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STOLPEN, a town of Saxony, with a castle on a mountain, 16 m E Dresden.
STOLZENAU, a town of Hannover, province Hoya, on the Weser, 14 m ssw Nienburg.
STONE, a town of England, county Stafford, with a market on Tuesday, on the Trent, 7 m N by w Stafford, and 140 Nw London; P. 7808.
STONEHAVEN, a seaport of Scotland, county Kincardine, a county-town, on a bay at the influx of the Carron; the harbour is secured by a high rock and stone pier. Near it are the ruins of the castle of Dunottar, on a lofty perpendicular rock almost surrounded by the sea. It has manufactures of brown linen, and some trade in dried fish and oil; 20 m NNE Montrose; P. 1886 in 1811: Lg. 1.53 w, Lt. 56.58 N.
STONEHENGE, a celebrated Druidical monument, on Salisbury-plain, 6 m x Salisbury. It consists of several huge stones, 8 of which stand erect, and 12 are fallen to the ground; but which once evidently formed several concentric circles.-STUKELY.
STONINGTON, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, NewLondon county, with a harbour, 14 m E New-London; P. 3401 in 1830.
STORA-KOPPARBERGS, or FALU, a province of Sweden, bounded N by Jamtland, NE by Gefleborgs, SE by Westeras, sw by Orebro and Carlstads, and w by Norway; area, 8288 geographical square miles; P. 128,225. Falu is the capital: contains several extensive lakes, and the Oster-Dal flows from Nw to SE nearly through its centre. It has many forests, and its chief produce is corn and hemp; with mines of copper, iron, and silver, and quarries of porphyry.
STORNOWAY, a seaport of Scotland, on the E side of the isle-of-Lewis, at the head of Loch-Stornoway, with a good harbour for ships of any burden. A packet sails weekly to Ulapool, on the mainland of Rosshire; P. 5422 Lg. 6.18 w, Lt. 58.18 N.
STORTFORD, or BISHOP'S-STORTFORD, a town of England, county Hertford, with a market on Thursday, on the side of a hill, by the Stort, which is navigable hence to the Lea; 16 m ENE Hertford, and 30 NNE London; on the E side is the ruin of a castle on a mount; P. 3958. Polling-place.
STOUGHTON, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Norfolk county, 15 m s Boston, whence great quantities of charcoal, baskets, and brooms, are sent to Boston; P. 1591 in 1830.
STOURBRIDGE, a corporate town of England, county Worcester, with a market on Friday, on the Stour, 22 m N Worcester,
and 126 Nw London. It has manufactures of glass, iron, and earthenware, and supplies the best fire-clay. Here is a free-school founded by Edward VI, and a hospital for the maintenance and education of 60 boys; P. 6148. Polling-place.
STOURBRIDGE, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Worcester county, famous for excellent butter and cheese, 22 m sw Worcester; P. 1444 in 1830.
STOURMINSTER, a town of England, county Dorset, on both sides of the Stour, over which is a bridge, 20 m NE Dorchester, and 108 w by s London, with a market on Thursday, and a manufacture of white baize. Near it are the ruins of a castle, once the seat of the West-Saxon kings.
STOURPORT, a village of England, county Worcester, 4 m s Kidderminster. It is seated opposite the place where the Stour and the Staffordshire and Worcestershirecanal enters the Severn, over which is a long stone bridge. Polling-place.
STOW-MARKET, a town of England, County Suffolk, on the Orwell, 12 m Nw Ipswich, and 69 NNE London, with a market on Thursday, and a manufacture of woollen stuffs. It has a navigable cut to Ipswich. Polling-place.
STOW-ON-THE-WOLD, a town of England, county Gloucester, with a market on Thursday, on a bleak hill, 22 m E Gloucester, and 83 w by x London; P. 1810.
STOWE, a parish of England, county Buckingham, 2 m NW Buckingham; P. 490.
STOWEY, a town of England, county Somerset, with a market on Tuesday, 8 m w by N Bridgewater, and 147 w by s London; P. 234.
STRABANE, a borough of Ireland, county Tyrone, on the Mourne, 2 m above Lifford, where it meets the Fin, and their junction forms the Foyle, 13 m ssw Londonderry, and 16 NNW Ómagh.
