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of freestone. In 1807 the university was almost destroyed, by the catastrophe of a vessel loaded with gunpowder blowing up as it passed: 4 m E of the German-ocean, and 23 sw Amsterdam; P. about 50,000: Lg. 4.28 E, Lt. 52.8 N.

LEYTA, one of the Phillippine islands, Asia, 96 m long by 40. A ridge of mountains intersects it nearly in the middle from E to w, and occasions such an alteration in the climate, that when the inhabitants of one part of the island reap the others sow, and they have two plentiful harvests in the year, to which the rivers descending from the mountains contribute; it contains 9000 inhabitants, who pay tribute to the Spaniards in rice, wax, and quilts, and has a town of the same name, on the N. coast : Lg. 124.16 E, Lt. 11.20 N.

LGOW, a small town of Russia, government Coursk, chief of district, on the Seim, 46 m NE Coursk; P. 600: Lg. 36.20 E, Lt. 51.42 N.

LIAKHOVITCHI, a fortified port, Russia, government Minsk, destroyed by the Swedes in 1706.

LIAM-PO; see NING-PO.

LIBANUS, the ancient LEBANON, mountains, Asia, Turkey, between Syria and Palestine, extending from the Mediterranean-sea as far as Arabia. The summits of these mountains are always covered with snow, but below are very fruitful valleys; formerly famous for cedar-trees, but now scarcely any remain. Geographers distin

guish them into Libanus and Anti-Libanus; the latter rises on the s side of the valley, near the ruins of Sidon, and terminates at others in Arabia, in Lt. 34. The two ridges are separated from each other at an equal distance throughout, and enclose a country called by the ancients Colesyria.

LIBATTA, or OLIBATO, a town of Africa, Guinea, country Gabon, near the mouth of a river, and bay Libatta, 120 m NW Sette: Lg. 8.54 E, Lt. 0.58 s.

LIBAU, a sea-port town of Russia, on the Baltic, government Courland, chief of district, 118 m Mittau. The houses are all built of wood; its trade, which consists of the produce of Russia, is extensive; P. 5000: Lg. 21.25 E, Lt. 56.30 N.

LIBERTY, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a county, state Georgia; Riceburg is the county-town; P. 7234 in 1839. -2nd, a county-town, state Virginia, Bedford county, 145 m Richmond, 223 Washington.

LIBOURNE, a town of France, department Gironde, at the conflux of the Iller with the Dordogne, 23 m ENE Bordeaux.

LICHFIELD, a city of England, county Stafford, on a small river, which soon after

wards joins the Trent, 14 m SE Stafford, and 118 NW London. It returns 2 M.P. and has a market on Tuesday and Friday; is a county of itself, and, united with Coventry, forms an episcopal see. The cathedral is a beautiful structure, walled in like a castle, and hence the city derives its chief support, being inhabited principally by the dignitaries of the church, and such genteel families as this society attracts to the place. The chief manufactures are horse-sheeting and canvas. Lichfield is the birth-place of the celebrated Samuel Johnson; P. 6499: Lg. 1.50 W, Lt. 52.41 N. Polling-place.

LICHSTALL, or LICHTALLEN, a town of Switzerland, canton Basel, 7 m SE Basel.

LICHTENAU, a town of Hesse-Cassel, 12 m SE Cassel.

LICHTENBERG, a town of Bavaria, province Ober-Main. In the neighbourhood. are medicinal springs, quarries of marble,, and mines of copper and iron. It is 18 m Culmbach.

LICHTENFELS, a town of Bavaria, pro vince Ober-Main, with a great trade in timber; on the Main, 15 m E Bamberg.

LICHTENSTEIG, a town of Switzerland,, canton St. Gaul, 27 m ESE Zurich.

LICHTENSTEIN, a town of Saxony, with a castle on a mountain, 6 m NE Zwickau.. LICHTENVOORDE, a town and castle of Holland, province Gelderland, 17 m ESE Zutphen.

LICKING, a county of North America, United States, state Ohio; Newark is the county-town; P. 20,864 in 1830.

LIDA, a town of Russia, government Grodno, chief of district, formerly Poland,. palatinate Troki.

