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and other articles. A canal passes hence by Loughborough to the Trent. In the meadows near the town is the ruin of an abbey, in which cardinal Wolsey died; P. 39,306: Lg. 1.6 w, Lt. 52.38 N.

LEICESTER, a county of England, bounded N by Nottinghamshire, E by the counties of Lincoln and Rutland, s by Northamptonshire, sw by Warwickshire, and Nw by Derbyshire; 38 m long by 30, containing 514,560 acres, divided into 6 hundreds and 196 parishes, with 12 markettowns; returns 4 county and 2 borough M.P., and has 6 polling-places. The chief rivers are the Avon, Soare, Wreke, Anker, and Welland; and it has several canals. The soil, in general, affords great quanti ties of rich grazing land, and is peculiarly fitted for the culture of beans. In the NW the Bardon-hills rise to a great height; and in their neighbourhood is Charnwood-forest, now chiefly enclosed; further to the Nw are valuable coal-mines: the NE feeds a great number of sheep; and the SE is a rich grazing tract. This country is famous for its large black horses and horned cattle, as well as for its sheep; and for having bred each species to the utmost perfection of form and size. The manufacture of stockings is the principal; P. 130,081 in 1801, and 197,000 in 1830.

LEIGH, 8 in England:-1st, a town, county Essex, on a creek at the mouth of the Thames, opposite the E extremity of Canvay island, noted for oysters, with a good roadstead for shipping, 18 m SSE Chelmsford, and 39 E London; P. 1254.2nd, a town and parish, county Lancaster, with a market on Saturday, at the head of the Duke of Bridgewater's canal, 9 m NNE Warrington, and 199 Nw London. It has several manufactures, particularly of fine jeans, in imitation of those of India; P. 20,083.-3rd, a parish, county Glouces ter; P. 355.-4th, a parish, county Kent; P. 1011.-5th, a parish, county Stafford; P. 1038.-6th, a parish, county Surry; P. 483.7th, a town, county Wilts; P. 1420.—8th, a parish, county Worcester; P. 1933.

LEIGHLIN, or OLD-LEIGHLIN, a borough of Ireland, county Carlow, and the see of a bishop united with Ferns. The cathedral serves for the parish church. It is now a poor place, 9 m ssw Carlow, and 12 NE Kilkenny.

LEIGHLIN-BRIDGE, a town of Ireland, County Carlow, on the Barrow, 7 m s Car


LEIGHTON-BUZZARD, a town of England, county Bedford, with a market on Tuesday, on the Lyssel, 18 m ssw Bedford, and 41 NW London; P. 3330. Polling place.

LEINSTER, a province of Ireland, 112 m

long by 70; bounded E and s by St. Georgechannel, w by Connaught and Munster, and N by Ulster. It contains the counties of Carlow, Dublin, Kildare, Kilkenny, King, Longford, Louth, East-Meath, Queen, West-Meath, Wexford, and Wicklow. Dublin is the capital; P. 1,927,967.

LEIPHEIM, a town of Bavaria, province Donau, produces good hops; on the s bank of the Danube, 10 m ENE Ulm.

LEIPZIG, a city of Saxony, capital of a tribe of that name, with a famous university, and a strong citadel called Pleyssenburgh. It carries on a considerable trade, and has 2 great fairs every year, which are visited by 2000 merchants of different nations. The principal manufactures are silk, gold and silver stuffs, velvet, cotton, linen and woollen cloths, leather and paper. The houses, in general, are lofty. There are six handsome colleges belonging to the university, beside the private colleges; and the exchange is a fine structure. The imperialists under marshal Tilly were defeated here by the Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus, in 1631.-COXE's House of Austria. It was taken by the Prussians in 1745 and 1756. The Austrians took it two years after, but were soon obliged to give it up. In 1813 a great victory was obtained here by the allies over the French grand army; the city was then taken (with the king of Saxony and all his court), and entered by the emperors of Austria and of Russia, the king of Prussia, and the crown prince of Sweden. The celebrated Leibnitz was born here in 1646; fortifications demolished: on a plain on the Pleysse, 60 m wNw Dres den; P. exceeds 30,000: Lg. 12.20 E, Lt. 51.22 N.

