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ABBEYFEALE, a town of Ireland, county Limerick, 156 m sw Dublin; P. 437.
ABBEY-GREEN, a village of Scotland,
4 m from Lanark; P. 500.
ABBEYLEIX, a town of Ireland, Queen's county, 62 m sw Dublin; P. 2022.
ABBAS, or ABBEY-MILTON, a village and parish of England, county Dorset; P. 846.
ABBOTS-ANN, a village of England, County Southampton, 24 m from Andover; P. 562.
ABBOTS-BROMLEY, a town of England, county Stafford, near the river Blithe, 6 m E Stafford, and 130 m Nw London; P. 1533. Polling place.
ABBOTSBURY, a town of England, county Dorset, on the seacoast, 7 m sw by w Dorchester, and 127 m wsw London: market on Thursday; remains of a Benedictine abbey; P. 874.
ABBOTSHALL, a village and parish of Scotland, county Fife; P. of parish, 4206.
ABBOTS-LANGLEY, or KING'S-LANGLEY, a village of England, county Hertford, 4 m sw St. Albans: birth-place of Nicholas Breakspeare, or Adrian IV, the only Englishman that ever became Pope; he died 1159; P. 1980.
ABBOTSLEIGH, a village of England, county Somerset; P.360.
ABBROUK, OF ABBRO, Russia, one of the small islands near Esel, or Oesel, at the entrance of the gulf of Riga; it is a district of which Mone, Raunovik, and some other small islands form a part; chief town Arensbourg.
ABDA, a province of Africa, on the w coast of Morocco; P. 500,000.
ABENBERG, a small town of Bavaria, 20 m ssw Nürnberg; P. 1900.
ABENSBERG, a town and castle of Bavaria, near the s side of the Danube, 12 m by road ssw Regensburg; post road to München.
ABER, a village of Wales, county Caernarvon, on the seacoast: here is a ferry to the island of Anglesea, 9 m from Conway; P. 552.
ABERAVON, a small town of South Wales, county Glamorgan, near the mouth of the river Avon, 6 m s Neath, and 192 from London: it has copper and tin works; P. 573.
ABERBROTHOCK, or ARBROATH, a small seaport and town of Scotland, county Angus or Forfar, at the mouth of the Brothock, German Ocean, 58 m NNE Edinburgh; a parish church and many chapels for dissenters, a town-house, public-schools, a signal-tower, which communicates with the Bell-rock
lighthouse, 12 m distant at sea: chief trade, spinning flax, which is manufactured into sail-cloth; about 6000 tons of shipping are
employed in importing flax from the Baltic; ruins of a celebrated abbey founded in honour of Thomas à Becket 1178, by William the Lion, King of Scotland, destroyed by fire in 1560; P. 6660: Lg. 2.34.15 w, Lt. 56.32.0 N.
ABERCONWAY, or CONWAY, a small seaport and town of North Wales, county Caernarvon, on the w side of the mouth of the Conway, 15 m ENE Bangor, and 236 m NW London: it has lofty walls and fine ruins of a castle; P. 1245.
ABERCORN, a village of Scotland, county Linlithgow, 12 m w Edinburgh; P. 1013. ABERDALGIE, a village of Scotland, 4 m from Perth; P. 434.
ABERDARE, a village of South Wales, county Glamorgan, near the river Tay, 5 m wsw Merthyr-Tidvil: it has extensive iron works, and a branch canal to that of Cardiff; P. 3961.
ABERDEEN, NEW, a town and seaport of Scotland, capital of Aberdeenshire, seated on an eminence near the mouth of the Dee, 108 m NNE Edinburgh. Its size and importance have obtained it the name of city, and it is Forth; it has a fine bridge of granite, of a now the principal one in Scotland N of the single arch. The college, called Marischal College, is a respectable seminary, but the students are boarded in the town. Beside two Roman Catholic churches and the college kirk, is an elegant Episcopal chapel, various others, and several meeting-houses; a townhouse, Gordon Hospital, lunatic hospital, and general infirmary. The harbour is protected by a long stone pier and two batteries. Beside the coasting trade, vessels are sent hence to Greenland, the Baltic, the Levant, and the W. Indies: its chief manufactures are woollen, linen, and cotton, printed goods, thread, and all the business connected with, shipbuilding, which is carried on to a considerable extent. The city is governed by a lord provost; P. of district, 69,772: Lg. 8.2 w, Lt. 57.9 N.
ABERDEEN, OLD, or ABERDON, a borough of Scotland, on the s bank of the Don, near its mouth, 1 m N New Aberdeen: anciently a bishop's see, and part of the cathedral forms the parish church. King's college is a large stately fabric, with a long uniform range of houses for the professors and students; and the town-house is a neat structure. On the seacoast is a fort, and the remains of the castle, destroyed by Cromwell: returns one M.P.; P. of the borough and parish 58,019.
