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ous. Spain, once the most free, was the most despotic kingdom in Europe at the commencement of the present century. In 1808 the French attempted to overturn the government of this country; and having allured the royal-family into France, they were retained there by Buona. parte, who sent his brother Joseph to Madrid, where he assumed the title of king of Spain. The Spaniards immediately appointed a supreme junta of government of the kingdom, who in 1810 summoned the cortes or parliament to join them at Cadiz. This assembly was subsequently removed to Seville and Madrid; and a new constitution was formed in 1812, in which the power of the church was diminished, and the inquisition abolished. The campaigns of 1811 and 1812, of united Spanish, Portuguese, and British forces, under lord Wellington, were carried on with variable success; but in that of 1813, after the battle of the Pyrenees, few of the French remained in Spain, and the allied army passed the
Bidassao into France. On the downfall of Bonaparte in 1814, Ferdinand VII was restored, but his immediate conduct excited general surprise and disgust; he annulled the constitution that the cortes had sanctioned, imprisoned some of the leading members, re-established the former mode of government, and extended over all ranks the rigours of despotism. In 1820 a revolt of the army at Cadiz put an end to this government, but by means of French troops, and through the treachery of some of the generals, Ferdinand again recovered his absolute authority; but in 1834 he died, and Donna Maria was proclaimed queen of Spain. Don Carlos, however, has disputed her right to the crown, and civil-war is now raging. The queen has re-established the cortes, and abolished the despotic government. The following were the titles used by the late king: Don Fernando VII, by the grace of God, king of Castilla, of Leon, of Aragon, of the Two-Sicilies, of Jerusalem, of Navarra, of Granada, of Valencia, of Galicia, of Mallorca, of Sevilla, of Sardinia, of Cordova, of Corsica, of Murcia, of Jaen, of the Algarves, of Algezira, of Gibraltar, of the Canary islands, of the East and WestIndies, of the islands and Terra-firma of the ocean; archduke of Austria; duke of Burgundy, of Brabant, and of Milan; count of Apsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, and of Barcelona; lord of Biscay, and of Molina, &c. Madrid is the capital; P. 10,351,075 in 1803, including the Balearic-islands.
SPAIN, NEW; see MEXICO.
SPAITLA, a town of Africa, kingdom Tunis, near which are extensive and magnificent ruins, on a rising ground, shaded with juniper-trees, 90 m sw Tunis, and 100 SSE Bona: Lg. 9.15 E, Lt. 35.40 N.
SPALATRO, or SPALATTO, a seaport of Austria, Italy, kingdom Dalmatia, and an archbishop's see, on a peninsula in the gulf. of-Venice, 75 m ESE Zara, and 98 Nw Ra. gusa. The harbour is large and deep, and well frequented; and it is the emporium of the external commerce of Bosnia and Dal matia, the chief exports of which are, corn, wine, and cotton. Without the walls is a sulphureous spring, of great benefit in chronical diseases. Here are the ruins of the palace of Dioclesian, and of a magnificent aqueduct. In 1784 it was nearly depopu lated by the plague: Lg. 16.22 E, Lt. 43.30 x.
SPALDING, a town of England, county Lincoln, 14 m s by w Boston, and 97 N London, with a market on Tuesday, on the Welland, and from its neatness, and the canals in the streets, resembles a Dutch town: has a good trade in wool, corn, and coal, and much hemp and flax is grown in the neighbourhood; P. 6497. Polling-place.
SPALT, a town and castle of Bavaria, province Rezat, 16 m ESE Ansbach.
SPANDAU, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, with a fine fortress. The arsenal is in subterranean vaults, and there is a prison for state-criminals. Bayonets, ramrods, sword-blades, and sabres, are made here, also musket-barrels, which are sent to Potsdam to be finished. In 1812 the French took the fortress, which, together with the town, suffered much before they gave it up. Seated on the Havel, opposite the influx of the Spree, 9 m www Berlin, and 12 m NE Potsdam.
