Bruce, however, secured the independence of the country, and his title to the throne, by the decisive battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He was succeeded by his nephew Robert Stewart, and he by his eldest son Robert. He being a weak prince, the reins of government were seized by the duke of Albany, who stoned to death the eldest son of the king. James, his second son, to escape a similar fate, fled to France; in the year 1424 he returned to Scotland; and having excited the jealousy of the nobility, he was assassinated in a monastery near Perth. James II, his son, an infant prince, succeeded him in 1437. He was killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of the castle of Roxburgh. James III ascended the throne at the age of 7 years. His reign was weak and inglorious; and he was murdered in the house of a miller, whither he had fled for protection. James IV, a generous and brave prince, began his reign in 1488. was slain at the battle of Flodden. James V, an infant of less than two years of age, succeeded to the crown. He died in 1542, and was succeeded by his daughter, the celebrated Queen Mary, whose history and tragical end are well known. She was succeeded by her son James, who, in 1603, ascended the throne of England, vacant by the death of Queen Elizabeth, when the 2 kingdoms were united into 1 great mo


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