ABERDEEN, a county of Scotland, 90m long by 38 broad, and is bounded x ande
by the German ocean, s by the counties of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth, and w by those of Inverness and Banff; contains 1,270,744 acres, divided into 87 parishes: returns one M.P. The NE part, extending toward the river Ythan, is called Buchan; and the Wangle, consisting of woodland mountains, is called Mar Forest, in which the river Dee rises: there is excellent pasture in the high parts, and the level tract, called Strathbogie, contains well-cultivated fields: it has quarries of granite, millstone, limestone, and veins of manganese and plumbago. The principal rivers are the Dee, Don, Ythan, Deveron, and Bogie, which abound with excellent salmon; P. 123,082 in 1801, and 177,651 in 1831.
ABERDOUR, a small fishing town of Scotland, situated on the N coast, county Aberdeen, 8 m w Fraserburg: here are the ruins of a castle; P. 1548.
ABERDOUR, OF ABERDOWER, a village of Scotland, county Fife, near the Firth of Forth, 10 m NNW Edinburgh; P. 1751.
ÅBERFELDIE, a village of Scotland, County Perth, 10 m Nw Dunkeld, and 5 m E by N Loch-Tay.
ABERNETHY, a town of Scotland, county Perth, situated on the s bank of the Tay, 7m SE Perth: it has a manufacture of linen, and an ancient tower 74 feet high and 16 diameter; P. 1612.
ABERNETHY, a village of Scotland, county Elgin, 30 m SE Inverness; P. 2092.
ABERYSTWITH, a seaport town of South Wales, county Cardigan; the Ystwith and Reidiol fall together here into the sea; 38 m NE Cardigan, and 207 m hy road Nw by w London; participates with Cardigan, Adpar, and Lampeter, in returning one M.P.: here are the ruins of a castle built by Edward I, in 1277; the great Cadwallader resided here, it has manufactures of flannels, stockings, and a considerable fishery, and is a favourite watering-place; P. 4128. Polling place: Lg. 4.10 w, Lt. 52.18 N.
ABEX, a country of Africa, extending 400 m along the coast of the Red Sea, which bounds it on the E, and Abyssinia and Nubia surround it on all the other sides: it is sandy and barren, being destitute of water: the inhabitants are Mahomedans: Suakem is the capital.
ABINEAU, a port of North America, ABERFIORT, a small seaport of Norway, in Upper Canada, situated on the N side of 48 m sw Christiana.
ABERFOYLE, a village of Scotland, county Perth, 9 m from Kimppen; P. 660.
ABERFRAW, a small town of North Wales, Anglesea, on the sw coast, 19 m sw Beaumaris, 260 m Nw London; P. 1367.
ABERGAVENNY, a town of South Wales, county Monmouth, situated at the junction of the river Gavenny with the Usk, over which is a stone bridge of 15 arches: it has woollen manufactures, and very considerable iron-works, 3 m s; 16 m w Monmouth, and 145 m www London; P. of hundred 30,818, of parish 4230. Polling place. ABERGELEY, a town of North Wales, County Denbigh, situated on the x coast, 7 m NW Denbigh, and 225 m Nw London; a bathing place; P. 2506.
ABERGWILLY, a village of South Wales, County Caermarthen, 2 m E Caermarthen: here is the bishop's palace; P. 2675.
ABERLADY, a village of Scotland, county Haddington, situated near the coast, 16 m ENE Edinburgh, on the road to North Berwick; P. 973.
APERGORLECH, a village of South Wales, County Caermarthen, 16 m NE Caermarthen.
ABERLEMNO, a village of Scotland, county Forfar, seated on the s Esk, 4 m s Brechin: here are two singular obelisks covered with rude sculptures; P. 1079.
ABERNANT, a village of South Wales, County Glamorgan, near the Neath canal, 12 m NE Neath.
lake Erie, 13 m wsw fort Erie.
ABINGDON, a town of England, county Berks, situated at the junction of the river Ock with the Thames, 6 m s Oxford, and 56 m w by N London: market days, Mondays and Fridays; it returns one M.P.; town-hall, a spacious corn market, two it has several well-paved streets, a handsome churches, two dissenters' and a Quakers' meeting, two hospitals, a free and a charity school; and manufactures of sacking; P. 5259, in 1831. Polling place.
ABINGDON, a town of North America, United States, in the state of Maryland, county Hartford, situated on the river Bush, College, founded by Methodists in 1785. 20 m NE Baltimore: here is Cokesbury
ABINGDON, a town of North America, United States, in the state of Virginia, capital of county Washington, 310 m w by s Richmond: Lg. 81.59 w, Lt. 31.41 N.
ABIPONES, a warlike tribe of Indians, in South America, inhabiting the country beween the 28° and 30° of s Lt. along the banks of La Plata. Though once amounting to 100,000, they now scarcely exceed 5000. They live chiefly by hunting, and reside in islands or on the tops of trees, during the five winter months, when their country is inundated: weapons, spears and arrows; they prize highly the flesh of tigers, imagining it imparts strength and courage; features regular; they are a tall, robust, and martial race; their caciques are merely generals in time of war, and judges in time of peace.
ABISCA, a province of South America, Peru, on the E of the Andes, between the rivers Yetau and Amarumago, and s of Cusco: it is little known, being full of woods, rivers, and lakes; its plains are occupied by barbarous nations of Indians.
