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oranges, betels, pumpkins, melons, and salad herbs. In the rainy season, from May to August, they cannot pass from one house to another without wading through the water, but sometimes they have boats. The Tonquinese in general are courteous to strangers; but the great men are haughty and ambitious, the soldiers insolent, and the poor thievish. They buy all their wives, of which the great men have several. The men are so addicted to gaming, that when every thing else is lost, they will stake their wives and children; and in hard times they will sell them to buy rice to maintain themselves. The first new moon that happens after the middle of January is a great festival, when they rejoice for 10 days together; and they have another great feast in May or June, when their first harvest is got in. Their religion is paganism, and yet they own a Supreme Being. Their idols have human shapes, but in very different forms; they have likewise some resembling elephants and horses, placed in small low temples built of timber. The language is very guttural, and some of the words are pronounced through the teeth; it has a great resemblance to the Chinese, and the characters are the same; and, like them, they write with a hair pencil. This kingdom, about the year 1800, became subject to Cochin-china, and is ruled by a viceroy. Cachao is the capital.

TONSBERG, a seaport of Norway, province Grevskabernes. It has some commerce in timber; and near it is Widloe, the most considerable salt-works in the kingdom; on a bay, 46 m s Christina: Lg. 10.18 E, Lt. 59.18 N.

TOOBOUAI, an island in the Pacificocean, Australasia, discovered by Cook in 1777, not exceeding 6 m in diameter; but there are hills in it of considerable elevation, covered with herbage (except a few rocky cliffs) and patches of trees interspersed to their summits; plentifully stocked with hogs and fowls, and produces various fruits and roots: Lg. 149.23 w, Lt. 23.52 s. TOOLOMBAH, a town and fortress of Asia, Hindostan, in Mooltan, on the Pravey, 60 m ENE Mooltan.

TOONGABBEE, a town of Australasia, New-South-Wales, at the head of the harbour of Port-Jackson, 15 m w by N Sydney. TOORMOOZ; see TERMED.

TOTEL, or TOPL, a town of Austria, Bohemia, in the circle of Pilsen, at the source of the Topel, 25 m Nw Pilsen.

TOPETINA, a town of North America, Mexico, in Mechoacan, at the mouth of a river, near the Pacific-ocean, 55 m NW Zacatula.

in the circle of Leutmeritz, with numerous hot-springs. Near this place the Austrians defeated the Prussians in 1762; 16 m Nw Leutmeritz.

TOPSHAM, a seaport of England, county Devon, at the head of the estuary of the Ex, 5 m sɛ Exeter, 170 sw London, with a market on Saturday. It has a spacious quay, belonging to the city of Exeter, of which it is the port; P. 3184.

TOR, a seaport of Asia, Arabia, with a good harbour on the Red-sea, defended by a castle. It has a Greek convent, in the gardens of which are fountains of bitter water; E side of the gulf-of-Suez, 136 m SSE Suez: Lg. 38.40 E, Lt. 28.15 N.

TORBAY, a bay of England, Englishchannel, on the coast of Devon, E of Dartmouth, formed by 2 capes, called Berry-head and Bob-nose. The s point, Berry-head, is well fortified, and is in Lg. 3.28 w, Lt. 50.24 N. Here the prince of Orange landed in 1688, when he came from Holland.

TORBIA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, county Nice: an ancient Gothic tower, and many remains of Roman monuments; 7 m E Nice.

TORCELLO, a town of Italy, on a small island of Torcello, gulf-of-Venice. It has several churches, and an elegant nunnery, 7 m N Venice.

TORDA, or TORENBURG, a town of Austria, Transylvania, famous for its saltworks; 15 m wNw Clausenburg, 48 Nw Hermanstadt.

TORDESILLAS, a town of Spain, province Leon, with a palace, where queen Joan, mother of Charles V, ended her melancholy days; on the Douro, or Duero, 15 m sw Valladolid, 75 SSE Leon.

TOREE, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bahar, capital of district, 112 m ssw Bahar: Lg. 85.2 E, Lt. 23.41 N.

TORELLO, a town of Spain, in Catalunia, where a battle was gained by the French, over the Spaniards, in 1794; near the mouth of the Ter, 19 m E by s Girona, 60 NE Barcelona.