LIDFORD, a village of Devonshire, on the Lid, 7 m N Tavistock. A bridge is thrown over a part of the river where it is. pent between two high rocks, and near it is. a fine cataract; P. 477.

LIDKOPING, a town of Sweden, province Skaraborgs, on the s side of lake-Wenern, at the influx of the Lida, 12 m Nw Skara, and 68 NNE Goteborg.

LIEBENWALDE, a post-town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, on the Havel, 64 German m by post-road N Berlin, with a canal hence to Oderberg, which unites the Finow, Havel, and Oder.

LIEBEN WERDA, a town of Prussia, province Sachsen, in Saxony, with a castle, on the Elster, 18 m E Torgau.

LIEBENZELL, a town of Würteraberg, near which is the bath of Zell. It is 17 m N by w Stuttgart.

LIEBSTADT, a town of Prussia, province

Ost-Preussen, with a castle, 45 m E by s Marienburg.

LIEGE, a province of Belgium, lately a bishopric, surrounded by the Prussian province of Lower Rhine, the grand-duchy-ofLuxemburg, and the provinces of Namur, South-Brabant, and Limburg. It was formerly part of Westphalia. It is fertile in corn and fruit, has mines of iron, lead, and coal, and quarries of marble.

LIEGE, a city of Belgium, capital of province Liege. Here the river Maas or Meuse divides into three branches, which pass through the city under several bridges, and afterward unite. Liege is 4 m in circuit, and has 16 gates; it has also 10 large suburbs, in which and the city are a great number of churches and religious houses. The cathedral contains many relics; and the other public structures are the castle, the palace, the council-house, the town-house, and the arsenal. Here is also a famous university, and a convent of nuns. It manufactures a great quantity of fire-arms and nails, also cloth, leather, glass, clocks, hardware, steam-engines, and earthenware; and the vicinity produces much coal, iron, alum, and tobacco. In 1734 a fire happened here, which consumed the bishop's palace, with all the furniture and writings. In 1792 the French took this city; they were driven thence in 1793, but entered it again, after a short resistance, in 1794. Liege is 60 m wsw Coeln or Cologne; P. about 50,000: Lg. 5.35 E, Lt. 50.38 N.

LIEOO-TCHEOU, a city of Asia, China, of the first rank, in Quang-tong. Its territories border on the gulf and kingdom of Tonquin, from which last it is separated by inaccessible mountains. It is seated near the mouth of the Lien-kiang, which forms a convenient harbour for barks, 285 m wsw Canton: Lg. 108.39 E, Lt. 21.40 N.

LIEOU-KIEOU, or Loo-CHOO, Asia, the general name of 36 islands in the China-sea, lying between Formosa and Japan, which form a kingdom. The king is tributary to China. Each island has a particular name; the principal one, called Loo-choo, is 60 m long and 10 broad, but the others are inconsiderable. The inhabitants are civilized, and of a mild, gay, affable, hospitable, and temperate disposition; but at first very timorous, and naturally suspicious of foreigners.- HALL'S Voyages. Their manners partake more of the Japanese than Chinese character, though many of the higher classes are educated in China. Some of the customs of that country are adopted; but polygamy is not admited; even the king has only one wife, but the law permits him to have eight concubines. It produces sugar-cane, tobacco, rice, wheat, maize, millet, and a variety of vegetables. The other products are sulphur, copper, tin,

coral, mother of pearl, tortoise and other shells, and whetstones, which are in great request both in China and Japan. The chief place of trade is Napa-kiang, at the sw point of the principal island, but Kintching is the capital.

LIEOU-TCHEOU, a city of Asia, China, of the first rank, in Quang-see; on a river, in a hilly and well-watered district, 275 m WNW Canton: Lg. 108.47 E, Lt. 24.12 N.

LIERRE, a town of Belgium, province Antwerp, which has a great trade in cattle, manufactures of cotton and woollen, and distilleries and breweries to a great extent. It is seated at the junction of the Great and Little-Nethes, 10 m SE Antwerp.

LIESSE, a town of France, department Aisne, famous for an image of the Virgin Mary, to which pilgrims resort. It is 6 m E Leon.