SPANGENBURG, a town and castle of Hesse-Cassel, on a mountain, 20 m SE Cassel. SPANISHTOWN; see ST. IAGO-DE-LA
SPASK, a small town of Russia, government Riazan, chief of district, on a canal m long, communicating with the Oca, 30 m SE Riazan; a bustling place, caused by the great number of boatmen resorting there for employment; a considerable trade in corn; 2 churches; P. 1400.
SPASK, a small town of Russia, govern. ment Tambow, chief of district, on the Stoudentra, 137 m N Tambow; 2 churches of wood; P. 1500, very poor.
SPASK, a small town of Russia, govern ment Cazan, chief of district, 88 m s Cazan, on the banks of the Berdna, which falls into the Volga.
SPEIT-TOWN, a seaport of North Ame rica, West-Indies, island of Barbadoes, formerly much frequented by Bristol traders, and thence called Little-Bristol, on the NW coast, defended by 2 forts: Lg. 59.55 w, Lt. 13.15 N.
SPELLO, a town of Italy, States-of-theChurch, with the ruins of a theatre, and other remains of antiquity, 13 m x Spoleto.
SPEZZIA, or SPETIA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, duchy of Genova, with a good harbour, at the foot of a hill, on the gulf-ofSpezzia, 47 m SE Genova: Lg. 9.37 E, Lt. 44.10 N.
SPICE-ISLANDS; see MOLUCCAS.
SPIELBERG, a town of Bavaria, province Rezat, 8 m NE Oettingen, and 13 SSE Ansbach.
SPIETZ, a town of Switzerland, canton Bern, on the w side of lake Thun, 40 m SSE Bern.
SPIGNO, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, in Monserrat, with a castle, 40 m SE Turin.
SPILSBY, a town of England, county Lincoln, with a market on Monday, 28 m E Lincoln, and 133 N by E London; P. 1384. Polling-place.
SPINALONGA, a seaport of the island of Candia, with a good harbour and a citadel, near cape-Spinalonga, 30 m E Candia: Lg. 25.48 E, Lt. 35.20 N.
SPIRE, a late bishopric of Germany, in the circle of Lower-Rhine, 50 m long by 30 where broadest, and divided into two parts by the Rhine. It is a mountainous country, covered with forests, but produces corn, wine, chesnuts, and almonds. Part of it now belongs to Bavaria, and part to the grand duchy of Baden.
SPIRE, SPYRE, or SPEYER, a fortified town of Bavaria, province Rhein. Most of the citizens are Lutherans; but there are 15 Catholic-churches and convents, among which the college formerly belonging to the Jesuits claims the first place. Taken by the French in 1734, and in 1792 it surrendered to the republican troops of France, who evacuated it the next year, but re-entered it in 1794; greatly reduced: on the w side of the Rhine, at the influx of the Spirebach, 54 m s by E Mainz: Lg. 8.29 E, Lt. 49.19 N.
SPIRITO-SANTO, a province of South America, Brazil, 140 m long by 80, bounded on the N by Porto-Seguro, E by the Atlantic, s by Rio-Janeiro, and w by MinasGeraes. The central and western parts are imperfectly explored, being under the dominion of the Indians, but it is mountainous and woody; produces gold, iron, crystals, amethysts, excellent timber, and abundance of cotton. Victoria is the capital.
SPIRITO-SANTO, a town of North Ame rica, West-Indies, island of Cuba, near the middle of the island, 155 m ESE Havanah.
SPITAL, a village of England, county Lincoln, 12 m NNW Lincoln, on the Roman causeway leading to the Humber.
SPITHEAD, a noted roadsted of England, in the English-channel, between Portsmouth and the isle-of-Wight, where the royal-navy frequently rendezvous.