TORGAU, a fortified town of Prussia, province Sachsen, left bank of the Elbe, 79 m NE by post-road Leipzig; noted for excellent beer, and has manufactures of silk and cloth. Here the king of Prussia obtained a great victory over the Austrians in 1760: Lg. 13.3 E, Lt. 51.32 N.

TORIGNY, a town of France, department Manche, 7 m SE St.-Lo.

TORJOK, a town of Russia, government Tver, chief of district, on the right bank of the Tvertza, 44 m Petersburg, on the high

TOPLITZ, a town of Austria, Bohemia, road from Petersburg to Tver; 1 cathedral,

21 churches, 2 convents, 1 post-house, several public magazines, a foundling, 1000 houses, of which about 300 are of brick, and many shops; 3 annual fairs; trade in articles made of leather; chief support the traffic and transport of goods; P. 10,000: Lg. 35.15 E, Lt. 57.56 N.

TORNA, a town of Austria, Hungary, with a castle, 22 m wsw Kaschau.

TORNEO, a town of Russia, Finland; ceded to Russia, with Finland, in 1809. It had formerly a good harbour, but is now much injured by the accumulation of sand: chief exports, butter, tallow, salted provisions, timber, dried fish, rein-deer skins, iron, deals, tar, and fir. It has also some inland trade, for the Laplanders come annually to exchange skins and furs for what they want. The houses are low, but some have two stories, with sashed windows; the whole is built of wood, and enclosed with palisades: in the vicinity is an entire mountain of iron ore. In June the sun is here visible at midnight-MAUPERTUIS' Travels. It is seated on a peninsula, formed by the Torneo, at the N extremity of the gulf-of Bothnia, frontier of Sweden, 165 m NE Umea: Lg. 24.12 E, Lt. 65.51 N.

TORO, a town of Spain, province Leon, on a hill, by the Douro, over which is a bridge, 20 m NNE Zamora, 30 NNE Sala



TORON, a town of Turkey, Macedonia, a neck of land between the gulfs-ofMonte-Santo and Cassandra, 90 m SE Salonica: Lg. 24.10 E, Lt. 39.58 N.

TORQUAY, a village of England, county Devon, near the N side of Torbay, 7 m SE Newton-Bushel: it has a neat range of buildings for summer visitors, who may here enjoy convenient bathing and a romantic situation. Near it is a singular cavern called Kent's-hole, 60 feet long, and about 20 high.

TORQUEMADA, a town of Spain, province Leon, on the Arlanza, 14 m E by N Palencia; P. 2300.

TORRE-DEL-GRECO, a town of Italy, Naples, Terra-di-Lavoro, destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in 1631, and by another in 1794; now re-built on the lava that covers the former habitations, 5 m SE Naples.

TORRE-DE-MONCORVO, a walled town of Portugal, province Traz-oz-Montes; it has a castle, 42 m ssw Braganza.

TORRE-DE-LAS - SALINAS, a town of Spain, province Valencia, near the Mediterranean it has a small lake formed by salinesprings, and the most considerable saltworks in all Spain; 20 m SE Origula, 37 NNE Carthagena.

TORREJO, a town of Spain, province New Castile, 15 m s Madrid.

TORREMACHA, a town of Spain, province Estremadura, 16 m s by w Merida.

TORRES, a town of Spain, province Granada, on the Mediterranean, 45 m sw Granada.

TORRES-NOVAS, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, with a castle; in a fertile plain, 38 m N by E Santarem.

TORRES-STRAITS, a channel of Australasia, separates New-Guinea from Terra-Australis. It was passed through in 1770 by Cook, who, supposing his ship to be the first explorer, named it Endeavour-Strait; but it has since appeared to have been explored by Torres, a Spaniard, so early as 1606, and, in honour of the discoverer, has received its present appellation. See TERRA-AUS


TORRES-VEDRAS, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, with a castle, near the Atlantic, 27 m N Lisboa.

TORRINGTON, a town of England, county Devon, on the Torridge, 11 ms by w Barnstable, 194 w by s London; governed by a mayor, with a market on Saturday; it has 2 churches, manufacture of stuffs, and some remains of a castle; P. 3093. Polling-place.