LIETKENSHOEK, a fortress of Belgium, province Antwerp, on the w side of the Scheld, above Fort-Lillo, 8 m xw Antwerp.

LIFFORD, a borough of Ireland, capital of Donegal county, on the Foyle, which is here formed by the union of the Mourne and Fin. It is 13 ms by w Londonderry, and 126 NNW Dublin: Lg. 7.52 w, Lt. 54.48 N.

LIGNEROLLES, a town of France, department Allier, 4 m s Montlozun.

LIGNIERES, a town of France, department Cher, with a collegiate church and a castle, 24 m ssw Bourges.

LIGNITZ, a town of Prussia, province Silesia, capital of a principality. The castle is surrounded by a moat and wall; and the council-house, with its public library, is a stately edifice. The Lutherans have 2 churches. The papists have the collegiate church, to which adjoins the superb burial chapel of the princes of Lignitz and Brieg; they have also a magnificent college aud other religious foundations. Here is a spacious academy for the education of the sons of Silesian gentlemen, of both religions. It has a considerable trade in cloth and madder, and stands at the conflux of the Katzbach and Schwartzwasser, 32 m s Glogau: Lg. 16.16 E, Lt. 51.11 N.

LIGNY, a town of France, department Meuse, with a castle and a collegiate church, 8 m SE Bar-le-Duc.

LIGNY, a village of Belgium, province Namur, 3 m NE Fleurus, and 11 wxw

Namur, the scene of an obstinate battle between the Prussians and French, June 16, 1815.

LIGOR, a seaport of Asia, in the Malaya peninsula, capital of a kingdon, on the NE coast, 150 m N Queda. The chief trade is in tin, rice, and pepper: Lg. 99.25 E Lt. 8.20 N.

LIGUEIL, a town of France, department
Indre-et-Loire, 23 m SSE Tours.

LIGURIA; see GENOVA.

LIKHVINE, a town of Russia, government Calouga, chief of district, on the Oca. It has a trade in horned cattle, corn, and hemp, and is 45 m s Calouga; P. 2022.

LILIENTHAL, a town of Hannover, province Bremen, on the Warp, 10 m NNE Bremen.

LILLE, OF LISLE, a large fortified city of France, department du-Nord, and one of the most commercial and best built in France. Its citadel is a regular pentagon, one of the strongest in Europe. The streets are adorned with noble buildings; and among the public structures are the exchange, a theatre, and a general hospital. The manufactures are various, but the principal are camlets, serges, and other woollen stuffs. It was taken by the allies, after 3 months' siege, in 1708; but was restored by the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, in consideration of the demolition of the fortifications of Dunkirk. In 1792 it sustained a severe bombardment from the Austrians. It is seated in a rich and marshy soil, on the Deule, 130 m N by E Paris; P. about 61,500: Lg. 3.4 E, Lt. 50.38 N.

LILLO, a fort and village of Belgium, province Antwerp, on the E side of the Scheld, 9 m NNW Antwerp. The fort was taken, in 1793, by the French, who soon after evacuated it, but they retook it in 1794. In 1834 the Dutch occupy it.

LIMA, South America, formerly the principal audience of Peru, bounded on the N by Quito, E by the Andes, s by the audience of Charcas, and w by the Pacific.

ocean.

LIMA, South America, the capital of Peru, and an archbishop's see, with a university, 850 m s by E Quito. In 1534 Pizarro, marching through the country, was struck with the beauty of the extensive valley of Rimac, and there, on the Rimac, 6 m from Callao, he founded a city, and named it Ciudad-de-los-Reyes, or City-of-theKings, which it retains in all legal deeds, but is better known to foreigners by that of Lima. It is of a triangular form, and surrounded by a brick wall, flanked with bastions, in which are 7 gates. The longest side extends 2 m along the river, and from the base to the opposite angle it is a mile and three quarters. like most other towns founded by the It is, Spaniards, laid out in squares of 450 feet each way, with streets crossing each other at right-angles. The houses are generally only one story high, and the roofs covered with coarse linen cloth, or with reeds, for it seldom rains here; but the rich inhabitants cover theirs with fine mats, or beau