LEIRIA, a city of Portugal, province Estremadura, a bishop's see, with an ancient castle on an eminence. In 1811 it was set on fire by the French, on their re treat into Spain, and almost totally destroyed: 80 m NNE Lisboa.

LISNIG, a town of Saxony, with manufactures of cloth, lace, stockings, &c; on the Mulda, 24 m ESE Leipzig, and 32 Nw Dresden.

LEITH, a sea-port of Scotland, on the frith-of-Forth, formerly 2 m x by E Edinburgh (of which it is the port), but the increase of buildings has now united them. The river Leith divides the town into North and South Leith, which communicate by a drawbridge. The harbour at the mouth of the river is secured by a noble stone pier; and it has wet and dry docks, with other conve niences for ship-building, which is carried on to a great extent. Here are also manufac tures of ropes, canvas, carpets, glass, shoes, leather, soap, and candles, and several iron forges. There are 3 churches, a magnificent banking-house, a hospital for dis

abled seamen, and a battery for the defence of the harbour. A little to the E of the town are elegant baths, constructed on a grand scale. The commerce of Leith is very considerable, and the vessels employed in the London trade are, in general, of a large size; but the largest ships are those employed in the Greenland whale fishery. To foreign parts are exported lead, glassware, linen, woollen-stuffs, and a variety of other goods. The population was 20,363 in 1811; but, by the returns in 1821, the enumeration is included with Edinburgh; P. of North 7416, of South 18,439.

LEIT MERITZ; see LEUTMERITZ. LEITOMISCHEL; see LEUTOMISCHL. LEITRIM, a county of Ireland, province Connaught, 42 m by 15, bounded by Donegal-bay, NE by Fermanagh and Cavan, SE by Longford, and w by Roscommon and Sligo. It is divided into 17 parishes, and returns 2 M.P. It is fertile though mountainous, has some iron-works, and feeds great herds of cattle. The Shannon issues from Lough-Allen in this county; it has also several smaller lakes and numerous rivulets. Carrick is the capital; P. 141,303.

LEITRIM, a town of Ireland, county Leitrim, formerly a place of some note, of which St. Liegus was bishop; on the Shannon, 4 m N Carrick.

LEIXLIP, a town of Ireland, county Kildare, on the Liffey, 10 m w by s Dublin. It has a noble castle, with large gardens, on one side of which is a fine waterfall, called the salmon-leap. Near it are the ruins of the church and castle of Confy.



LE-MAIRE, a strait of South America, between Staten-island and Terra-del-Fuego. Discovered in 1616 by Le Maire, a Dutchman, who passed through it and round cape-Horn into the Pacific-ocean. This passage is now generally adopted by navigators, being more safe than through the strait-of-Magalaes.

LEMBERG, a city of Austria, Galicia, fortified, and has 2 citadels, one of which is on an eminence without the city. The cathedral, churches, and public buildings are magnificent; and the houses lofty, built of freestone. It is the see of a Roman-Catholic archbishop, has also an Armenian and Greek bishop, and is the seat of a university. The population 26,000, of which a great part are Jews, who have here one of the largest synagogues in the world, capable of containing above 9000 persons. The city is a great commercial emporium, being the principal thoroughfare from Odessa and other Russian ports on the Blacksea, to Jassy and Vienna. In 1672 it was besieged in vain by the Turks; but in 1704 was taken by storm by Charles XII of

Sweden. It is seated on the Peltu, 100 m WNW Camenetz-Podolskoy, and 150 E Cracow: Lg. 24.26 E, Lt. 49.51 N.

LEMBRO, the ancient Imbros, Turkey, an island of the Archipelago, on the coast of Romania, 22 m in circuit. It has a town of the same name with a harbour: Lg. 26.0 E, Lt. 40.25 N.

LEMFÖRD, a post-town of Hannover, province Diepholz, 5 German m by postroad NE Osnabrück.

LEMGO, a post-town of Germany, principality Lippe Detmold, Westfalia, on the Bega, 1 German m by post-road NNE Detmold; P. 3400.