TORTOLA, North America, principal of the Virgin-islands, in the West-Indies, 12 m long by 4. It belonged to the Dutch, who built a strong fort, from which they were expelled by the British in 1666: produces excellent cotton, sugar, and rum; harbour at the E end of the island:

Lg. 64.50 w, Lt. 18.28 N.

TORTONA, a town of Italy, Austria, in Milanese, with a good citadel on an eminence; has been often taken in the wars of Italy; on the Scrivia, 42 m s by w Milan: Lg. 8.58 E, Lt. 44.54 N.

TORTOSI, a city of Spain, province Catalunia; a bishop's see, with a university and a citadel; divided into the old and new towns, both surrounded by modern fortifications. The entrance is over a large bridge of boats, on the Ebro, whose head is fortified. It has a great number of churches and religious houses; among which the cathedral, the royal college of Dominicans, and the convent of the Carmelites, are the most remarkable; situated in a country fertile in corn and fruit, and abounding with quarries and mines of silver, iron, alabaster, jasper of divers colours, and stones with veins of gold: a great deal of silk and oil, and very fine potters' ware. In 1811 it surrendered to the French, and evacuated in 1813; partly on a plain and partly on a hill, 48 m sw Tarragona, 96 SE Saragossa: Lg. 0.35 E, Lt. 40.48.

TORTOSA, a town of Asia, Turkey,

Syria, with a castle and lofty walls, near the Mediterranean, 35 m NNE Tripoli.

TORTUE, or TORTUGA, an island of North America, West-Indies, near the N coast of Hispaniola, so named from the great number of tortoises found on and near it. Here the French bucaniers used to fortify themselves; 20 m long and same broad: the N side is mountainous, and abounds in wild boars, but the s is very fertile. Chief place Cayona, defended by a fort, and has a safe harbour for large vessels: Lg. 72.44 w, Lt. 20.4 N.

TORTUGA, or SAL-TORTUGA, an uninhabited island, South America, coast of Caraccas, 60 m w of the island of Margaritta, and about 26 in circuit: it has a few goats, and tortoises come upon the sandy banks to lay their eggs. At the E end is a large saline pond; where salt begins to kern in April; and for some months after ships come here to lade salt; at the w end is a small harbour with fresh water: Lg. 65.26 w, Lt. 11.6 N.


Tosa, a sea-port of Spain, province Catalunia, on a bay that forms a good harbour; built partly on a plain, and partly on a steep hill that projects into the sea. On the top of the hill is a strong citadel, with other fortifications, 57 m NE Barcelona: Lg. 2.54 E, Lt. 41.42 N.

TOSIA, a town of Asia, Turkey, Natolia, with 6 mosques, manufactures of coppervessels and green leather, situated 85 m NE Angura.

in 1596 by Balthazar Zanches, who was confectioner to Philip II of Spain, and the first who exercised that art in this country; P. 6937.

TOTTINGTON, a town of England, county Lancaster; much trade and manufactures, 4 m wNw Bury; P. of chapelry 9280.

TOUCERA, a town of Africa, Barbary, in Biledulgerid, dependent on Tunis: Lg. 10.55 E, Lt. 32.30 N.

TOUL, a fortified town of France, department Meurte, lately a bishop's see. The cathedral and late episcopal palace are handsome structures. Claude Gelée, better known as Claude Lorraine, a celebrated painter, was born here in 1600.-VIES DES PEINTRES. Situated on the Moselle, in a plain almost surrounded by mountains, 13 m w by s Nancy, 34 wsw Metz; P. 7304.

TOULA, a city of Russia, capital of government Toula, chief of district Toula, or both banks of the Oupa, 600 m Petersburg, 122 m Moscow; contains 1 cathedral, 25 churches of stone, and 1 of wood, 6 chapels, 11 hospitals, courts of justice, of stone; an archbishop's palace, a consistory, and a seminary; 2 public dispensaries, a gymnasium, a school for the poor nobility, a foundling, prisons, 4 stone bridges and 5 of wood, 34 forges, 32 public houses, 300 shops built of stone and 400 of wood, and 1 06 streets: manufactures of silk stuffs, hats, rope, locks, leather, candles, soap, &c., and particularly of fire-arms and swords, employing more than 7000 persons: this im

Tosso, a town of Sweden, province Elfs- perial establishment embraces an arsenal borg, 42 m NNE Uddevalla.

