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VERREZ, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, with a fortress so strong by nature as to be deemed impregnable. It is 15 m SSE Aosta, and 35 N Turin.

VERRIERES, a town of Switzerland, canton Neuchatel; celebrated for excellent cheese; 6 m ENE Pontarlia, and 20 wsw Neuchatel.

VERRUA, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, in Montserrat. In 1705 it was besieged by the French for six months, and then reduced to a heap of ruins. Seated on a hill, near the Po, 18 m w Casal, and 20 NE Turin.

VERSAILLES, a town of France, capital of department Seine-et-Oise; a bishop's see. In the reign of Louis XIII it was only a small village, in a forest 30 m in circuit; and here this prince built a hunting seat in 1630. Louis XIV enlarged it into a magnificent palace, which was the usual residence of the kings of France till 1789, when Louis XVI and his family were removed from it to Paris, and also the greater part of its beautiful paintings and ornaments. The government afterward established here a great museum of the French school, which is now become a noble collection. The gardens are adorned with a vast number of

statues, and the waterworks are magnifi



The gardens and the park are 5 m in circuit, and surrounded by walls. sailles contains 28,477 inhabitants. 12 m wsw Paris: Lg. 2.7 E, Lt. 48.48 N.

It is

VERSAILLES, a county-town of North America, United States, state Kentucky, Woodford county; on a creek of the Kentucky, 13 m Frankfurt, and 546 Washington; P. 904 in 1830.

VERSETZ, a town of Austria, Hungary, and a bishop's see. It contains some extensive barracks; near it are the ruins of a castle. It is 45 m s Temeswar.


VERTUS, a town of France, department Marne, at the foot of a mountain; 17 m sw Chalons, and 78 NE Paris.

VERVIERS, a town of Belgium, province Liege; very thriving manufacturing place, extensive trade in cloth; 4 m sw Limburg, and 17 ESE Liege.

VERVINS, a town of France, department Aisne; famous for a treaty in 1598, between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain. It is 40 m NE Soissons; P. 2555.

VERZUOLO, a town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, with a castle. It is surrounded by an ancient wall, flanked with towers, 3 m 8 Saluzzo.

VESLEY, a town of France, department Aisne, on the Aisne, 10 m ENE Soissons. VESOUL, a town of France, capital of the

department Haut-Saone. In the vicinity is a medicinal spring. It is seated at the foot of a mountain, near the Durgeon, 24 m N Besançon, and 106 ESE Troyes; P. 5583: Lg. 6.8 E, Lt. 47.36 N.

VESUVIUS, a volcanic mountain of Italy, 7 m to the E of Naples: about 30 m in circuit at the base, and 3600 feet high. The base on all sides is covered with towns, which with the villages and villas above them to some height, may be said to cover the lower parts of the mountain with fertility, beauty, and population. The next region is a scene of perfect devastation, furrowed on all sides with streams of lava, extended in wide black lines over the surface. The upper part has the shape of a truncated cone; it is covered almost entirely with ashes, and extremely difficult of ascent. The top of this is a narrow ledge of burnt earth or cinders, nearly 2 m in circuit, with the crater open beneath, about 350 feet in depth. The shelving sides of the crater are formed of ashes and cinders, with some rocks and masses of lava intermingled, enclosing at the bottom a flat space of nearly half a mile in diameter: s of this cone is a ridge, called Monte-di-Somma, which on the side towards the cone presents a rugged preci pice, but the other sides shelve gently to the plain. The eruption of Vesuvius in the year 79, in the time of Titus, was accompanied by an earthquake that overturned several cities, particularly Pompeii and Herculaneum, and proved fatal to Pliny the naturalist: great quantities of ashes were carried not only to Rome, but also beyond the Mediterranean into Africa. Another violent eruption in 1631, totally destroyed the town of Torre-del-Greco. Next to those in 79 and 1631, that of 1794 was the most violent; the lava flowed over 5000 acres of cultivated land, and Torre-del-Greco was again destroyed.

VESZPRINZ, an episcopal town of Austria, Hungary, with a castle; on the Sed, 27 m wsw Stuhlweissenburg: Lg. 17.58 E, Lt. 47.4 N.

