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narchy; P. 1,805,688 in 1811, and 2,365,807 in 1831.

SCOURIE, a town of Scotland, on the w coast of county Sutherland, and the s side of a commodious bay, to which it gives name, 56 m NW Dornoch: Lg. 4.52 w, Lt. 58.24 N.

SCUTARI, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Albania, capital of a pachalic, a bishop's see, with a castle on a rock. It has 4 suburbs, and a considerable trade. The chief manufacture is morocco leather. Seated on lake-Labeatis, near its outlet, the Bojana, 64 m N by w Durazzo: Lg. 19.16 E, Lt. 42.33 N.

SCUTARI, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, considered as a suburb of Constantinople, though in Asia; on the strait-ofConstantinople, opposite that city, and presents itself like an amphitheatre, affording a picturesque view from the mixture of trees, houses, mosques, and minarets. The superb mosque of Selim III is a noble edifice. Scutari serves as an emporium and a rendezvous to the caravans of Asia, and has some manufactures of silk and cotton stuffs. Here are extensive burying grounds wooded with cypresses, overshadowing innumerable tombs. The Turks of Constantinople prefer being interred here; for they consider Asia as a land belonging to the true believers, and opine that the land of Europe will one day fall into the hands of Christians, and be trampled by infidels. Scutari is 1 m E Constantinople.

SCVIRA, a town of Russia, government Kiew, chief of district, on the Svira, 77 m Kiew.

SCYLLA, a rock of Italy, near the entrance of the strait of Messina, on the coast of Calabria, opposite the celebrated Charybdis. It forms a small promontory in the narrowest part of the strait, and is the famed Scylla of the ancient poets. It does not come up to the formidable description given by Homer, nor is the passage so narrow and difficult as he represents it; but possibly the breadth has greatly increased since his time. The rock is nearly 200 feet high; and on the side of it stands the town of Sciglio, whence the promontory is sometimes called cape-Sciglio.

SEAFORD, a town of England, county Sussex, near the English-channel, 10 m SSE Lewes, and 60 s by E London, one of the Cinque-Ports. Its fort is in a state of defence; has no market, and its trade and harbour are now of little consequence; P. 1098.

SEARA, a province of South America, Brazil, 400 m long by 300; bounded on the N by the Atlantic, w by Rio-Grande, Parahiba, and Pernambuco, s by the latter, and w by Piauhy. Its extensive coast is

in general flat and sandy, and has no port for the reception of large vessels; its commerce is by coasting vessels, principally with Maranhao. The interior has hills covered with extensive woods, which contain the best pines in all Brazil; it also produces honey and cotton, and abounds in cattle. Its numerous rivers are fordable, or overflow, as the rains are less or more abundant.

SEARA, a capital of South America, province Seara, with a fort on a sand-hill close to the town. It stands near the sea, 7 m from the mouth of the Seara, but has no harbour, and the beach is unsafe to land upon: Lg. 39.20 w, Lt. 3.30 s.

SEATON, a town of Scotland, county Hadington, on the frith-of-Forth, 9 m E Edinburgh; a ruinous palace, in which queen Mary occasionally kept her court. It has a considerable trade in salt and coal.

SEBASTIA, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, in Palestine; remains of the ancient city of Samaria, 34 m NNW Jerusalem.


SEBEGE, a town of Russia, government Vitebsk, chief of district, between the two lakes Sébége and Vorone, 141 m N Vitebsk, founded in 1535 by order of the tzar Ivan Vassilievich ; 4 fairs; P. 1600: one-half Jews.

SEBENICO, a seaport of Italy, Austria, kingdom of Illyria, Dalmatia, and a bishop's see, with a fort and castle. The cathedral is magnificent, and its roof is composed of large flat pieces of marble. It is seated in the gulf-of-Venice, 40 m NW Spalatro: Lg. 15.53 E, Lt. 43.55 N.

SEBOURG, a town of France, department du-Nord, 5 m E Valenciennes.