Europe, Turkey, Archipelago, near LEMNOS, OF STALIMENE, an island of strait-of-Gallipoli, 15 m long by 11: it abounds with mountains and valleys, which in some places are cultivated, and produce a variety of fruit. The poets made it sacred to Vulcan, who was hence called Lemnius-Pater. It was also celebrated for its labyrinth, of which not a trace remains. The modern Greeks entertain the same opinion of that earth of Lemnos which is said to have cured Philoctetes; it is never dug up but on one particular day of the year, and then with great ceremony, and is called Terra-Sigellata, being formed into small cakes sealed with the grand signior's seal, and thus dispersed over various parts of Europe. The inhabitants are almost all Greeks, and very industrious. The capital is of the same name, and is the see of a Greek archbishop: Lg. 25.28 E, Lt. 40.3 N.

LANTCHNO, or LENECKA, a town of Russia, province Poland, voevod Lublin, on the Veprga, with a noted fair for horned cattle.

LENHAM, a town of England, county Kent, with a market on Tuesday, on an eminence at the source of the Len, 10 m E by s Maidstone, and 44 ESE London; P. 2197.


LENOX, a county-town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Berkshire county, on the Housatonic, 133 m w Boston; P. 1355 in 1830.

LENOIR, a county of North America, United States, state North Carolina, Kingston county-town; P. 7635 in 1830.

LENTINI, a town of Sicily, in Val-diNoto, the ancient Leotium, at the foot of a height, on the top of which Charles V built a town called Carlentini: 15 m ssw Catania.

LEOBEN, a town of Austria, Styria, on the Mur, 29 m NNW Gratz: here a convention, which led to the treaty of Campo-Formio, was signed between Bonaparte and the Austrians in 1797.

LEOBSCHUTZ, a post-town of Prussia,

province Silesia, 7 German m by post-road SE Neisse; P. 3400.

LEOGANE, a fortified town of North America, with a fort and a good roadstead, on the N side of the s peninsula of the island of St.-Domingo: chief exports, sugar, coffee, cotton, and indigo. Taken by the English and French royalists in 1794, but retaken by the republicans soon after, and it was unsuccessfully attacked by the English in 1796: 30 m w by s Port-au-Prince.

LEOMINSTER, a borough of England, county Hereford, with a market on Friday, returns 2 M.P.; has a trade in gloves, hats, and leather. The church is spacious, and has a beautiful altar-piece by Rubens: here are also several meeting-houses, and 2 freeschools, one of them endowed by Queen Mary: on the Lug, 25 m w by N Worcester, and 137 WNW London; P. 5249. Polling-place.

LEOMINSTER, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Worcester county, 19 m N Worcester, and 46 wNw Boston; P. 1861.

LEON, a fertile province of Spain, formerly a kingdom, bounded on the N by Asturias, w by Gallicia and Portugal, s by Estremadura, and E by Old-Castile, 125 m long by 100, and divided into almost two equal parts by the Douro.

LEON, a city of Spain, capital of the province of Leon, and a bishop's see: formerly richer and more populous than at present, for the cloth manufactures are on the decline, and the inhabitants do not exceed 15,000. Here are 13 churches and 9 convents, and the cathedral is admired for its elegant lightness: seated in a fertile district, between two sources of the Esra, 50 m SE Oviedo, and 165 x by w Madrid: Lg. 5.38 w, Lt. 42.36 N.

LEON, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, surrounded by the sea and the river Santi-Petri, whence it is sometimes called the Isla-de-Leon: the quantity of salt made in the vicinity is prodigious: 7 m SSE Cadiz; P. about 30,000.

LEON, a city of North America, Mexico, capital of Nicaragua, and a bishop's see: it is a commercial place, near the Nw extremity of lake-Nicaragua, 30 m from its port at Realego, on the Pacific-ocean: Lg. 87.20 w, Lt. 12.30 N.

LEON, a town of North America, Mexico, in Mechoacan, in a plain eminently fertile in grain, 30 m WNW Guanaxuato.


LEONARDTOWN, a county-town of North America, United States, state Maryland, St.-Mary county, on Britton-bay, 5 m from its mouth in the Potomac, 72 m Anapolis, and 63 SSE Washington.

LEOPOLDSTADT, a fortress of Austria, Upper-Hungary, on the Waag, 38 m NE Presburg.