SPITZBERGEN, the most northern country of Europe, consisting of a group of dreary islands, between Lg. 9 and 24 E, and Lt. 76.30 and 80.30 N, having Greenland to the w, and Novaia-Zemlia to the E. The principal island is 300 m long, and was discovered in 1555 by some vessels employed in the whale-fishery; in 1596 it was visited by Barentz and Cornelius, two Dutchmen, who called it Spitzbergen, from the many sharp-pointed and angular mountains with which it abounds; it 1607 it was visited by Hudson, the celebrated English navigator, and 4 years afterward became the resort of the English for taking whales; since which period its shores have been annually visited by other European nations for the same purpose. The w coast is wholly mountainous, but has several inlets that will admit ships. The mountains never have their valleys leading into the interior are chiefly snowy covering entirely dissolved, and the filled with snow and ice; the glaciers on the NE present a singular appearance, being high cliffs, impendent over the sea, with cataracts of melted snow, and a background of black conic hill, streaked with white. In the winter the sun is absent for 4 months. The animals are deer, bears, and foxes. The Russians from Archangel maintain a kind of colony here; and during the fishing season, some fishers erect huts on the coast, but the inland parts are uninhabited. s extremity of Spitzbergen is called SouthCape, or Point-Lookout, and is in Lg. 16.5 E, Lt. 76.39 N.
SPLAVNOUKHA, a German colony of Russia, government Saratof, district Camychine, on a small river of the same name, 41 m Saratof; P. 400.
SPLUGEN, a town of Switzerland, canton Grisons, 16 m NW Chiavenna.
SPOLETO, a town of Italy, states-of-theChurch, capital of a duchy, and a bishop's
The castle, on a hill, is connected with the town by a bridge, and the cathedral is a fine structure. Suffered greatly by an earthquake in 1703, and again in 1767; and it still possesses many beautiful edifices: here are the ruins of an amphitheatre, a triumphal arch, and an aqueduct; near the Tesino, 40 m E Orvieto, and 60 x by E Rome; P. 6700.
SPORADES, the former name of those islands of the Archipelago scattered along the shores of Europe and Asia, and not grouped round Delos, like the Cyclades.
SPOTLAND, a town of England, county Lancaster, 3 m N by w Rochdale: considerable trade and manufactures; P. 15,325.
SPRINGFIELD, 4 in North America, United States:-1st, a county-town, state Massachusetts, Hampden county, on the Connecticut, 87 m Boston, 363 Washington;
considerable inland trade, a large armoury, and musquet manufactories; P. 6784.-2nd, a county-town, state Ohio, Clarke county, on the E fork of Mud-river, 43 m Columbus, 437 Washington; P. 1080.-3rd, a countytown, state Tennessee, Robertson county, on Sulphur-creek, 25 m Nashville, 727 Washington.-4th, a county-town, state Kentucky, Washington county, 50 m Frankfort, 601 Washington; on the Licking; P. 618: all in 1830.
SPROTTAU, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, 20 m wsw Glogau.
SPURN-HEAD, a promontory of England, on the SE coast of Yorkshire, at the mouth of the Humber, on which is a lighthouse: Lg. 0.15 E, Lt. 53.38 N.
SQUILLACE, a town of Italy, Naples, in Calabria-Ultra, finely situate on the Favelone, near a gulf of its name, 35 m sw St.-Severino; much injured by the earthquake in 1783: Lg. 16.40 E, Lt. 39.3 N.
STABLO, or STAVELOT, a town of Belgium, province Liege, on the Ambleve, 12 ms Limburg, with a celebrated Benedictine abbey: a manufacture of leather, and a trade in cloths and stuffs.
STADE, a town of Hannover, province Bremen, with a fortress, a college, and 3 churches, chief town of the province, Bremen being a free city; on the Swingel, near its conflux with the Elbe, 43 m NE Bremen: Lg. 9.28 E, Lt. 53.36 N.
STADT-AM-HOF, a town of Bavaria, province Regen, on the N side of the Danube, connected by a bridge with the city of Regensburg.
STADTBERG, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen; part of it, called Marsberg, stands on the site of the famous Saxon fort of Elhresberg, which was taken by Charlemagne, who built a church here in honour of St.-Peter and St.-Paul: 14 m s Paderborn.
STADSHAGEN, a town of SchauenburgLippe, with a palace belonging to the prince, in the garden of which is a mineral spring, 8 m E Minden.
STAFFARDA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, in Piedmont, with a rich abbey: near it a victory was gained by the French in 1690, over the duke of Savoy; situated on the Po, 8 m N Saluzzo.