SECHELLES, or MAHEE-ISLANDS, a group of islands of Asia, in the Indianocean, only 3 of which, Mahe, Praslin, and La-Digne, are inhabited: Lg. 55 to 56 E, Lt. 4 to 5 s.

SECHURA, a town of South America, Peru, inhabited by Indians, who are chiefly employed in fishing or driving mules. Here commences a sandy desert, which extends 80 m s. It stands on the Sechura, 3 m from the ocean, and 180 NNW Truxillo : Lg. 81.10 w, Lt. 5.55 s.

SECKINGEN, a town of Baden, the smallest of the 4 Forest-towns, on an isle formed by the Rhine, over which is a bridge, 18 m E Basel; a convent of noble nuns, whose abbess was a princess of the empire.

SECKINGTON, a village of England, County Warwick, 3 m NE Tamworth, famous for a battle between Cuthred, king

of the West-Saxons, and Ethelbald, king of the Mercians. On the N of the church is the ruin of a fort, and near it an artificial hill, 45 feet high; P. of parish 129.

SEDAN, a fortified town of France, department Ardennes. It is deemed one of the keys of the country; has a strong castle, arsenal, foundry of cannon, and a manufacture of fine cloth. The celebrated

marshal Turenne was born in the castle. It is seated on the Meuse, 12 m E by s Mezieres, and 135 NE Paris; P. 13,661.

SEDBERG, a town of England, WestYorkshire, near the Rother, on the borders of Westmoreland, 11 m E Kendal, and 265 NW London, with a market on Wednesday, an amply endowed free-grammar school, and 2 cotton mills; P. 4711.

SEDGEFIELD, a village of England, county Durham, 9 m SSE Durham; P. 1429. Polling-place.

SEEBAH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, capital of a small woody district, and fortified; on a rivulet that nows into the Beyah, 100 m E by s Lahore: Lg. 75.34 E, Lt. 31.39 N.

SEELAND; see ZEELAND. SEELOW, a post-town Prussia, province Brandenburg, 9 German m E Berlin, by post-road to Küstrin.

SEER, a seaport of Asia, Arabia, capital of a principality, province of Oman. It has a good harbour, and the navy of the prince is one of the most considerable in the gulfof-Persia, 108 m wsw Julfar: Lg. 54.38 E, Lt. 25.10 N.

SEERDHUNA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Delhi, 38 m NNE Delhi.

SEESEN, a town of the duchy of Braunschweig, 14 m sw Goslar.

SEEZ, a town of France, department Orne, in a fine country, 12 m x Alençon, and 105 w by s Paris.

SEGEBERG, a town of Denmark, in Holstein, with a castle, on a high mountain, consisting of limestone, large quantities of which are carried to Hamburg and Lübec, 15 m wNw Lübec.

SEGEDIN, a town of Austria, Hungary, capital of Tsongrad county, with a castle. The tobacco produced in the vicinity is in high esteem. It is near the Theisz, opposite the influx of the Maros, 103 m SSE Pest; P. 25,692 in 1815: Lg. 20.22 E, Lt. 46.15 N.

SEDGEMOOR, a wild track of England, county Somerset, between King's-Weston and Bridgewater, famous for the defeat of the duke of Monmouth, by the troops of James II, in 1685.

SEGESTAN, OF SEISTAN, a province of

Asia, Persia, bounded on the N by Balk, E by Cabul and Candahar, SE and s by Ballogistan, and w by Kerman and Chorasan. This country once rivalled in prosperity the most flourishing provinces of the

empire, but is now in a deplorable condition. The greater part of it is flat, sandy, and uninhabited; and during the four hot months a wind frequently blows with such violence as to overwhelm houses, gardens, and fields with clouds of sand. There are, however, many springs and rivers, the banks of which afford good pasturage, and are well cultivated in the vicinity of the towns; but many of the natives are shepherds, who wander and pitch their tents amid the ruins of ancient palaces: Zarang is the capital.

SEGESWAR, a town of Austria, Transylvania, capital of a county, 47 m N Hermanstadt.