STRADBALLY, a town of Ireland, Queen's county, 7 m E by s Maryborough, and 8 w by N Athy.
STRADELLA, a town of Italy, Austria, Milanese, with a castle, near the Po, 10 m SE Pavia.
STRAIT-OF-JUAN-DE-FUCA, a large bay or gulf of the Pacific-ocean, on the w coast of North America; its narrow entrance is in Lg. 125.3 w, Lt. 48.25 N.
STRAIT-OF-TAMAN, the ancient Cimmerian-Bosphorus, a channel that forms the communication between the Black-sea and the sea-of-Asoph, and a separation between Europe and Asia. The bay-of-Taman extends E from the Strait.
STRALSUND, a fortified seaport of Prussia, chief of province Pommern. Its com.
merce is considerable. The churches and other public buildings are handsome; and the library belonging to the college has a capital collection of coins. Charles XII, in 1714, came hither after his return from Turkey, and ennobled the magistracy. It was forced to submit to the allies in 1715, but restored in 1720. It surrendered to the French in 1807, and was restored in 1814. It is almost surrounded by the Baltic and the Proner-Wick. It is 40 m ENE ROStock, and 90 Nw Stettin; P. 11,000: Lg. 13.18 E, Lt. 54.30 N.
STRANGFORD, a town of Ireland, county Down, on Strangford-bay, at the narrow part that connects Strangford-lough with the Irish-sea. Over the channel is a ferry to Portaferry; 9 m ENE Downpatrick.
STRANGFORD-LOUGH, an inlet of the sea, Ireland, county Down, on the E coast. It is 17 m long by 5, and abounds with excellent fish. The entrance into it from Strangford-bay is not a mile broad. It contains some good harbours, and 54 small islands, on which the burning of kelp employs a great number of hands.
STRANGNAS, a town of Sweden, province Nykoping, and a bishop's see, with a college, on lake Maeler, 30 m w by s Stockholm.
STRANRAER, a borough and seaport of Scotland, county Wigton, at the E extremity of Loch-Ryan, 26 m w by N Wigton. It is frequented by vessels employed in the coasting trade and herring fishery; and some ships sail hence to the Baltic and Ireland with corn. It has manufactures of cotton, linen, and leather; P. 3329: Lg. 4.57 w, Lt. 55.0 N.
STRASBURG, a city of France, capital of department Bas-Rhin, and a bishop's see, near the Rhine, on the Ill, which forms many canals. It has 6 bridges between the different quarters of the city. The principal structures are built of a red stone, dug from the quarries which are along the Rhine. It was formerly imperial, and taken by Louis XIV in 1681; and was confirmed to France by the peace of Ryswick in 1697. The citadel and fortifications have been so much augmented, that Strasburg is considered one of the strongest places in Europe, and has 6 gates. In the cathedral is a clock, which shows the motions of the constellations, the revolutions of the sun and moon, the days of the week, the hours, &c. Another remarkable circumstance in
this cathedral is its beautiful pyramidical tower, which is 470 feet high. In the church of St.-Thomas is the magnificent tomb of the famous marshal Saxe. It has considerable commerce, and manufactures of tobacco, porcelain, steel, lace, carpets, cloth, leather, &c. It is 65 m N Basel, 75 E
Nancy, and 290 E Paris; P. 50,000: Lg. 7.45 E, Lt. 48.35 N.
STRASBURG, or BRODNICA, a town of Prussia, province West-Preussen, with a castle, 30 m ENE Thorn.
STRASBURG, a town of Austria, kingdom Illyria, on the Gurk, 12 m N Klagenfurt.
STRASBURG, 2 in North America, United States:-1st, a town, state Virginia, Shenandoah county, on the N bank of the Shenandoah, 18 m ssw Winchester.-2nd, a town, state Pennsylvania, Lancaster county, on an eminence, 58 m w Philadelphia.
STRASNITZ, a town of Austria, Moravia, with a castle and college, on the Marsch, 12 m ssw Hradisch.
STRATFORD, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, Fairfield county, on the Stratford, 5 m from its mouth, and 14 wsw Newhaven; P. 1807 in 1830.