TOST, a small post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, 35 m by post-road sw Oppeln,

post-road to Gleiwitz; P. 2000.

TOSTER, or SHUSTER, a city of Asia, Persia, capital of Kusistan, on the Karoon, 190 m wsw Ispahan; once celebrated, where the kings of Persia had a magnificent palace-in Scripture called Shushan, on the river-Ulai. The houses are good, and principally built of stone; the streets narrow and dirty; manufactures of silks, stuffs, and rich cloths; P., Persians and Arabs, about 15,000: Lg. 48.58 E, Lt. 31.40 N.

TOTNESS, a borough of England, county Devon, on the side of a hill, by the Dart, 27 m sw Exeter, 196 w by s London; governed by a mayor, returns 2 M.P., and has a market on Saturday: manufacture of serges; formerly walled, with 4 gates, only one now standing, and has the ruins of a castle; P. 3432.

TOTTENHAM, a village of England, county Middlesex, 5 m x London; it has 3 ranges of almshouses, one of them founded

ready to supply 100,000 men : mathematical and philosophical instruments are also made and numerous articles of hardware,

plated and silver goods, &c., P. 25,500: Lg. 37.35 E, Lt. 54.11 x.

TOULA, a government of Russia, lying between 54.3 and 52.55 N Lt., bounded N by the government of Moscow, E by the government of Riazan, s by the governments of Tambow and Orel, and w by the govern ment of Calouga: divided into 12 districts, each having a chief town of the same name, viz. Toula, containing the capital of the government, Alexine, Cachira, Venew, Bohoroditsk, Epiphane, Efremof, Novosil, Tcherne, Crapivna, Odoew, and Belew: contains more than 200 rivers, of which the chief are the Oca, Oupa, Osetr, CrassivaiaMetcha, Zoucha, Chate, and the Don, which has its source in lake-Ivan: the country is very flat and fertile, exporting much superabundant produce; wood, hemp, wax, and honey; as also sail-cloth, leather, and paper, are sent to various parts of the empire, particularly to Moscow: the church is governed by the archbishop of Toula and Belew; P 904,075.

TOULON, a fortified city, seaport, and considerable naval arsenal of France, capital of department Var, lately an episcopal see. It is seated on a bay of the Mediterranean, and divided into the old and new quarter: the first, which is ill built, has nothing remarkable in it but the Rue-auxArbres (a kind of mall) and the townhouse; the other contains the magnificent works constructed by Louis XIV, many fine houses, and a grand oblong lined with trees, and serving as a parade. The old and new harbours communicate with each other by means of a canal. The old haven has a noble quay, on which is the townhouse, protected by two moles, begun by Henry IV.

The new haven was constructed by Louis

XIV, as were the fortifications; it contains an arsenal, a rope walk, a park of artillery, docks, basins, &c. Both the old and new port have an outlet into the outer-road or harbour, which is 10 m in circuit, surrounded by hills, and defended by forts and batteries. It is the only mart in the Mediterranean for the re-exportation of EastIndia products: extensive tunny fishery. In 1793 it capitulated, in the name of Louis XVII, to the British, who not finding the place tenable, evacuated it in the same year. It is 30 m ESE Marseilles, and 195 SSE Lyon; P. 28,419: Lg. 5.55 E, Lt. 43.7 N.