LEPANTO, a seaport of the kingdom of Greece, Livadia, department Acarnania and Etolia, province Lepanto, district Venetico, on the strait between the gulf-of-Patras and the gulf-of-Lepanto, 100 m wNw Athens, and 350 sw Constantinople; an archbishop's see. It is divided into 4 towns, surrounded by as many walls, and defended by a castle on an eminence: taken by the Venetians from the Turks in 1687, but evacuated in 1699, in consequence of the treaty of Carlowitz. The produce of the adjacent country is wine, oil, corn, rice, leather, and tobacco. Here are several mosques, and 2 Greek churches: Lg. 21.52 E, Lt. 38.23 N.

LEPEL, a town of Prussia, government Vitebsk, chief of the district, at the mouth of the Esse, in lake-Beloie-Ozero: has a trade in timber, sent to Riga by the Bérézina-canal: 76 m sw Vitebsk; P. about 2000.

LEPERS-ISLE, Australasia, one of the New Hebrides, in the Pacific-ocean: Lg. 167.58 E, Lt. 15.23 s.

LERENA, or LLERENA, a town of Spain, province Estremadura, at the foot of a moun tain, 68 m ESE Badajoz.

LERICI, a town of Italy, Sardinia, duchy. of-Genova, on the E coast of the gulf-ofSpezzia, 3 m sw Sarzana.

LERIDA, a city of Spain, province Cataluna, in a fertile plain, on the Segra, 80 m w Barcelona, and 200 Nw Madrid; a bishop's see, with a university. Close to the town are the ruins of a castle, formerly of great strength: declared for Charles III, after the reduction of Barcelona in 1705, but it was retaken by the duke of Orleans in 1707, after the battle of Almanza: Lg. 0.35 E, Lt. 41.32 N.

LERINS, 2 islands in the Mediterranean, on the coast of France, 5 m from Antibes. That nearest the coast, called St.-Margaret, was taken by the English in 1746, but retaken in 1747: the other is called St.Honorat, and has a Benedictine abbey.

LERMA, a town of Spain, Old-Castile, with a palace, on the Arlanza, 23 m s Burgos.

LERNA, or MILOS, a town of the kingdom of Greece, Morea, department Argolio-and-Corinthia, at the NW extremity of the gulf-of-Nauplia, and at the foot of a mountain on which is a fortress, 8 m ssw Argos, and 24 ENE Tripolitza: it was the ancient Lerna, and though now a small place, is the port of Tripolitza, and corn, wool, &c. are hence exported. A little to s is the celebrated lake-of-Lerna.

LERNICA, a town of Cyprus, formerly a

large city, as appears from the ruins, on the s coast of the island, where there is a good road, and a small fort for its defence, 30 m sw Famagusta.

LERO, anciently Leria, an island of the Archipelago, lying 8 m SE Patmos.

LERWICK, a town of Scotland, capital of the Shetland islands, on the E side of Mainland-island, and on the spacious harbour called Bressay-sound. It is the rendezvous of the fishing busses, and vessels employed in the various fisheries; manufactures of stockings, bed-rugs, and platting straw: at the N end is fort-Charlotte, commanding the N entrance to Bressay-sound; P. 2750; Lg. 0.56 w, Lt. 60.12 N.

LESCAR, a town of France, department Basses-Pyrenees, on a hill, 3 m Nw Pau, and 42 SE Bayonne.

LESCHNITZ, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, 18 m SE Oppeln: here is the convent of Sta.-Annenburg, much resorted to by pilgrims.

LESGUIS, one of the 7 Caucasian nations, between the Black-sea and the Caspian. Their country is indifferently called Lesguistan and Daghestan, by the Georgians: bounded on the E and s by Persia and the Caspian, sw and w by Georgia, the Ossi, and the Kisti, and N by the Kisti and Tartar tribes; divided into a variety of districts, generally independent, and governed by chiefs elected by the people. The Lesguis are supposed to be descended from the tribe of mountaincers, known to ancient geographers under the name of Lesgæ or Ligyes. The strength of their country, which is a region of mountains, whose passes are known only to themselves, has probably, at all times, secured them from foreign invasion. They subsist by raising cattle, and by predatory expeditions into the countries of their more wealthy neighbours. They are a nation of banditti, and from the remotest ages have preserved their barbarous freedom inviolate. When their own liberty is not assailed, their arms and friendship are sold to the highest bidder.