STRATFORD, a village of England, county Suffolk, 12 m sw Ipswich, on the Stour, over which is a bridge into Essex. It has a woollen manufacture; P. 200.
STRATFORD, a considerable village of England, county Essex, 3 m ENE London, separated from Bow, in Middlesex, by the Lea, over which is a bridge, said to be the most ancient stone one in England; P. 3371.
STRATFORD-UPON-AVON, a town of England, county Warwick, governed by a mayor, on the Avon, over which is a long bridge, 8 m sw Warwick, and 93 NW London, with a market on Thursday; memorable as the birthplace of Shakspeare in 1564, who was buried here in 1616; P.3488. Polling-place.
STRATFORD, FENNY, a town of England, county Buckingham, with a market on Monday, on the Ïyssel, and the Roman Watling-street, 12 m E Buckingham, and 46 NW London; P. 635.
STRATFORD, STONEY, EAST AND WEST, a town of England, county Buckingham, on the Ouse, and the Roman Wat.. ling-street, 8 m NE Buckingham, and 53 Nw London, with a market on Friday. has 2 churches, and a cross built by Edward I, in memory of his queen Eleanor. The inhabitants are principally lace-makers; P. of East 1053, of West 566.
STRATHAVEN, a town of Scotland, county Lanark, sometimes called Avendale, on the Avon, 12 m w Lanerk, and 16 SSE Glasgow, with a castle on a rocky eminence,
and a considerable manufacture of cotton; P. 5761.
STRATHMORE, a considerable valley of Scotland, extending along the s foot of the Grampian-hills, traversing the kingdom from Dumbarton to Stonehaven, bounded
on the s by the Lennox, Ochil, and Sidlawhills. It is fertile and interspersed with towns, villages, and elegant seats.
STRATTON, a town of England, county Cornwall, with a market on Tuesday, 18 m NNW Launceston, and 222 w by s London; P. 1613. Polling-place.
STRAUBING, a town of Bavaria, with a castle. It has broad streets, handsome churches, and fine convents. It was taken in 1743 by the Austrians, who demolished the fortifications, but restored 1745. It is seated on the Danube, 22 m SE Regensburg, and 68 NE München, or Münich.
STRAUSBURG, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, with an old castle on a mountain. It has manufactures of baize and cloth, 21 m ENE Berlin.
STREHLA, a town of Saxony, near which the Prussians were defeated by the Austrians in 1760. It is seated on the Elbe, 14 m NW Meissen.
STRELITZ, NEW, a town and capital of grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It owes its origin to the ducal palace at OldStrelitz being burnt down in 1712; in consequence of which, in 1713, the duke began to erect a magnificent palace, 2 m from the site of the old one, at a place called Glienke, which was then his hunting seat; and in 1733 he founded a town adjoining to the palace, and called it New-Strelitz. The centre is a spacious market-place, and thence a number of streets branch out in straight lines; the chief street leads to the palace, and the next to a pleasant lake. It is seated 55 m SE Güstrow, and 56 x by w Berlin; P. 4000 Lg. 13.12 E, Lt. 53.21 N.
STRELITZ, a post-town of Prussia, province Silesia; see GROSSE-STREILITZ.
STRELNA, Russia, with an imperial palace, 11 m Petersburg, road to Peterhof, on the gulf-of-Cronstadt: its situation agreeable, views fine; commenced by Peter-the Great in 1711, now finished and belonging to the grand-duke Constantine.
STRETENSK, a small town of Russia, government Irkoutsk, chief of district, on the banks of the Chilka, 690 m E Irkoutsk country fertile.
STRETTON; see CHURCH-STRETTON. STRICHEN, a town of Scotland, county Aberdeen, on the Strichen, 33 m N by E Aberdeen; P. 1802.
STRIEGAU, a small post-town of Prussia, province Silesia, on the Striegauer-Wasser, 10 m by post-road Nw Schsveidnitz, postroad to Liegnitz; P. 2700.
STROEMSHOLM, a town of Sweden, province Westeras, with an antique royal castle. Here is a canal to the iron mines at Norberg. It is situated on lake Maeler, 18 m sw Westeras.
STROKESTOWN, a town of Ireland, county Roscommon, 12 m N by E Roscommon.