LIM

Lima

tiful cotton cloths; and there are trees planted round them to keep off the heat of the sun. Some of them have 10 or 12 large apartments on The cathedral is on one side of the great the ground floor. square, churches, and convents, are extremely rich; and many images of the saints are of gold, adorned with jewels. A fine bridge extends over the river to a suburb, called St. Lazaro, which is neatly built like shaded with groves of orange trees; also a the city. Here is a delightful public walk, large theatre, for the exhibition of bullfights. The river forms canals in the streets, which run to most of the houses, and serve to water the gardens, &c. is the general staple of Peru, for all the pronufactures, and are supplied hence with the vinces remit hither their products and manecessary commodities. Its commerce with North and South America is very considerable. Earthquakes are frequent, and some have done the city much damage, particularly that in 1746, by which Callao was destroyed. The inhabitants are rich and very debauched; yet are extremely superstitious, and have a strong belief in the power of charms. The thermometer ranges from 61° to 84°, and the winter lasts from April or May to November, when damp fogs are prevalent.— CALDCLEUGH's Travels in South America. About 2 m from the city is an extensive manufacture of gunpowder, which is deemed ingredients are found here in great abunthe best in the world; and the whole of its dance; P. about 54,000: Lg. 76.58 w, Lt. 12.2 s.

LIMELETTE, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, on the Dyle, 13 m SE Brussels.

LIMAVADY; see NEWTOWN-LIMAVADY. LIMBAH, a powerful nation of Western Africa, E of the Timanees, and NE of Sierra Leone, often at variance with the Soolimas. -LAING'S Travels in Western Africa.

long by 20; bounded on the N and E by LIMBURG, a province of Belgium, 42 m Holland, and s and w by the provinces of South Brabant and Antwerp. It has good cattle, and contains mines of iron and lead. arable ground, abounds in a fine breed of

LIMBURG, Belgium, capital of province Limburg, with a castle built of marble. Here is a manufacture of woollen cloths, and it is famous for excellent cheese. Near marble, and good mines of calamine and it are many quarries of different kinds of coal. Limburg was taken by the allies in 1703, and ceded to Austria by the treaty of Baden, but the fortifications were destroyed. The French took possession of it in 1794. It is seated on a mountain, near the river Wese, 20 m E Liege: Lg. 6.3 E, Lt. 50.38 N.

LIMBURG, a town of principality Nassau,

with a fine cathedral. The Austrians de feated the French on the heights near this place in 1796. It is seated on the Lahn, 26 m E Coblenz.

LIMEKILNS, a town of Scotland, county Fife, on the coast of the Forth, with a good tide harbour for small vessels, and an extensive trade in lime and coal. It is 3 m sw Dumfernlin.

LIMERICK, a county of Ireland, province Munster, 48 m long by 23; bounded on the N by Clare, from which it is separated by the Shannon, E by Tipperary, s by Cork, and w by Kerry. It is divided into 126 parishes, and returns 2 M.P. It is a fertile country, though the sw part is mountainous, and produces abundance of cider; P. 280,328 in 1821, 300,080 in 1831.

LIMERICK, a city of Ireland, capital of county Limerick, and generally considered as the capital of province Munster. It was formerly well fortified, and reckoned the second city in Ireland, but at present has lost its rank, not because it flourishes less, but because Cork flourishes more. Limerick is a county of itself, and a bishop's see with Ardfert and Aghadoe annexed. It is composed of the Irish and English town; the latter standing on King's island, formed by the Shannon, which here admits vessels of 500 tons to the quays; and the two towns are united by a stately bridge. Between Irishtown and the river a new quarter has been erected by lord Perry, and called after his name; the streets are spacious and regular, and it is the favourite residence of opulence. It returns 2 M.P. The linen, woollen, and paper manufactures, are carried on to a great extent; and the export of provisions is considerable. Beside the cathedral and other churches, here are some handsome public structures. King William was obliged to raise the siege of this city in 1690; but in 1691 the garrison capitulated on honourable terms.

It is 46 m

SSE Galway, and 112 wsw Dublin; P. 66,575: Lg. 8.58 w, Lt. 52.35 N.