TOULOUSE, a city of France, capital of department Haute-Garonne, an archbishop's see, with a university. It is the largest city in France, next to Paris and Bourdeaux, though the population bears no proportion to its extent. It was the capital of the Tectosagi, who made so many conquests in Greece. It was afterwards a Roman colony, and successively the capital of the Visigoths (who destroyed the superb amphitheatre, the capital, and other Roman monuments) and that of Aquitaine. The city walls and houses are of brick. The cathedral is handsome, the archbishop's palace magnificent. The town-house forms a perfect square of 324 feet, and is 66 high: the principal front occupies an entire side of the grand square, called the Place-Royale. In the great hall, called the Hall-of-Illustrious-Men, is the statue of the chevalier Isaure, and the busts of all the great men to whom the town has given birth. Communicating with the Atlantic by the Garonne, and with the Mediterranean by the canal of Languedoc, it might have been a very commercial city; but the taste of the inhabitants has been principally for the sciences and belles lettres. The little commerce they have consists in leather, wool, drapery, blankets, oil, iron, mercery, hardware, and books, and near it is a manufacture of indigo, from the woadplant. The bridge over the Garonne forms a communication with the suburb of St.

Cyprian. Here, in 1814, marshal Soult was defeated by the duke of Wellington; both generals being then ignorant of the allied powers being in possession of Paris. It is 125 m SE Bourdeaux, and 320 s by w Paris; P. 59,630: Lg. 1.26 E, Lt. 43.36 N.

TOUR, a town of France, department Puy-de-Dome, 22 m s Clermont.

TOURINSK, a town of Asia, Russia, government Tobolsk, chief of district, on the banks of the Toura, 300 m w Tobolsk ; it has 6 churches, 1 convent; P. 4000: Lg. 64.5 E, Lt. 57.56 N.

TOUR-LA-BLANCHE, a town of France, department Dordogne, 15 m Nw Perigueux

TOUR-DU-PIN, a town of France, department Isere, 25 m E Vienne.

TOUR-DE-ROUSILLON, a town of France, department Pyrenees-Orientales, on a hill, 3 m E Perpignan.

TOUR-LA-VILLE, a town of France, department Manche, celebrated for its manuture of glass. It is separated from Cherburg by a river.

TOURAINE, an old province of France, lying NE of Poitou; forms department Indre-et-Loire.

TOURNAN, a town of France, department Seine-et-Marne, 20 m ESE Paris.

TOURNAY, a city of Belgium, province Haynau, a bishop's see, with a strong castle. It has several fine manufactures, and is particularly famous for carpets. The cathedral and the abbey of St.-Martin are very magnificent. It has been often taken, the last time by the French, on the conquest of Flanders in 1794. It is seated on both sides the Scheldt, over which is a bridge, 14 m ESE Lisle, and 30 ssw Ghent.

TOURNON, a town of France, department Ardeche, with a fine college and a castle, on the side of a mountain, by the Rhone, 48 m s Lyon; P. 3971.

TOURNUS, a town of France, department Saone-et-Loire, on the Saone, 15 m s Chalons.

TOURS, a city of France, capital of department Indre-et-Loire, an archiepiscopal see. It is seated on the Loire, and near the Cher. Over the former is one of the finest bridges in Europe, consisting of 15 elliptic arches, each 75 feet in diameter. The principal church is remarkable for the delicacy of its structure, curious clock, mosaic pavement, and rich library of manuscripts. The Rue-Royale, which traverses the the city from the bridge, built by Louis XVI, after a great fire, is a beautiful street. The red-wines of Tours are much esteemed, and it has considerable manufactures of all sorts of silk stuffs.-WRAXALL's Travels. In one of the suburbs is the abbey of Marmou

tier, reputed the most ancient in the west. Near the city is Plessis-les-Tours, a palace built by the profligate and superstitious Louis XI, who died here in 1483. It is 60 m NNE Poitiers, 130 sw Paris; P. 23,233: Lg. 0.42 E, Lt. 47.24 N.

TOWCESTER, a town of England, county Northampton, on the Weeden, 9 m ssw Northampton, 60 Nw London, with a market on Tuesday, and manufactures of lace and silk. It was once strongly fortified, and the Roman Watling-street passes through it; P. 2671. Polling place.

ToWTON, a village of England, county West-York, 3 m SE Tadcaster, famous for the battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, so fatal to the latter, on PalmSunday 1461; P. 115.

TOWAN, a town of Wales, county Merioneth, on the Desynni, at its entrance into Cardigan-bay, 11 m s Barmouth, 218 wNw London; P. 2694. Polling-place.

TRACHENBERG, a town of Prussia, province Silesia; country abounding in corn, cattle, and timber. It has a fine castle, and is 26 m NNW Breslau.