SEGILMESSA, a town of Africa, Tafilet, chief of district, SE Mount-Atlas; abounds in corn, dates, and other fruits; has mines the Zigz, 140 m NNE Tafilet; P. of district of iron, lead, and antimony. It is seated on about 650,000: Lg. 5 w, Lt. 29.40 N.

SEGNA, a seaport of Austria, Italy, kingdom of Illyria, Dalmatia, and a bishop's see. It has 12 churches and 2 convents, and is fortified by nature and art; in a mountainous and barren soil, on the gulf-ofVenice, opposite the E end of the island of Veglia, 30 m SE Fiume: Lg. 15.3 E,

Lt. 45.5 N.

SEGNI, a town of Italy, States-of-theChurch, Campagna-di-Roma, on a mountain, 30 m SE Rome.

SEGO, a city of Africa, Nigritia, capital of Bambara. It consists of 4 walled towns, 2 on each side of the Niger, chiefly inhabited by Moors, whose mosques appear in every quarter. The houses are built of clay, of a square form, with flat roofs; some of them have 2 stories, and many of them are whitewashed. The current money consists of cowries, a kind of shells. It is situated in a well-cultivated district, 350 m sw Timbuctoo; P. about 30,000: Lg. 2.28 w, Lt. 14.5 N.

SEGORBE, a city of Spain, province Valencia, and a bishop's see. Here are many well-cultivated gardens, and a handsome fountain. The vicinity abounds in every kind of fruit, and in the adjacent mountains are quarries of fine marble. It is seated on the side of a hill, by the Morviedro, 35 m N by w Valencia: Lg. 0.28 w, Lt. 39.52 N.

SEGOVIA, a city of Spain, province OldCastile, and a bishop's see, with a castle. It stands on 2 hills and the valley between them, on the sw side of the Eresme; and is surrounded by a strong wall, flanked with towers supplied with water by a Roman aqueduct, 3000 paces in length, supported


by 177 arches of a prodigious height, in 2 stories. Here the best cloth in Spain is made, which is one part of its trade, and another is very fine paper. The cathedral stands on one side of the great square, and is one of the handsomest Gothic structures in Spain; beside which there are 27 other churches. The castle is seated in the highest part of the town, and has 16 rooms richly adorned with tapestry, and ornaments of marble and porphyry. The royal-chapel is magnificently gilded, and embellished with very fine paintings. The mint is surrounded by the river, on which are mills, employed in coining. It is 40 m NNW Madrid: Lg. 4.12 w, Lt. 41.3 N.

SEGOVIA, NEW, a town of North America, Mexico, province Nicaragua, near the source of the Segovia, which flows into the Caribbean-sea, 90 m N by E Leon: Lg. 86.50 w, Lt. 13.45 N.

SEGOVIA, NEW, a town of Asia, isle-ofLuconia, and a bishop's see, with a fort, at the N end of the island, near the mouth of the Cagayan, 240 m N Manilla: Lg. 120.59 E,

Lt. 18.39 N.

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SEGURA, a town of North America, Mexico, in Tlascala, 50 m s Puebla.

SEHWAN, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Sindy, on a hill commanding the ferries of the Indus and Arul, 50 m N by E Hydrabad.

SEIBO, or ZEYBO, a town of North America, West-Indies, island of St.-Domingo, chiefly occupied by graziers, on a small river, 65 m ENE St.-Domingo.

SEIKS, a nation of Asia, in the Nw part of Hindostan, consisting of several independent states, that had formed a kind of federal union. They possess all Lahore, the principal part of Moultan, and w part of Delhi. This rich and healthy track extends 400 m from Nw to SE, by 150 to 200, in general, but the part between Attock and Behker cannot be less than 230. The Seiks are a tribe sprung from Hindoos and Mahomedans, but more lax than that of their ancestors. The founder of their sect was Nanak, who flourished in the beginning of the 16th century; and they are the descendants of his disciples: the word seiks, properly sikh, in the Sanscrit language, signifying disciple. They are in general strong and well-formed, accustomed from their infancy