STAFFA, a famous island of Scotland, w side of that of Mull, but only 1 m in length. The sw end is supported by ranges of basaltic pillars, mostly above 50 feet high, forming a magnificent cavern called Fingal's-cave, which extends 250 feet in length; the entrance is a natural arch, 53 feet wide and 117 high, from which the cavern is lighted, so that the furthest extremity may be seen; it is supported on
each side by ranges of columns, and roofed by the fragments of others that have been broken off in forming it: the bottom is covered by the sea, to the extremity, and a boat may enter it in calm weather. On the N side of the island is another cavern, called the Cormorant's-cave, which exhibits the same appearances, but on a less scale. The island is every where supported by basaltic rocks and pillars, and so much hollowed by various caves that its whole basaltic pillars are all magnetic; the lower surface is shaken in stormy weather. The parts possessing a N, and the upper a s polarity. This singular little island is the greatest natural curiosity in Europe, if not in the world, yet was scarcely known before the year 1772.
STAFFELSTEIN, a town of BavarianFranconia, 16 m NNE Bamberg.
STAFFORD, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, Tolland county; has a mineral spring and iron manufactures, 27 m NE Hartford; P. 2514 in 1830.
STAFFORD, a borough and county-town of England, county Stafford, on the Sow, don; governed by a mayor, and returns 34 m ENE Shrewsbury, and 135 Nw Lon2 M.P., with a market on Saturday; has manufactures of leather and shoes. castle was built here by William I, which was garrisoned by the troops of Charles I, and being taken, was demolished by order of the parliament. It has a fine square market-place, in which is the shire-hall; P. 6998; Lg. 2.4 w, Lt. 52.48 N. Pollingplace.
STAFFORD, a county of England, bounded w by Shropshire, NW by Cheshire, NE and E by Derbyshire, sw by Warwickshire, and s by Worcestershire, 55 m long by 42, containing 734,720 acres; divided into 5 hundreds, and 139 parishes; has a city, and 19 market-towns; returns 4 county and 13 borough M.P., and has 9 polling-places. The principal rivers are Trent, Dove, Sow, Churnet, Stour, Peak, and Manyfold. The soil in the s is good and rich, though not without heaths, which take up a large tract of ground: it abounds in coal and iron. The middle is level and plain. The N, called the Moorland, is hilly, and full of heaths, but contains rich mines of copper, There are good stone lead, and coal. quarries, plenty of alabaster, and limestone. This county is famous for potteries, and for the iron trade in all its varieties. Stafford is the county-town; P. 239,153 in 1801, and 410,485 in 1831.
STAGNO, a seaport of Austria, kingdom Illyria, province Dalmatia, and a bishop's see, on a peninsula, in the Adriatic-sea, 30 m NW Ragusa : Lg. 17.50 E, Lt. 43.12 N.
STAINES, a town of England, county Middlesex, with a market on Friday, on the Thames, over which is an iron-bridge. A little above the bridge, at Coln-Ditch, is the London Mark-stone, which is the ancient boundary to the jurisdiction of the city of London on the Thames, and bears the date of 1280: 16 m w by s London; P. 2486.
STALBRIDGE, a town of England, county Dorset, with a market on Tuesday, and a manufacture of stockings. Here is an ancient cross of one stone, 21 feet high, on a base of 8 feet. Situated near the Stour, 20 m N by E Dorchester, and 112 w by s London; P. 1773.
STALEY, a village of England, county Lancaster, 9 m E Manchester, on the Tame, over which is a bridge into Cheshire. It is noted for weavers, dyers, and pressers of woollen-cloth; also some cotton-trade.
STALIMENE; see LEMNOS.
STAMFORD, a borough of England, county Lincoln, 44 m s Lincoln, and 90 N by w London, governed by a mayor, and returns 2 M.P., with a market on Monday and Friday. Situated on the Welland, which is navigable hence, and has a good trade in coal, malt, and freestone. The ancient custom of Borough-English subsists here; and it had formerly a college, whose students removed to Brasenose-college, in Oxford. Here are 6 parish-churches, one of which is in Northamptonshire; also several public schools and numerous charitable foundations; P. 5837: Lg. 0.31 Lt. 52.42 N:
STAMFORDHAM, a village of England, county Northumberland, about 10 m NNE Hexham ; P. of parish 1736. Polling-place.