VEVAY, a town of Switzerland, canton cipal manufacture is hats; it has a large Vaud; several splendid edifices. The printrade in cheese, and its wine is in great estimation. It stands on the Veveyse, near lake-Geneva, 10 m E by s Lausanne.

rica, United States, state Indiana, SwitzerVEVAY, a county-town of North Ameland county, on the Ohio, 105 m Indianapolis, and 556 Washington; some fine vineyards; P. Swiss emigrants.

VEZELAY, a town of France, department Yonne, on the top of a mountain, 26 m E by s Auxerre.

VIEDANA, a town of Italy, in Mantuan, on the Po, 8 m N Parma, and 17 s Mantua,

VIANA, a town of Spain, in Navarre, near the Ebro, 4 m NE Logrono, and 42 sw Pamplona.

VIANA, a town of Portugal, province Entre-Douro-e-Minho, with a good harbour for small vessels, and a road defended by a fort. It is well built at the foot of a steep mountain, 20 m w by N Braga.

VIANDEN, a town of Holland, Luxemburg, divided into the old and new town by the Uren, or Our. It has a castle on an inaccessible rock; manufactures of cloth and leather. It is 22 m N Luxemburg, and 22 NW Treves, or Triers.

VIANEN, a town of Holland, province South-Holland, with a castle; seated on the Leck, 7 m s Utrecht, and 30 E by N Rot


VIATKA, a government of Asia, Russia, lying between 55 and 61 N Lg., and 47 and 56 E Lt., bounded N by the government of Vologda, E by the government of Perm, s by the governments of Orenburg and Carzan, and w by the governments of Vologda and Costroma; divided into 10 districts, each having a chief town of the same name, viz. Viatka, capital of the government Cotelnitche, Slobodsk,Ourjoume, Orlow, Yaransk, Glazow, Elabouga, Sarapoul, and Nolinsk: in some parts mountainous, in others marshy; fertile only on the left bank of the Cama, and on the Tcheptsa: chief products, iron, copper, and potash; manufactures of Russia-leather, brandy, boat-building, mats, and various utensils of wood: the church is governed by an archbishop, who resides at Viatka; P. 908,708.

VIATKA, a city of Asia, Russia, capital of the government of Viatka, chief of district, on the banks of the Viatka and Kllinovitca, 1200 m NE Petersburg, 690 Moscow; 2 convents, 15 churches, 1 seminary, 1 gymnasium: trade with Arkhangel, Petersburg, and Astrakhan, in corn, linseed-oil, honey, wax, &c.; P. 10,000: Lg. 51.38, Lt. 58.24 N.

VIAZMA, a town of Russia, chief of district, government Smolensk, on both banks of the Viazma, but is irregularly built; 2 convents, 17 churches; numerous manufactures of leather. In 1812 the greater part of it was burned by the Russians, before they evacuated it on the approach of the French. It is 108 m SE Smolensk P. 7000: Lg. 34.68, Lt. 55.6 N.


VIBORG, or VIBURG, a city of Denmark, North-Jutland, capital of a diocese, chief court of justice; bishop's palace, cathedral, church, and townhouse burnt in 1726, now handsomely rebuilt; 43 m NE Ringkiobing: Lg. 9.45 E, Lt. 55.56 N.

VIC, town of France, department Meurte, on the Seille, 15 m ENE Nancy.

vince Catalunia, and a bishop's see, în a fertile plain, 35 m N Barcelona.

VIC-LE-BIGORE, a town of France, department Haute-Pyrenees, on the Adour, 12 m N Tarbes.

VIC-LE-COMTE, a town of France, department Puy-de-Dome, with a palace, near the Allier, 15 m SE Clermont. About a mile from it are mineral springs.

VICEGRAD, a town of Austria, Hungary; a castle on the top of a rock, in which the crown of Hungary was formerly kept: on the Danube, 13 m E Gran.

VICENTINO, a province of Austria, Italy, bounded N by Trentino and Feltrino, E by Trevisano and Paduano, s by Paduano, and w by Veronese. It is 35 m long by 27, and so pleasant and fertile, that it is called the garden and flesh-market of Venice. Here are also mines of silver and iron, and quarries of stone, almost as fine as marble.