to the most laborious life and hardest fare: they have the Hindoo cast of countenance, somewhat altered by a long beard; active as the Mahrattas, and much more robust; and their courage is equal to that of any of the natives of India. Long blue drawers, and a kind of chequered plaid, part of which is fastened round the waist, and the other thrown over the shoulder, form their clothing. The chiefs are distinguished by wearing some heavy gold bracelets on their wrists, and sometimes a chain of the same metal round their turbans, and mounted on better horses. The civil and military government of the Seiks, before a common interest had ceased to actuate its operations, was conducted by general assemblies; but since their dominions have been so widely extended, the grand assembly is now rarely summoned. Their army consists almost entirely of horse, of which a Seik will boast they can bring 300,000 into the field; and it is supposed they might bring 200,000. They have no infantry in their own country, except for the defence of their towns and villages; but they generally serve as infantry in foreign armies. They were formerly in a state of great power; but for many years past they have been mostly occupied by petty internal feuds, transmitted from father to son, which has rendered them much less formidable. The Seiks, like the Hindoos, are perfectly tolerant in matters of faith, and require only a conformity in certain signs and ceremonies; but unlike the Hindoos, they admit proselytes, abolish the distinctions of tribe or caste, and eat all kinds of flesh, except that of cows. Their capital is Amrusir.

SEINE, a small department of France, includes Paris, and a district of about 7 m round that city. It has its name from the Seine; P. 935,108..

SEINE-INFERIEUR, a department of France, including the NE part of the old province of Normandy. It extends along the s coast of the English-channel, and on other parts bordered by the departments of Rouen is the Somme, L'Oise, and L'Eure. capital; P. 693,683.

SEINE-ET-MARNE, a department of France, including the SE part of the old province of Isle-of-France. It is bordered by departments Oise, Aisne, Marne, Aube, Yonne, Loiret, and Seine-et-Oise. Melun is the capital. Its rivers are the Seine, Marne, and Great and Little-Morin; area, 2320 square m; P. 323,893.

SEINE-ET-OISE, a department of France, including the sw part of the old province of Isle-of-France, with the circular department of Seine, which it wholly surrounds, 60 m long by 40; bordered by departments Oise, Seine, Marne, Loiret, Eure-et-Loir, and

Eure. Versailles is the capital; area, 2200 square m; P. 448,180.


SELEM, a town of North America, Mexico, Yucatan, near the seacoast, 45 m NW Merida.

SELBOSOE, a town of Sweden, Norway, province Trondheim, 18 m SE Trondheim.

SELBY, a town of England, county WestYork, with a market on Monday, on the Ouse, over which is a remarkable timberbridge, 12 ms York, and 180 N by w Lon don. It is the birth-place of Henry I, whose father, William I, built an abbey here; and the conventual church is now the parish church. A canal passes hence to Leeds, and ships are built here; P. 4600.

SELENGUINSK, a small town of Russia, government Irkoutsk, formerly chief of district, but since 1779 it has been deprived of that rank, and is subject to VerkknéOudinsk; on the right bank of the Selenga; it has 3 churches and 150 houses.

SELENTI, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Caramania, 25 m SSE Alania.

SELESK, or SELESKEH, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Caramania. It is the ancient Seleucia, the remains of which are scattered over a large extent of ground, on the side of the Calycadnus. It is now poor, but still the residence of a bey; 5 m from the sea, and 160 SSE Cogni: Lg. 33.58 E, Lt. 36.24 N.

SELIGENSTADT, a town of Hess-Darmstadt, with a Benedictine abbey, 14 m ESE Frankfurt.

SELIMBRIA, or SELIVRIA, a town of Europe, Turkey, Romania, and a Greek archbishop's see, with a citadel, on the seaof-Marmora, 32 m w Constantinople. It has rich vineyards and excellent wine: Lg. 28.12 E, Lt. 41.2 N.

SELKIRK, a county-town and borough of Scotland, county Selkirk, on the Ettrick, near its conflux with the Tweed, 30 m SSE Edinburgh. Manufactures of stockings, inkle, and leather; P. 2833: Lg. 2.46 w, Lt. 55.34 N.