LIMESTONE, a county of North America, United States, state Alabama; Athens is the county-town; P. 14,848 in 1830.

LIMESTONE, or MAYSVILLE, North America, United States, state Kentucky, Mason county, on the Ohio, at the influx of Limestone-creek. This is a trading place; and here the level country on the E side of the river begins. It is 67 m NE Frankfort, 500, by the river, below Pittsburg, and 478 Washington; P. 2040: Lg. 83.28 w, Lt. 38.25 N.

LIMEUIL, a town of France, department Dordogne, on the Dordogne, 20 m s Perigueux.

LIMNE, OF LIMPNE, a village of England, county Kent, 3 m sw Hythe. It was for

merly a port till choked up by sands, and its castle is converted into a farmhouse. Though now a poor place, it has the horn and mace, and other tokens left of its ancient grandeur. The Roman-road from Canterbury, called Stane-street, ended here.

LIMOCIRO, a town of South America, Brazil, Pernambuco, with a considerable interior trade; on the Capibaribe, 60 m WNW Pernambuco.

LIMOGES, a city of France, capital of department Haute-Vienne, and a bishop's It is a commercial place, and stands on the Vienne, 50 m NE Perigueux, and 110 E Bourdeaux; P. 25,000.

see.

LIMOSIN, an old province of France, now included in the departments of HauteVienne and Correze.

LIMOUX, a town of France, department Aude, with a manufacture of cloth; on the Aude, 37 m w by s Narbonne, and 50 SE Toulouse; P. 5915.

LIMSOL, a town of Cyprus, and a bishop's see. It is surrounded by mulberry gardens and vineyards, and the best wine of the island is made about this place. It stands near the s coast, 60 m sw Nicosia: Lg. 32.30E, Lt. 34.38 N.

LINARES, a town of Spain, province An dalusia, 22 m NNE Jaen.

LINARES, a town of North America, Mexico, 40 m E by s Montery.

LINCOLN, 6 counties of North America, United States:-1st, state Maine, Wis casset is the county-town; P. 57,181.2nd, state North Carolina, Lincolnton is the county-town; P. 22,625.-3rd, state Georgia, Lincolton is the county-town; P. 6,137.-4th, state West Tennessee, Fayetteville is the county-town; P. 22,086.— 5th, state Kentucky, Stanford is the county. town; P. 11,012.-6th, state Missouri, Troy is the county-town; P. 4060: all in 1830.

LINCOLN, a city of England, capital of county Lincoln, 32 m NE Nottingham, and 129 N London. Lincoln and its liberty is a county of itself, governed by a mayor; it has a market on Friday, and returns 2 M.P. It is seated on the top of a steep hill, and on the Witham, which here divides into 3 streams. It had formerly 50 churches, now reduced to 11, beside the cathedral, and is a bishop's see, the largest diocese in England. The cathedral, which is large, stands on the brow of the hill, and is admired for its rich and light architecture. Here is a castle in ruins, and the remains of religious houses are numerous. port-gate, on the N side of the city, is one of the noblest remnants of Roman-architecture in Britain. Upon the plain, with out this gate, was fought the famous battle between the partizans of empress Maud and

New

king Stephen, in which that prince was defeated and taken prisoner. The chief trade is in coal, brought by the Trent and Fossdike, and oats and wool, which are sent by the Witham. It has a small manufacture of camlets; P. 11,892: Lg. 0.25 w, Lt. 53.15 N. Polling-place.

LINCOLN, a county of England, bounded on the N by the Humber, which divides it from Yorkshire, E by the German-ocean, SE by the Wash and Norfolk, s by Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire, sw by Rutlandshire, and w by the counties of Leicester and Nottingham. It is 77 m long by 45, containing 1,758,720 acres ; is divided into 30 hundreds and 630 parishes; has 1 eity and 31 market towns; returns 4 county and 9 borough M.P., and has 18 polling-places. The coast is flat, and at low water may be seen the submarine relics of a forest, which is a great natural curiosity. The principal rivers are the Humber, Trent, Witham, Welland, and Ancolm. This county is divided into 3 districts, called Holland, Kesteven, and Lindsey. The first, which lies in the SE part, consists of fens and marshes, some in a state of nature, others cut by drains and canals, and crossed by causeways, and some kept from constant inundations by vast banks. The fens, in their native state, produce vast quantities of reeds, which are annually harvested for thatch; the drained parts form excellent pasture land, and some even yield large crops of corn. Prodigious quantities of geese are bred in this district; and here are many decoys for wild ducks, teals, wigeon, and other fowls of the duck kind. Kesteven contains the w part of the county, from the middle to the s extremity; it includes part of the fens; but the air is more salubrious than the district of Holland, and the soil more fruitful.