STAMPALIA, an island in the Archipelago, 30 m w Stanchio, 12 m long by 5, has few inhabitants, and wants fresh water.
STANCHO, or Cos, a fertile island of the Archipelago, near the coast of Natolia, 40 m NW of Rhodes, 24 m long by 7, the birthplace of Hippocrates and Appelles. It abounds with cypress and turpentine trees, and a variety of fruits, particularly grapes and melons. CLARKE's Travels. Stancho, the capital, is a bishop's see; situated at the foot of a mountain, in a bay, defended by a large fort: Lg. 27.16 E, Lt. 36.53 N.
STANDON, a town of England, county Hertford, with a market on Friday, on the Rib, 8 m NE Hertford, and 27 N by E London; P. 2272.
STANFORD, a county-town of North America, United States, state Kentucky, Lincoln county, in a fertile plain, 51 m Frankfort, and 567 Washington; P. 363 in 1830.
STANHOPE, a town of England, county Durham, with a market on Tuesday, chiefly inhabited by miners; on the Wear, 20 m w Durham, and 263 N by w London; P. 9541. Polling-place.
STANITZA, Russia, the name signifying encampment or halting-place, and which is now annexed to every village and burg of the Cosaques.
STANLEY, 3 in England:-1st, a town, county Gloucester, 12 m s Gloucester, and 105 London, with a market on Saturday.2nd, a township, county West - York; P. 5047.-3rd, a chapelry, county Derby; P. 391.
STANMORE, a village of England, county Middlesex, 2 m NW Edgeware; P. 1144.
STANOVAIA, a small fortress of Russia, government Tobolsk, and appertains to the military line of the Ichime; forms a square with 4 bastions; also 1 church, warehouses, magazines, barracks, &c.; and 70 houses in a suburb.
STANOVOÏE-KHREBET, a chain of mountains of Asia, Russia, following the coast of the sea-of-Okhotsk, and whence a branch extends into Kamtschatka.
STANSFIELD, a town of England, county West-York, considerable for its manufac tures, 9 m w Halifax; P. 8262.
STANTZ, a town of Switzerland, capital of Underwalden; near it, in 1798, the troops of Underwalden were totally defeated by the French, who afterward burnt the town and put the inhabitants to the Stanzberg, 1 m SE Lucern, and 38 E Bern. sword. Situated in a plain, at the foot of
STARAIA-ROUSSA, a fortified-town of Russia, government Novgorod, chief of district, on 3 small rivers, the Polista, Poroussié, and Pererytitsa, 80 m s Novgorod, and 10 m lake-Ilmen; has ramparts of earth; a considerable trade in flax, linseed, and linseed-oil; oak-timber, lime, flour, salt, brandy, &c.; with several mills The salt-springs in the town contain 1 ounce of salt in 4 lbs. of water: 17 churches; P. 6000: Lg. 32.19 E, Lt. 57.51 N.
STARBROCK, a seaport of South America, Guyana, the seat of government for the settlements of Demerara and Issequibo, situated on the E side of the Demerary, nearly 2 m above the fort, which commands its entrance: Lg. 58.0 w, Lt. 6.30 N.
STARENBERG, a town and castle of Bavaria, near the N end of the lake-Wurmsee, 14 m sw München.
STARGARD, a town of MecklenburgStrelitz, with a castle belonging to the prince, 10 m N by E Strelitz.
STARGARD, NEW; see NEW-STARGARD. STARITSA, a town of Russia, government Tver, chief of district, on both banks of the Volga and on the Staritsa, 44 m sw Tver; it is very ancient; has several salt-warehouses, also a tribunal, 7 churches, a convent, a school, and 2 charities: there is a flying-bridge on the Volga, and one of wood on the Staritsa; 3 fairs; its chief trade is in corn; P. 2350.
STARITZA, a German colony, Russia, government Tver, and district Saratof, on the great-Caraman; has 57 families.