TRAFALGAR; see CAPE-TRAFALGAR. TRAJANOPOLI, a town of Europe, Turkey, Romania, a Greek archbishop's see, though a small place and thin of people, on the Marissa, 40 m s Adrianople, 135 w by N Constantinople.

TRAJETTO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Terra-di-Lavoro, built on the site of the ancient Minturna. Here are the ruins of an amphitheatre and aqueduct. Seated near the mouth of the Garigliano, in the Mediterranean, 25 m Nw Capua.

TRAIN, a town of Bavaria, 20 m E Ingoldstadt.

TRAINA, a town of the island-of-Sicily, in Val-di-Demona, 39 m w Taormina.

TRALEE, a borough of Ireland, capital of county Kerry, returns 1 M.P.; has a castle, and in the vicinity is a chalybeate spring. It stands on the Lee, which flows to the head of Tralee-bay, 60 m sw Limerick; P. 9614: Lg.10.0 w, Lt. 52.4 N.

TRALLEBORG; see TRELLEBORG. TRAMORE, a town of Ireland, county Waterford, much frequented for sea-bathing, on a dangerous bay of its name, 7 m s Waterford.

TRANENT, a town of Scotland, county Hadington, 6 m w by s Hadington, 10 E Edinburgh; P. 3620.

TRANI, a city of Italy, Naples, Terra-diBari, the see of an archbishop, and the usual residence of the governor of the province, which is sometimes called Terra-diTrani. It is much decayed since the harbour has been choked up; stands on the

gulf-of-Venice, 26m w by N Bari, 125 N by E Naples: Lg. 16.36 E, Lt. 41.18 N.

TRANQUEBAR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Tanjore, with a fort and factory belonging to the Danes, who pay an annual rent to the raja. The town is surrounded by a wall and bastions; it has 3 churches, a large mosque, and several pagodas. In 1807 it was taken by the British, and restored in 1814. It stands at one of the mouths of the Cavery, 149 m s by w Madras: Lg. 79.55 E, Lt. 11.2 N.

TRANSYLVANIA, a province of Austria, formerly annexed to Hungary; bounded w and N by Hungary, E and s by Turkey. It is 160 m long by 150, and surrounded by high mountains, which, however, are not barren.

It produces as much corn and wine as is wanted, and there are rich mines of gold, silver, lead, copper, quicksilver, and tellurium; the last never yet discovered in any other part of the world. It has undergone various revolutions, and now belongs to the house of Austria. The inhabitants are of various religions, as Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Socinians, Armenians, Greeks, and Mohamedans. Hermanstadt is the capital.

TRAPANI, a seaport on the Nw point of the island-of-Sicily, in Val-di-Mazara, with a strong fort. It has an excellent harbour in the form of a sickle, whence its ancient name Drepanum; it is a trading place, famous for salt-works, and fisheries of tunny and coral. It is 28 m N Mazara, and 56 w Palermo: Lg. 12.38 E, Lt. 38.10 N.

TRAPS, a cluster of rocks of Australasia, at cape-South, New-Zealand.

TRAU, a seaport of Austria, Dalmatia, a bishop's see, on the gulf-of-Venice, and joined by a long bridge to the isle-of-Bua, Lt. 43.38 N. w by N Spalatro: Lg. 16.12 E,

18 m

TRAUNSTEIN, a town and castle of Bavaria. Great quantities of salt are made here from water brought 14 m over moun. tains, by means of engines and pipes, from Reichenhall. It stands on the Traun, 16 m WNW Salzburg.

TRAVANCORE, a province of Asia, South Hindostan, extending along the coast of Malabar from cape-Comorin to the province of Cochin. It is 140 m long by 70 at the N extremity, and contracting gradually to the s point. Elephants, -buffalos, tigers, mon. keys, and apes, are numerous in the adja cent forests. The chief products are pepper, betel and cocoa nuts, cardamoms, cassia, frankincense, mace, long nutmegs, wild saffron, elephants' teeth, and sandal wood.

TRAVANCORE, Asia, capital of province Travancore, enclosed by extensive lines. It is 124 m SSE Cochin: Lg. 77.23 E, Lt. 8.36 N.

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