SELKIRK, a county of Scotland, bounded on the N by Edinburghshire, E by Berwickshire and Roxburghshire, s by Dumfriesshire, and w by Peebleshire. It is a hilly country, 28 m long by 18 where broadest. It returns 1 M.P. The chief rivers are the Tweed, Ettrick, Yarrow, and Gala; P. 5070 in 1801, and 6833 in 1831.

SELTZER, OF NEEDER-SELTERS, a town of Nassau, celebrated for a spring of mineral water, which is exported in great quantities, on the Emsbach, 30 m E Coblenz.

SEMAUAT, a town of Asia, Turkey, in

Irak, on the Euphrates, where a toll is col lected, 120 m NW Bassora: Lg. 46.15 E, Lt. 32.2 N.

SEMBEWGHEWN, a town of Asia, Burman empire, from which is the principal road through the western hills into Aracan. To this place all Bengal articles of merchandise imported by way of Aracan are brought, and here embarked on the Irrawaddy. It stands 3 m w of the Irrawaddy, and 30 s by w Pagahm.

SEMEGONDA, a town of Africa, Nigritia, country of Wangara, on a lake formed by a branch of the Niger, 330 m ssw Bornou: Lg. 21.30 E, Lt. 14.58 N.

SEMENDRIA, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Servia, with a citadel, on the Danube, 20 m SE Belgrade.

SEMENNUD, a town of Africa, Egypt, on the E branch of the Nile, 8 m ssw Mansoura, and 53 N Cairo.

SEMIGALLIA, a duchy of Russia, E part of government Courland; chief town Mittau, the capital of Courland.

SEMENOF, a small town of Russia, government Nijni-Novgorod, chief of district, on the right bank of a small river Souktanka, 40 m N Nijni-Novgorod, on the highroad from Balakhna to Viatka, with a market every Thursday; it has 1 church; P. 600.

SEMENOFKA, a German colony, Russia, government Saratof, district Camychine;

P. 250.

SEMIONOFSKAIA-CREPOST, a fort belonging to the Russian American Company, on the continent of North America, near cape-St.-Elie.

SEMIPALATNAIA, a fortress of Asia, Russia, government Tomsk, district Büsk, right bank of the Irtyche, one of the military line of Irtyche, 901 m Tobolsk; built in 1718, with fortifications of earth, revetted with wood, and forming a square. It has 1 church, guard-house, powder magazine, chancellery, commandant's house, provision store, &c. of stone, and 200 houses, the whole enclosed by the works and palisaded ditch; 2 suburbs; trade considerable : Lg. 89.05 E, Lt. 50.29.45 N.

SEMIYARSKOIE, a fort of Asia, Russia, government Tomsk, district Büsk, banks of the Irtyche, one of the military line of the Irtyche, between forts Semipalatnaia and Jamychefskoie; besides the usual government buildings, there are 25 to 30 houses.

SEMLIN, a town of Austria, Sclavonia, on the Danube, above the influx of the Save, 5 m WNW Belgrade, and 37 SE Peterwaradin.

SEMNAM, or SUMNAM, a town of Asia,

Persia, in Irak, chief of a rich district, lying
N of the Great-Salt-Desert, 90 m w by s
Bistam, and 120 E Teheran.

SEMPACH, a town of Switzerland, canton Lucern, on a small lake, 7 m Nw Lucern: famous for the battle in 1386, that established the liberty of the Swiss, and in which Leopold duke of Austria was defeated and slain.

SEMPIONE, OF SIMPLON, a mountain of Italy, one of the highest of the Italian Alps, whose pointed summits are perpetually covered with snow. On one side of its rugged base the torrent Divaria gushes through a vast chasm between two lofty rocks, and falls into the valley of Ossola. A bridge is built across this chasm, and forms part of a road over the mountain, made by Napoleon, which is now a principal communication between Italy and Switzerland.

SEMUR-EN-AUXOIs, a town of France, department Côte-d'Or, with a castle on a rock, 34 m w by N Dijon, and 135 SE Paris: a manufacture of cloth; P. 4088.