STAROBELSK, a small town of Russia, government Voronéje, chief of district, on the left bank of the Aidara, which falls into Severnoie-Donetz, 270 m Veronége.
STARODOUB, a small town of Russia, government Tchernigof, chief of district, on the Babintsa, which falls into the Vablia, one of the 4 towns given up by the Cosaques to Russia-minor at the period of their submission; has 4 brass foundries and some tanneries; also a trade with Riga in corn, masts, corn, brandy, flax, hemp, &c.; 116 m Tchernigof.
STAROIE-BYKHOW, a small fortifiedtown of Russia, government Mohilef, chief of district, on the right bank of the Dnepr, 29 ms Mohilef, enclosed by a rampart of earth and a dry ditch; has a handsome square, 2 churches, and some shops; P. 1250, chiefly Jews.
STAROIE-OSCOL, a small town of Russia, chief of district, on a high hill, bank of the Oscal, 86 m SE Coursk; has 8 churches, and 2 mills; P. nearly 5000.
START-POINT, a promontory of England, on the coast of county Devon, 14 m s by w Dartmouth: Lg. 3.48 w, Lt. 50.13 N.
STASSFURT, a town of Anhalt, with some good salt-works, 21 m ssw Magdeburg.
STATEN-ISLAND, an island of North America, United States, state New-York, 18 m long by 6, and forms the county of Richmond; on the s side is a tract of level land, but the island is in general rough, and the hills high. Richmond is the only town of note.
STATEN-LAND, a barren craggy island of South America, near the SE point of Terra-del-Fuego. The passage between them is the strait of Le-Maire. It is of a square form; and the E point, now generally passed by vessels going round cape-Horn, is called cape-St.-John: Lg. 63.47 w,
Lt. 54.50 s.
STATESVILLE, a county-town of North America, United States, state North Caro
lina, Iredel county, 146 m Raleigh, and 396 Washington.
STAUFFEN, a town of Baden, 8 m s Freyburg.
STAUFFENBERG, a town and castle of Hesse-Darmstadt, 5 m NNE Giessen.
STAUNTON, a county-town of North America, United States, state Virginia, capital of Augusta county, on the Middle, a water of the Potomac, 120 m Richmond, and 163 Washington; P.1726: Lg. 79.35 w, Lt. 38.15 N.
STAVANGEN, a seaport of Norway, government Christiansands, capital of province Stavangar; near it is a fortress called Doswick; situated on a peninsula, 105 m NW Christiansand: Lg. 5.40 E, Lt. 58.58 N.
STAVOREN, a town of Holland, province Friesland, formerly a rich city and seaport, but now much decayed, and the harbour choked up. The ancient kings of Friesland resided here, and it is even now a considerable town; has some trade in fishing, and in passage boats over the pools and lakes of the neighbourhood. Situated on the Zuiderzee, 27 m ssw Leeuwarden: Lg. 5.13 E, Lt. 52.54 N.
STAVROPOL, a town of Russia, government Simbirsk, chief of district, pleasantly situated on the E and elevated bank of a branch of the Volga, named Corney. Voloch'ka: in the centre is a sort of citadel, formed of a palisaded enclosure, and flanked by towers and a battery; containing 2 churches, one of stone, and the government buildings and shops, &c.; around this citadel are several streets occupied by soldiers and Cosaques: was founded in 1737 for the bap tized Calmouks; P. 2300. The Calmouks, however, do not reside here much, but are scattered in the district to the amount of about 14,000.
STAVROPOL, a fortified-town of Russia, government Caucasus, on the left bank of the Tachla, which falls into the Calaous, 107 m Georgiefsk; has 3 churches; P. about 1000, exclusive of the garrison.
STAWISH, a village of Russia, province Poland, on the road from Moscow to Warszawa; has brick and wooden houses; P. 300.
STEENBERGEN, a town of Holland, province North-Brabant, formerly a strong place, with a convenient harbour; but the sea has retired from it about 3 m. It has a communication with the Maas; 7 m N Bergen-op-Zoom.
STEENKEER, a town of Sweden, Norway, province Trondheim, 36 m NE Trond
STEENKIRK, a village of Belgium, province Haynau, where a victory was obtained