STROMA, a small island of Scotland, on the coast of Caithness, in the Pentland-frith. It has caverns that were once used as places of interment by the inhabitants of the neighbouring islands; near its N end is a dangerous whirlpool.
STROMBERG, a town of Prussia, province Westfalen, 20 m ESE Münster, and 20 Nw Paderborn.
STROMBERG, a post-town of Prussia, province Nieder-Rhein, famous for sole leather, 19 m w Mainz.
STROMBOLI, most north-eastern of the Lipari islands, and an immense volcano. It rises in a conical form to the height of 3000 feet; and toward the E are 3 small craters ranged near each other, nearly at two-thirds of its height. Notwithstanding its fire, some fishers inhabit its shores. It has a few small vineyards on the N side. It is the only volcano known that flames without ceasing: Lg. 15.40 E, Lt. 38.40 x.
STROMNESS, a town of Scotland, Orkney-islands, on the sw side of the island of Pomona, with an excellent harbour, and a good trade, 9 m w Kirkwall; P. of isle 2182, of town 650.
STROMOE, Denmark, the largest of the Faroe-islands, in the Northern-ocean, 27 m long by 8. It has a town called Thorshaven, the capital of all the islands, and the common market. It stands on a tongue of land on the SE side of the island, and has a fort on a projecting point on the E side of the bay: Lg. 7.0 w, Lt. 62.10 N.
STROMFOE, a town of Sweden, Norway, province Aggershus, 20 m sw Christiana.
STROMSTAD, a town of Sweden, province Goteborg, famous for shell-fish, on the coast of Christiana-Fiord, 45 m NNW Uddevalla:
Lg. 11.10 E, Lt. 58.53 N.
STRONSAY, Scotland, one of the Orkneyislands, lying NE of that of Pomona, 7 m long by 4, but so indented by bays that no part is above a mile from the sea. It produces an immense quantity of kelp, feeds many sheep and cattle, and affords 2 good harbours; P. 1071.
STRONTIAN, a town of Scotland, county Argyle, noted for rich lead mines, in which a new kind of mineral was discovered in 1790, and named strontites, on the N side of
loch-Sunart, 15 m wsw fort-William.
STROUD, a town of England, county Gloucester, 11 m s by E Gloucester, and 100 w by N London, with a market on Fri day, on a brook, whose waters being pecu liarly adapted to the dyeing of scarlet, its banks are crowded with the houses of
clothiers. A navigable canal accompanies the brook w to the Severn; and another extends E to the Thames, at Lechlade; P. 8607.
STROUD, a considerable village of England, county Kent, joins the N end of Rochester-bridge, being parted from the city by the Medway; P. 1549.
STUDLAND, a village of England, county Dorset, at the NE end of the isle-of-Purbeck, 4 m E by N Corfe-castle, on a bay of the same name, which extends to Pool-harbour; P. 435.
STUHLINGEN, a town of grand-duchyof-Baden, with a castle on a mountain, 9 m s Fürstenberg.
STUHLWEISSENBURG, a town of Austria, Hungary, and the see of a bishop, on the Can, s side of the forest-of-Bakony. It was formerly the place for the coronation of the kings, and generally also of their interment; it is much decayed since the fortifications were dismantled in 1702. It is 37 m sw
Buda, and 93 SE Presburg; P. about 13,000: Lg. 18.22 E, Lt. 47.12 N.
STUTTGART, the capital of kingdom Würtemberg, surrounded by walls and ditches, in a plain, among mountains, near the Neckar, 36 m E Baden, and 52 NE Strasburg. It has an ancient castle, with a rich cabinet of curiosities, royal-palace, orphan house, college, royal-academy and observatory, military-academy, and one of the largest libraries in Germany. The streets are narrow in the city, and the houses generally of wood; but there are fine houses, and straight streets, in one of the suburbs. It has manufactures of silks, stockings, ribands, &c., and around it are numerous vineyards and gardens. It was taken by the French in 1796, and again in 1799; P. about 21,000: Lg. 9.21 E, Lt. 48.44 N. STYRIA; see STIRIA.