LESINA, an island of Austria, gulf-ofVenice, coast of Dalmatia, 60 m long by 8: principal productions-wine, oil, figs, almonds, oranges, saffron, aloes, honey, and wool; but salt-fish is the chief article of commerce; Lesina is the capital, at the w end, and has a good harbour, 22 m ssw Spa


LESINA, a town of Italy, Naples, Capitanata, on lake-Lesina, 26 m Nw Manfredonia. LESLIE, a town of Scotland, county Fife; manufacture of linen and cotton checks, on the top of a hill by the Leven, 7 m N Kirkcaldy, 11 sw Cupar; P. 2749.

LESNOI-CARAMYCHE, German colony,

Russia, government Saratof, district Camychine; 171 families.

LESPARRE, a town of France, department Gironde, near which are found transparent pebbles, known by the name of Medoc-stones; 40 m NNW Bourdeaux.

LESSINES, a town of Belgium, province Haynau, famous for its linen manufacture, 5 m N Ath.

LETITCHEV, a small town of Russia, government Podolia, chief of district, on the Volna, 894 m NE Camenétz-Podolskoi.

LETTERKENNY, a town of Ireland, county Donegal, on the Swilly, near its entrance into the head of Lough-Swilly, 14 m NW Lifford.

LEUCH, or LEUK, a town of Switzerland, Valais, on an eminence near the Rhone, 15 m ESE Sion; much frequented on account of its hot mineral springs, at the foot of a lofty mountain, called Gemmi.

LEUCHTENBURG, a town of Bavaria, on a mountain, 38 m NNE Regensburg.

LEUCATE, a town of France, department Aude, near the Mediterranean, N side of lake-Lucate, 18 m s Narbonne.

LEUTKIRCH, a town of Würtemberg, province Bodensee, with two suburbs, and a good linen trade, 22 m NE Lindau, and 38 s Ulm.

LEUTMERITZ, or LEITMERITZ, a town of Austria, Bohemia, capital of a circle, and lately a bishop's see. The county is so delightful that it is called the Bohemian Paradise; produces excellent wine, and contains warm baths, tin-mines, and precious stones. It is well-built and populous, on the Elbe, 30 m NW Prague: Lg. 14.17 E, Lt. 50.32 N.

LEUTOMISCHL, a town of Austria, Bohemia, 86 m E by s Prague; P. 4650.

LEUVEN, a city of Belgium, province South-Brabant, with an old castle, and a once celebrated university. Its walls are nearly 7 m in circuit, but in a dilapidated state, and within them are many gardens and vineyards. The churches and convents are magnificent, and many of the public buildings indicate its former opulence. Large quantities of cloth were formerly made here, but it is now chiefly famous for good beer it was taken by the French in 1746, 1792, and 1794; on the Dyle, 14 m E by N Brussels, post-road to Liége, 40 NE Mons: Lg. 4.41 E, Lt. 50.53 N.

LEVANT. This word properly signifies East; but it is often used when speaking of trade, for Turkey-in-Asia, comprehending Natolia and Syria, and the islands of Cyprus, Candia, &c. The Levant-Sea means the E part of the Mediterranean-Sea. LEVEK; see CAMBODIA.

LEVEN, a town of Scotland, county Fife, with a good harbour, w side of Largo-bay, at the influx of the Leven, 10 m NE Kirkcaldy coasting and Baltic trade.


LEWES, a borough of England, county Sussex, returns 2 M.P., and is one of the principal county polling-places; edge of the South-Downs, 8 m NE Brighton, 49 s London; a market on Saturday: it has 4 parish churches; and adjoining are the villages of Southover and Cliff, each with a parish church: the latter is parted from Lewes by the Ouse, which is navigable for barges; in the former are extensive remains of a celebrated monastery. In 1263 Henry III and his son (afterward Edward I) were made prisoners, in a battle, by the earl of Leicester; P. 8592.

LEWES, a town of North America, United States, state Delaware, Sussex county, on Lewes-creek, 5 m from its mouth in Delaware-bay, 16 NNE Georgetown.