VICENZA, a city of Austria, Italy, capital of Vicentino, a bishop's see. It is a large place, with above 20 palaces from the designs of Palladio, a native. The cathedral is embellished with marble, and has some good paintings. There are above 60 other churches; and in that of Corona, the high altar and the painting of the Magi paying adoration to Christ, by Paul Veronese, attract particular notice. In the fine square before the townhouse are two lofty columns, with St.-Mark's winged lion on one of them, and on the other a statue of our Saviour. The other remarkable places a s are the Montedella-Pieta with its fine library, the Palazzo-Vechio with its admirable paintings, the Theatrum-Olympicum after the model of the amphitheatre of Palladio, and the triumphal arches in the public promenade of Campo-Marzo. The manufactures are silk, damask, and taffeta. About 4 m from the city, on a mountain, is the church of Della-Madonna-di-Monte-Berico, much frequented by pilgrims. It is seated in a fertile plain, between 2 hills, at the union of the rivulets Bachiglione and Rerone, 22 m E Verona, and 32 w Venice; P. 25,000: Lg. 11.40 E, Lt. 45.28 N.

VICHY, a town of France, department Allier, near which are some mineral springs. It is seated on the Allier, 40 m s Moulins.

VICO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Principato-Citra, near the bay-of-Naples, 6 m NE Sorento.

VICO, a town and island of Corsica, in which is the cathedral of the bishop of Sagona, a town now in ruins, a little to the NW on a small river, near the gulfof-Sagona, 16 m NE Ajaccio.

VICOVARO, a town of Italy, province SaVIC, or VIQUE, a city of Spain, pro- bina, near the Teverone, 10 m NE Tivoli,

VICTORIA, a seaport of South America, Brazil, capital of province Spirito-Sancto, on the w side of an elevated island, 15 m in circuit, in the spacious bay-of-Spirito-Sancto, which has secure anchorage, and its entrance defended by 5 small forts. The island is in a good state of cultivation. has a handsome church, several convents, and a fine palace for the governor, formerly a college for the Jesuits. It is 230 m NE St.-Sebastian: Lg. 50.10 w, Lt. 20.5 s.


VICTORIA, a town of South America, province Caraccas: almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake in 1812; it is seated in a well-cultivated district, near the Tuy, 30 m sw Caraccas.


VIELSK, a town of Russia, government Vologda, 156 m NNE Vologda.

VIENNA, a city of Germany, capital of Austria, an archbishop's see; in a fertile plain, on the right bank of the Danube, at the influx of the rivulet Vien. The city is not of great extent, nor can it be enlarged, being limited by strong fortifications, but it is populous. The streets in general are narrow, and the houses high; but there are several fine squares, and in that called Joseph-square, is a colossal equestrian statue in bronze of Joseph II. The chief public buildings are the imperial palace, the palaces of the princes, the imperial chancery, the imperial arsenal, the city arsenal, the mint, the general hospital, the townhouse, the custom-house, the bank, the library, and the museum. Vienna was ineffectually besieged by the Turks in 1589 and 1683. At the latter period, the siege was raised by John Sobieski, king of Poland, who totally defeated the Turkish army. No houses without the walls are allowed to be built nearer to the glacis than 600 yards; so that there is a circular field of that breadth all round the city. The eight suburbs are said to contain 200,000 inhabitants; but they are not populous in proportion to their size, for many houses have extensive gardens. The circuit of the city and suburbs is upward of 18 m. Many families live during the winter within the fortifications, and spend the summer in the suburbs. The cathedral is built of freestone, and its beautiful steeple contains a bell of uncommon magnitude, cast out of the cannon taken from the Turks. Joining to this church is the archbishop's palace. The university had several thousand students, who, when this city was besieged, mounted guard; as they did also in 1741. The archducal library is much frequented by foreigners; it contains about 300,000 printed books, and 10,000 manuscripts. The archducal treasury, and a cabinet of curiosities of the house of Austria, are great rarities. The Danube is here very wide, and contains several

woody isles, one of which is the Prater, or imperial park; it also forms a sort of harbour, where are magazines of naval stores, and ships have been fitted out to serve on that river against the Turks. The trade of Vienna is in a flourishing state, and it has manufactures of silk stuffs, gold and silver lace, tapestry, cutlery, plateglass, porcelain, &c. In 1805 this city surrendered to the French and their allies; but was given up by the peace at Presburg. In 1815 a congress of the sovereigns in Europe assembled here, to complete the provisions of the treaty of Paris in 1814. It is 350 m NNE Rome, and 630 E Paris, 896 SE London; P. 272,000: Lg. 16.16 E, Lt. 48.13 x.