LINDAU, a town and castle of princi pality Anhalt-Zerbst, 5 m N Zerbst.

province Brandenburg, 5 m ENE Ruppin. LINDAU, or LENDOW, a town of Prussia,

LINDE, a town of Sweden, province Orebro, near which is a mineral spring, 46 m wsw Westeras.

LINDENFELS, a town of Hesse-Darmstadt, 20 m SE Darmstadt.

ern

LINDESNESS, or NAZE, the most southMandals, on which are two lighthouses: promontory of Norway, province Lg. 7.0 E, Lt. 58.0 N.

LINGEN, a post-town of Hannover, capital of province Lingien; on the Ems, 40 m by post-road NNW Münster.

LIN-KIANG, a city of Asia, China, of the first rank, in Kiang-si. It is thinly inhabited; but is of note on account of one of its villages being the general mart for all the drugs sold in the empire. It is seated on the Yu-ho, 410 m N by E Canton : Lg. 115.0 E, Lt. 27.58 N.

LINKOPING, a town of Sweden, capital of province East-Gotland, and a bishop's see, with a castle. It is not half the size of Nordkoping, but the streets are more regular and elegant. Here are two large and splendid churches; and near the prin cipal one is a magnificent theatre. It is seated on the Stang, near lake Roxen, 24 m sw Nordkoping: Lg. 15.28 E, Lt. 58.25 N. LINKOPINGS, or LINKIOPING; see OSTER-GOTTLAND.

LINLITHGOW, a borough of Scotland, capital of county Linlithgow, seated on a rising ground, overlooking a lake at its E

end. The manufacture is leather and shoes; the woollen trade and bleaching Here the kings

business are also carried on. Lindsey, the largest

district and most elevated part, includes all
the county that lies N of Lincoln and the
Fossdike, which Henry I cut between the
Witham and the Trent..
In the NW,
the
Trent, Dune, and Idle, form an island,
called Axholm, which is a rich tract, pro-
ducing much flax. To the NE is a large
tract of heathy land, called the Wolds, in
which great flocks of sheep are bred. The
cattle of this county, and the horses and
sheep, are all of large breed; P. 208,557 in
1801, and 317,244 in 1831.

LINCOLNTON, a town of North America, United States, state North Carolina, chief of Lincoln county. It is 33 m E by s Morganton, and 35 w Salisbury.

LINDAU, a city of Bavaria, province Isar, with a castle and a wall, deemed to be a Roman work. It is a trading place, on an island of the lake of Constance, joined to the mainland by a long bridge, 22 m ESE Constance.

of Scotland had one of their noblest palaces, now in ruins; but the room is still shown in which queen Mary was born. It is 17 m w Edinburgh; P. 4874: Lg. 3.33 w, Lt. 56.0 N.

LINLITHGOW, or WEST-LOTHIAN, a county of Scotland, 20 m long by 12; bounded by the frith-of-Forth, SE by Edinburgshire, sw by Lanerkshire, and NW by Stirlingshire. It is divided into 13 parishes, and returns 1 M.P. The surface is finely diversified with hill and dale; and the chief rivers are the Avon and Amond. It is fertile in corn and pasture, and produces coal, iron, limestone, and lead; P. 17,844 in 1801, and 23,291 in 1831.

LINNHE, LOCH; see LOCH-LINNHE. LINSELLES, a village of Belgium, province West-Flanders, 8 m N Lille. Here, in 1794, the French gained a bloody battle over the allies, but chiefly the English, commanded by the duke of York.

2 DJ m

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