SEMUR-EN-BRIENNOIS, a town of France, department Soane-et-Loire, 33 m w by s Macon, and 45 s Autun.

SENA, or MARZALI, a town of Africa, Mocaranga, on the Zambezi, where the Portuguese have a factory: Lg. 35.3 E, Lt. 17.40 s.

SENECA, 2 in North America, United States, state New-York:-1st, a county, Ovid county-town; P. 21,031.-2nd, a town, Ontario county, on the w side of the falls of the Seneca, 14 m from its mouth, and 28 Oswego; P. 6161: both in 1830.

SENEFF, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, 4 m s Nivelle, where a battle was gained by the French over the prince-of-Orange in 1674.

Vorscla, formerly chief of district, in a fertile country; 5 churches, and 760 houses.

SENLIS, a town of France, department Oise, on the Nonette, which falls into the Oise, 28 m by road NNE Paris, on the road to Compeign; fine cathedral; P. 5066.

SENNA, a city of Asia, Persia, in Irak, and the residence of an hereditary governor, who has a noble palace, in a luxuriant vale, rich in fruits, tobacco, and grain, 60 m WNW Hamadan: Lg. 47.5 E, Lt. 35.12 N.

SENNAR, a city of Africa, Nubia, capital of a kingdom, 5 m in circuit, and very populous, on an eminence on the w bank of The the E Nile, 500 m SSE Dongola. houses are chiefly of one story, with flat roofs, but the suburbs contain only cottages covered with reeds; and the palace, surrounded by high walls, is a confused assemblage of buildings. The heat is almost insupportable in the day-time, except in the rainy season, which begins in April and continues 3 months, and then the air is unwholesome. It has a trade in elephant's teeth, tamarinds, civit, tobacco, and golddust. Near the palace is a market for slaves, where the females sit on one side and the males on another, and the Egyptians buy great numbers of them every year. The merchandise required here are spices, paper, brass, hardware, glass-beads, and a black drug that is used to colour the eyebrows. The women of quality have slight garments of silk, and wear rings of various metals on their hair, arms, legs, ears, and fingers; those of low rank, and girls, have cloths wrapped round them from the waist to the knees; the men are almost naked: Lg. 33.30 E, Lt. 13.34 N.

SENNO, or SENNOIE, a small town of Russia, government Mohilef, chief of the district, on the borders of a lake of the same name; 2 convents, 1 synagogue, and 2

SENEGA, a town and district of Russia; mills; P. 1800, mostly Jews. see ARCHANGEL.

SENEGAMBIA, a country on the w coast of Africa, so called from two great rivers, the Senegal and Gambia, which here enter the ocean: bounded on the x by Sahara, E by Sahara and Nigritia, s by SierraLeone, and w by the Atlantic, on which it extends from Lt. 1.20 to 10.0 s. It contains several petty kingdoms, and numerous forests that yield abundance of gum.-See FOULI.

SENEZ, a town of France, department Basses-Alps, and formerly the see of a bishop, in a rough barren country, 15 m SSE Digne. SENFTENBERG, a post-town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, district Spree-Wald, on the Swarze-Elster, 74 m by post-road SSE Berlin.

SENJANY, a large village of Russia, government Poltava, on the bank of the

SENS, a town of France, department Yonne, and lately an archbishop's see. The cathedral is a venerable structure, and contains the tomb of the dauphin, father of Louis XVI. Manufactures, velvet, cotton, leather, and glue. Seated in a fertile country, at the conflux of the Vanne with the Yonne, 25 m N Auxerre, and 60 SE Paris; P. 9279: Lg. 3.17 E, Lt. 48.12 N.

SEPHOURY, a town of Asia, Syria, in Palestine, the ancient Sephor or Sapphura, which was fortified by Herod; it afterward bore the name of Diocesarea, 12 m SE Acre, and 18 wNw Tiberias: remains of a stately Gothic church, said to have been erected over the habitation of Joachim and Anna, parents of the blessed-Virgin, and among its ruins some ancient paintings were discovered in 1801.

SEPULVEDA, a town of Spain, province

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