SUABIA, formerly a state of Germany, bounded on the N by Franconia and the circle of Lower-Rhine, w by that circle and Alsace, s by Switzerland, and E by Bavaria; containing 11,750 square m, and including the kingdom of Würtemberg, the grandduchy-of-Baden, the principalities of Hohenzollern, Oetingen, Fürstenberg, Mindelheim, Augsburg, and Constance, also Burgau, Brisgau, and some other territories.
SUAKEM, or SUAQUAM, a seaport of Africa, capital of Abex, on a small island of the same name, in the Red-sea. It is the residence of a Turkish governor, under the pacha of Cairo; formerly very flourishing, but now fallen into decay: Lg. 37.55 E, Lt. 19.56 N.
SUBIACO, a town of Italy, Campagna-diRoma, on the Teverone, 33 m E by N Rome.
SUCA, a town of Africa, Barbary, in
Tripoli, near lake-Suca, from which great quantities of excellent salt are obtained, on the gulf-of-Sirtis, 36 m s Mesurata.
SUCADANA, a town of Asia, on the sw coast of Borneo, capital of a district producing much camphor and opium, at the mouth of a river: Lg. 110.15 E, Lt. 1.10 s.
SUCCESS-BAY, South America, Terradel-Fuego, on the w shore of the strait-ofLe-Maire. The s promontory, at its entrance, is called cape-Success: Lg. 65.27 w, Lt. 55.1 s.
SUCKUT, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, capital of a small district, on the Beyah, 126 m ENE Lahore: Lg. 75.47 E, Lt. 32.41 N.
SUCZAVA, a town of Turkey, province Moldavia, 70 m Nw Jassy.
SUDA, a fort of the isle-of-Candia, on an islet, in the gulf-of-Suda; one of the finest and safest harbours in the Levant. This fort was constructed by the Venetians, who
preserved it a great while after Candia was no longer in their possession. It is 8 m E Canea.
SUDAN; see NIGRITIA.
SUDBURY, a borough of England, county Suffolk, on the Stour (which is navigable hence to Manningtree), 14 m s Bury-St.Edmund, and 54 NE London, governed by a mayor, and returns 2 M.P., with a market on Saturday. It has 3 churches; many kinds of thin stuffs are still made here; P. 4677: Lg. 0.50 w, Lt. 52.11 N.
SUDERFORS, a town of Sweden, province Upsal, the only place in the kingdom where anchors are forged, near the Dahl, above the cataract of Elfscarleby; 38 m Nw Upsal.
SUDERHAMN, a town of Sweden, province Gefleborg, with a considerable trade in linen, butter, timber, and flax, and a manufacture of arms. It is situated at the mouth of a river, near the gulf of-Bothnia, 20 m N Gefle: Lg. 17.5 E, Lt. 61.18 N. SUDERKOPING, or SODERKOPING, a town of Sweden, province Oster-Gotland, much decayed, on a navigable river, 10 m SSE Nordkoping.
SUDERMANIA, former name of a province of Sweden.
SUDERTELJE, a town of Sweden, province Stockholm, with a manufacture of worsted and silk stockings, near lake-Maeler, 16 m wsw Stockholm.
SUDOREE, the southernmost of the Faroe islands, in the Northern-ocean, belonging to Denmark. Near it is a whirlpool, occasioned by a crater 61 fathoms deep in the centre, which in storms is very dangerous; but at the reflux, and in still weather, the inhabitants venture in boats for the sake of fishing.
SUEN-HOA, a city of Asia, China, of the
first rank, in Pe-tche-li, amid mountains near the great wall, 77 m NNW Peking: Lg. 114.39 E, Lt. 40.38 N.
SUERRAH; see MOGODOR.
SUEZ, a seaport of Africa, Egypt, with a castle, at the Nw extremity of the Redsea, called the gulf-of-Suez. This gulf is separated from the Mediterranean by an isthmus, 125 m over, which joins Africa to Asia. It is small and mean, surrounded by a sandy country, destitute of fresh water. Fish is plentiful; but all other provisions, for both men and animals, are brought from Cairo, or more distant places; and the only potable water is brought by the Arabs from the wells of Naba, on the E side of the gulf, 7 m from Suez. Several vessels are employed in the navigation between this port and Jidda, where the commodities are bartered for Indian goods and the coffee of Arabia. The commerce of Cairo with Suez is carried on by frequent caravans; chiefly in corn, wood, iron, lead, wool, cloth, cochineal, sails, cordage, &c.; 65 m E Cairo: Lg. 32.28 E, Lt. 30.0 N.