VIENNA, a town of North America, United States, state Maryland, Dorchester county, on the Nanticoke, 14 m from its brisk trade with the neighbouring seaports. mouth, and 53 s by E Chester. It has a

VIENNE, a town of France, department Isere, on the Rhone, over which it had formerly a bridge, but only some piers remain: formerly the see of an archbishop, and the capital of a province called Viennois. The cathedral is a handsome Gothic structure. The commerce consists in wine, silks, and sword-blades. It is 17 m SSE Lyon, and 46 NW Grenoble; P. about 14,079: Lg. 4.56 E, Lt. 45.32 N.

VIENNE, a department of France, including the E part of the old province of Poitou. Bounded by the departments of Mayenne-et-Loire, Indre-et-Loire, Indre, Haute-Vienne, Charente, and Deux-Sevres. It takes its name from a river which rises in the department of Correze, and flows into the Loire 5 m above Saumur; area 2800 square m. Poitiers is the capital; P. 282,731.

VIENNE, HAUTE, a department of France, bounded N by department Indre-etLoire, and s by that of Charente; area 2800 square m; principal rivers, the Vienne, Charente, Dive, Clain-and-Creuse ; chief produce, corn, pulse, hemp, flax, wine,

and potatoes. Poitieres is the capital;

P. 297,016.

VIERZON, a town of France, department Cher, 17 m Nw Bourges, and 48 s by E Orleans.

VIESTI, a town of Italy, in Capitanata, on the gulf-of-Venice, at the foot of mountGargano, 25 m NE Mafredonia: Lg. 16.40 x, Lt. 41.51 N.

VIGEWANO, a town of Italy, Austria, Milanese, with a castle on a rock; near the Tesino, 16 m sw Milan.

VIGNEMALE, one of the loftiest among the Pyrenees, 10,432 feet above the sea. -HARDY'S Tour in the Pyrenees.

VIGNOT, a town of France, department

Meuse, on the Meuse, 16 m E Bar-le-Duc, French in 1705, 1744, and 1792. It is 3 m 24 SSE Verdun.

VIGNUOLA, or VIGNOLA, a town of Italy, in Modenese, 15 m SE Modena.

VIGO, a seaport of Spain, province Galicia, on the s side of a bay of its name, defended by a fort on an eminence, and an old castle. It has a good harbour, into which, in 1702, the English and Dutch fleet forced their passage, and made themselves masters of the Spanish treasure-fleet, when just arrived from America. In 1719 the English got possession of Vigo, but relinquished it after raising contributions. It is 14 m WNW Tuy, 47 s Compostella: Lg. 8.40 w,

Lt. 42.14 N.

VIHIERS, a town of France, department Mayenne-et-Loire, 20 m s Angers, 20 w by s


VIJANAGRAM, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in the Circars, 36 m sw Cicacole.

VIJAY POOR, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Nepaul, chief of the hilly and woody district of Morung, at the SE extremity of the kingdom. It stands on a hill, 140 m ESE Catmandoo : Lg. 87.12 E, Lt. 26.56 N.

VILBEL, a post-town of Hannover, province Gros-Herzogth, on the Nidder, 4 m NE Frankfurt.

VILLA-BELLA, a town of South Ame rica, Brazil, capital of province MattoGrosso. All the houses are constructed of earth, and white-washed. It is seated in a champaign country, near the Guapore, 700 m x by w Assumption: Lg. 62.30 w, Lt. 14.50 s.

VILLA-BOA, a town of South America, Brazil, capital of province Goyaz, and a bishop's see, with a fort. The chief edifices are the mother church of St.-Anna, 6 chapels, and the palace of the governor. The Vermilho divides it into two parts, which communicate by 3 bridges. It stands in the centre of Brazil, 500 m wNw SanPaulo: Lg. 52.10 w, Lt. 16.20 s.