LEWIN, a small town of Prussia, province Silesia, 4 German miles by post-road w Glatz.

LEWIS, OF LEWES, the largest and most N of the Hebrides, or w islands of Scotland, 57 m long, and of considerable breadth toward the middle and N end; 20 m NNW of the isle-of-Skye, and the s end is separated from North-Uist by the Sound-of-Harris (9 m long and nearly the same broad), in which are many rocks and islets. This island is greatly intersected by arms of the sea, by which it may be said to be divided into five peninsulas. The s, which is connected by a mountainous isthmus of 6 m, is called Harris, and politically belongs to the county of Inverness; but the N and principal part is attached to the county of Ross. Every part of the island exhibits monuments of antiquity; as fortified castles, druidical edifices, cairns, and upright stones in general wild, bleak, nearly barren of wood, and little fitted for cultivation: the hills are covered with heath, which affords shelter for various sorts of game. The crops are oats, bigg, and potatos, and there are many beeves and sheep. The lakes and streams abound with salmon, trout, &c.; the numerous bays afford large quantities of shell-fish, and the w coast is annually visited by herrings. The flocks of aquatic birds are prodigious and various, and great quantities of sea-weed are cast ashore, of which abundance of kelp is made. There are several small villages, but Stornaway is the only town. The promontory at the N extremity of the island is called the Butt-of-Lewis; P. about 17,000: Lg. 6.32 w, Lt. 58.34 N. LEWIS, 3 counties, North America, Unit

ed States,-1st, state New-York, Martinsburgh county-town; P. 14,956.-2nd, state Virginia, w district, Weston county-town; P. 6241.-3rd, state Kentucky, Clarksburg county-town; P. 5206: all in 1830.

LEWISBURGH, county-town of North America, United States, state Virginia, Greenbrier county, on the N side of the Greenbrier, 221 m w by N Richmond: Lg. 81.15 w, Lt. 37.52 N.

LEWISHAM, a large village of England, county Kent, 5 m SSE London, which con. tains many elegant villas; P. 9659.


LEWISTOWN, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a town, state Dela ware, Sussex county.-2nd, a county-town, state Pennsylvania, Mifflin county, on the Juniatta, at the influx of the Cribecoquil lis, 55 m Harrisburg, 162 Washington; P. 1479, in 1830. LEXINGTON, 5 North America, United States:-1st, a town, state Massachusetts, Middlesex county, where hostilities commenced between the British troops and the Americans in 1775, 10 m Nw Boston; P. 1541.-2nd, a county-town, state Virginia, Rockbridge county, near x branch of the James, 156 m w by N Richmond, 198 Washington.-3rd, a county-town, state Georgia, Oglethorpe county, 69 m Milledgeville, 603 Washington.-4th, a district, state South-Carolina, Lexington seat of justice; P. 9076.—5th, a county-town, state Kentucky, Fayette county, 25 m Frankfort, 76 E Louisville, 88 s Cincinnati, 534 Washington; on Town-Fork, a stream which joins the Elkhorn, regularly built, with court-house, market, masonic-hall, 3 banks, public library, university, female academy, 3 printing-offices, 7 churches, 4 nail manufactories making 70 tons per annum, 2 copper and tin manufactories, 3 steam grist and 2 paper-mills, rope-walk, distilleries, tanneries, and breweries; in 1797 it consisted of about 50 mean houses, now the streets are elegant; P. 6104, in 1830 Lg. 84.18 w, Lt. 38.6 N.


LEYDEN, a city of Holland, province South-Holland, on the ancient bed of the Rhine, which here divides into a number of small channels; surrounded by a brick-wall with 8 gates, and is famous for the long siege it sustained in 1574 against the Spaniards, during which 6000 inhabitants died of famine and pestilence. In honour of this siege a university was founded in 1575, celebrated for its colleges, medicinal gar den, anatomical theatre, observatory, and library. The principal church is a superb structure, and the old castle, townhouse, customhouse, and house for orphans, deserve notice: manufactures of cloth, serge, and cambric, and the vicinity produces excellent butter and cheese; on 50 islands, and has 145 bridges, the greater part built

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