SUFFIELD, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, Hartford county, on the w side of the Connecticut, 17 m N Hartford; P. 2690 in 1830.
SUFFOLK, a county of England, bounded on the s by Essex, w by Cambridgeshire, N by Norfolk, and E by the German-ocean, 58 m long by 28, containing 13,000 square m; is divided into 21 hundreds and 75 parishes, has 29 market-towns, returns 4 county and 7 borough M.P., and has 14 pollingplaces. The soil is various, but the country in general level; near the shore it is sandy and full of heaths, yet abounds in rye, peas, turnips, carrots, and hemp, with numerous flocks of sheep. High Suffolk, or the Woodlands, in the inland part, yields good pasture, and feeds abundance of cattle. The part on the confines of Essex and Cambridgeshire is excellent pasture; and to the N and Nw it is fruitful in corn. The chief produce is butter and cheese; and the principal rivers are the Stour, Waveney, Little-Ouse, Larke, Deben, Gipping, and Orwell. Ipswich is the principal town; but the assizes are held at Bury-St.-Edmund ; P. 210,431 in 1801, and 296,304 in 1831.
SUFFOLK, a county-town of North America, United States, state Virginia, Nansemond county, on the Nansemond, 102 m Richmond, and 224 Washington.
SUHLA, a town of Saxony, county Henneberg, with manufactures of fustian, linen, leather, and steel; on the Hasel, 7 m N Schleusingen.
SUHLINGEN, a town of Hannover, province Hoya, on a river of its name, 22 m w by N Nienburg.
SULIMANIA; see SOLYMANIA.
SULLY, or SOULI, a town of Europe, Turkey, Albania, district Sully. The inhabitants are now famed for the noble resistance they made during many years to the arms of Ali Pacha, who succeeded, however, in 1803, when most of the inhabitants quitted their country. Has a castle, on the side of a ridge of the Sully mountains; 27 m ssw Janina.
SULLY, a town of France, department Loiret, on the Loire, 20 m SE Orleans.
SULMONA, a town of Italy, Naples, in Abruzzo-Citra, and a bishop's see, on the Sora, 26 m sw Civita-di-Chieti. It has 11 churches and 12 convents; and is the
birth-place of the poet Ovid: Lg. 14.55 E,
Lt. 42.0 N.
SULTANIA, or SULTANABAD, a town of Asia, Persia, in Irak, in a rich plain, 60 m WNW Casbin; with the remains of a magnificent mosque, which contains the tomb of sultan Chodabend. It was formerly a city, of which considerable ruins are yet visible; and is now refounded under its latter appellation. In 1809 the citadel was completed, near to which is the king's villa.
SULTAN POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Khandesh, on the Tuptee, 90 m ENE Surat.
SULTZ, a town of France, department Haut-Rhin, with a medicinal spring, 13 m ssw Colmar.
SULZ, a town of Würtemberg, with some salt-works, near the Neckar, 12 m x Rothwell.
SULZBACH, a town and castle of Bavaria, province Regen, in a mountainous country, fertile in hops, 6 m Nw Amberg.
SULZBURG, a town of Suabia, grandduchy-Baden, with a fine palace, in a territory fertile in good wine, 8 m sw Friburg.
SUMATRA, an island of Asia, Indianocean, the most western of the Sundaislands, 950 m long by from 150 to 200, separated from Malacca by the strait of that name, and from Java by the strait-ofSunda. The equator divides it into almost equal parts; the one extremity being in 5.35 N, the other in 5.56 s Lt., and Acheen Head, the N extremity, is in Lg. 95.34 E. A chain of mountains runs through its whole extent, the ranges in many parts being double and treble, and among them there were many volcanos: Mount-Ophir, situate nearly under the equator, is about the height of the Pike-of- Teneriff. Between the ridges of the mountains there are extensive plains, considerably elevated above the surface of the maritime lands. In