VILLA-DE-CONDE, a town of Portugal, province Entre-Douro-e-Minho, mouth of the Ava, 20 m x Oporto.

at the

VILLA-DO-BISPO, a small town of Portugal, province Algarve, near the w coast, 9 m NNE cape-St.-Vincent; very poor, dirty, and no trade; P.. about 200 families.. LANDMANN'S Portugal.

VILLA-FLOR, a town of Portugal, pro. vince Tras-os-Montes, 28 m s by w Bra


VILLA-FRANCA, a seaport of Italy, Sardinia, province Nice, with a castle and fort. The harbour is capacious, and the mountains which enclose it extend into the sea like promontories. It was taken by the

E Nice.

VILLA-FRANCA, a town of Italy, in Veronese, with a silk manufacture, 10 m s Verona.

VILLA-FRANCA, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, on the Tejo, 20 m NE Lisboa.

VILLA-FRANCA, a town of Africa, on the s coast of St.-Michael, one of the Azores, defended by a fort and other works. Opposite, half a mile from the shore, is a small island, which has a basin with a narrow entrance, where 50 vessels might anchor in security. It is 16 m ESE Ponta-Delgada.

VILLA-FRANCA-DE-PANADES, a town of Spain, province Catalunia; manufactures of small arms and linen, and several brandy distilleries, 18 m w by s Barcelona.

VILLA-HERMOSA, a town of Spain, province Valencia, 58 m N Valencia.

VILLA-HERMOSA, a town of North America, Mexico, in Vera Cruz, on the Tabasco, 60 m sw Tabasco, and 70 NE Chiapa.

VILLA-D'INGLESIAS, a town and island of Sardinia, a bishop's see, 35 m wsw Cagliari.

VILLA-JOIOSA, or JOYSA, a town of Spain, province Valencia, on the coast of the Mediterranean, 18 m ENE Alicant, 24 s Gandia.

VILLA-MARIA, a town of South America, Brazil, province Matto-Grosso, on the left bank of the Paraguay, 25 m above the influx of the Jauru, and 200 ESE VillaBella.

VILLA-NOVA-D'ASTI, a fortified town of Italy, Sardinia, Piedmont, 14 m w Asti. VILLA-NOVO-DA-CERVEIRA, a town of Portugal, province Entre-Douro-e-Minho, on the Minho, near its mouth, 27 m NW Braga, 45 N Oporto.

VILLA-NOVA-DE-PORTIMAO, a fortified seaport of Portugal, in Algarva, on the Sylves, a spacious and secure bar with 13 feet water, harbour defended by 2 forts. It is 9 m ENE Lagos, and 42 w by s Tavira: Lg. 8.27 w, Lt. 37.12 N.

VILLA-NOVA-DE-PORTO, a town of Portugal, province Entre-Douro-e-Minho, on the Douro, opposite Oporto (on which it depends), and defended by several forts.

VILLA-DO PRINCIPE, a town of South America, Brazil, province Minas-Geraes, capital of the district Serro-Frio, so named from a mountain, celebrated for its riches in diamonds and gold. The inhabitants are chiefly miners and cultivators. It is 150 m NNE Villa-Rica: Lg. 43.10 w, Lt. 18.10 s.

VILLA-DO-PRINCIPE, a town of North

America, in the island-of-Cuba, the seat of ment Lozere, 18 m E Mende, and 19 N Alais. a royal-audience, 80 m Nw Bayamo.

VILLA-REAL, a town of Portugal, Trasos-Montes, at the conflux of the Corgo and Ribera, 12 m N by E Lamego, and 38 SE Braganza.

VILLA-REAL, a town of Spain, province Valencia, near Minjares, 40 m NNE Valencia.

VILLA-REAL-DE-CUIABA, a town of South America, Brazil, province MattoGrosso, capital of the rich and fertile district of Cuiaba, near the Cuiaba, which flows s through the district; 300 m E Villa


VILLA-RICA, a town of South America, Brazil, capital of the rich province MinasGeraes, with a fort. It is large, populous, and flourishing; and most of the public edifices, with four bridges, are of stone. The inhabitants, chiefly miners and traders, are supplied by 14 fountains with excellent water. It stands at the s base of a ridge of mountains, on uneven ground, 230 m NNW St.-Sebastian: Lg. 30.50 w, Lt. 20.20 s.

VILLA-RICA, a town of South America, Chili, on lake-Malabangen, 60 m NE Valdivia.


VILLA-RICA-DE-ESPIRITU-SANTO, town of South America, Paraguay, on the Tebiquarimini, 60 m SE Assumption.

VILLA-VICIOSA, a town of Spain, province Asturias, on the bay-of-Biscay, 32 m NE Oviedo.

VILLA-VICIOSA, a fortified town of Portugal, province Alentejo, with a palace where the dukes of Braganza formerly resided. In the suburb is an ancient temple, originally built to the honour of Proserpine; and in the neighbourhood are quarries of fine green marble. It is 12 m sw Elvas, and 33 NE Evora.

VILLA-VIÇOSA, or CAMESA, a town of South America, Brazil, province Para, on the left bank of the Tocantino, which is here 10 m wide, and has many islands. is 120 m sw Para.


VILLACH, a town of Austria, Carinthia, with a castle. Near it are medicinal baths. Seated at the conflux of the Geil with the Drave, 16 m w by s Clagenfurt.

VILLAINE, a town of France, department Mayenne, 16 m E by N Mayenne.

VILLARINO, a town of Spain, province Leon, on the Douro and confines of Portugal, 45 m WNW Salamanca.

VILLEDLEU, a town of France, department Manche, 12 m NNE Avranches, and 18 SE Coutances.

VILLEFORT, a town of France, depart

VILLEFRANCHE, a town of France, department Rhone, surrounded by walls; on the Saone, 18 m x by w Lyon; P. 6460.

VILLEFRANCHE, a town of France, department Pyrenees-Oriental, with a fort, 25 m wsw Perpignan.

VILLEFRANCHE, a town of France, department Aveyron, on the Aveyron, 20 m w Rodez; trade in linen cloth; P. 9540.

VILLEFRANCHE, a town of France, department Haute-Garonne, on the canalroyal, 22 m SE Toulouse; P. 2652.

VILLEJUIVE, a town of France, department Paris, 4 m s Paris.

VILLEMUR, a town of France, department Haute-Garonne, on the Tarn, 12 m NNE Toulouse.

VILLENA, a town of Spain, province Murcia, with a castle, formerly of great strength, 18 m SSE Almanza, and 50 x by E Murcia. In the neighbourhood is a morass, from which salt is made.

VILLENEUVE-D'AGEN, a town of France, department Lot-et-Garonne, on the Lot, 17 m N Agen; P. 10,652.

VILLENEUVE, a town of France, department Gard, on the Rhone, opposite Avignon, 21 m ENE Nismes.

VILLENEUVE, a town of Switzerland, canton Bern, at the E extremity of lakeGeneva, 3 m from the influx of the Rhone, 17 m SE Lausanne, and 47 ssw Bern.

VILLENEUVE-DE-BERG, a town of France, department Ardeche, 13 m s Privas.

VILLERS-COTERETS, a town of France, department Aisne, 12 m sw Soissons, and 44 NE Paris.

VILLINGEN, a town of grand-duchy of Baden, 20 m E by N Friburg, strong by nature on account of the surrounding mountains and narrow passes; here is a Benedictine abbey, and a good bath in the neighbourhood.

VILM-ISLAND, Prussia, small, in the Baltic-sea, close to the NE side of the island of Rugen, in a bay called Neue-Tief.

VILSECK, a town of Bavaria, near which are several foundries, 20 m N Amberg.

VILSHOFEN, a town of Bavaria, on the Danube, at the influx of the Vills, 11 m w by N Passau. In 1745 the Austrians took it by storm.

VILVORDE, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, with an ancient castle, on the Senne, 7 m NNE Brussels.

VIMIERA, a town of Portugal, province Alentejo, 12 m w by N Estremos.

VIMIERA, a village of Portugal, Estre

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