ABKHAZY, Asia, one of the seven nations between the Black sea and the Caspian. Their principal and most ancient establishments are on the southern slope of the mountains between the Cuban and the Black sea: they are in some degree tributary to the Turks, and are divided into two governments, the western and the eastern; each subject to a pasha, commonly chosen out of the principal native families, one of whom resides at Sokoum-kala fort; the language appears to have a remote affinity to that of the Circassians. They have at present very little religion, although they still preserve some traces of Christianity. Their chief town is Anacopia.
ABO, a seaport of Russia, capital of Finland, a bishop's see; it has a castle and an university, and is seated on the river Aura, near its mouth, in the gulf of Bothnia, 170 m ENE Stockholm; contains several stone and brick houses, but the generality are of wood; exports coarse linen, grain, furs, pitch, and iron, but the principal trade is in timber; and has a great fair towards the end of January: it was taken from the Swedes by the Russians in 1808; P. about 12,000: Lg. 22.7 E, Lt. 60.27 N.
ABOMEY, Africa, capital of the kingdom of Dahomy, on the slave coast; it is irregularly built; P. about 25,000: Lg. 0.55 E, Lt. 7.50 N.
ABOUKIR, castle, island, and bay, Africa, on the coast of Egypt, w of the Rosetta mouth of the Nile. The bay is famous for the defeat and destruction of the French fleet, by Admiral Nelson, in 1798. The island lies in the w part of the bay, and the castle stands on a sandy peninsula 3 m ssw of the island, and 18 m ENE Alexandria: Lg. 30.0 E, Lt. 31.0 N. The town of Aboukir is the ancient Canopus, about 10 m NE Alexandria; and here the British army under sir Ralph Abercrombie landed in 1801.
ABOUKIR-BAY, Africa, Egypt, on the w is the town of Aboukir, on the E is the point at the mouth of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, celebrated as the scene of the victory gained by Nelson over the French fleet in 1798.
ABAUTIG, OF ABUTIGE, a town of Africa, Upper Egypt, situated near the Nile, 170 m s Cairo: the best opium is made here.
ABRANTES, a town of Portugal, province Estremadura, seated near the N bank of the Tejo or Tagus, 23 leag. or 80 m NE Lisboa, on elevated ground; the streets are very irregular, but there are many good houses,
and a palace and castle in ruins: it has a bridge of boats on the Tejo.-LANDMANN'S Portugal.
ABRUG, a town of Austria, Transylvania, situated near the source of the Aranias, 21 m NW by w Weissenburg: here are gold and silver mines.
ABRUZZO, a province of Naples, bounded on the E by the gulf of Venice, N and w by Ancona, Spoleto, and Campagna di Roma, and s by Terra di Lavora and Molise; divided by the Pescara into two parts, one called Ultra, of which Aquila is the capital, the other called Citra, with Sulmona for its capital: it is fertile in corn, rices, fruit, and saffron; the forests abound in wolves and bears; P. 587,719.
deche, 8 m Nw Viviers, formerly the capital ABS, a town of France, department Arof Viviers and a bishop's see, but now much
fallen into decay.
ABU-ARISCH, a town of Asia, Arabia, principality Abu-Arish, 80 m N Leheia: Lg. 42.30 E, Lat. 16.45 N.
ABUCARA, a town of South America, Peru, situated in a valley 150 ms by E Guamanza.
ABURY, AUBURY, or AVEBURY, a village of England, county Wilts, 6 m from Marlborough; it has considerable druidical monuments, partly destroyed; P. 688.
ABUSCHAHR; see BUSHIER.
ABUTIGE, a large town of Africa, Upper Egypt, the site of the ancient Abotis; it produces excellent opium; 170 m s Cairo: Lt. 26.50 N.
ABYDOS, a town and castle of Asia, Turkey, in Natolia, situated on the Dardanelles; it was the residence of Hero's Leander, whence he used to swim over to visit Hero at Sestus. Xerxes here built his bridge of boats across the Hellespont, when he invaded Greece: here ships from the Archipelago are searched: Lg. 37.36 E, Lt. 40.16 N.
ABYSSINIA, a kingdom of Africa, 770 miles long, and 550 broad, bounded on the N by Nubia, E by the Red sea, s by Gingi and Alaba, and w by Nigritia and Darfur; it is divided into two grand districts, Tigre and Amhara, which are subdivided into several provinces. The country is mountainous, but in the vales the soil is fertile. The rainy season continues from April to September, succeeded, without interval, by a cloudless sky, and a vertical sun, but cold nights constantly follow; the earth, notwithstanding, is cold to the soles of the feet. No country in the world produces a greater variety of quadrupeds, both wild and tame: the hyenas are numerous, and dreadful in their ravages, but there are no tigers; and a species of oxen, called sanga, is celebrated for
the size of their horns, some of which are nearly 4 feet long, and 21 inches round at the base. Beside eagles, vultures, &c. there is a species of glede, called haddayn, which comes punctually into Abyssinia after the tropical rains, and storks are numerous in May, when the rains become constant; there are few owls, but these are of an immense size and beauty. The most remarkable insect is the tsaltsal, a large fly, which is so fatal to cattle, that in some districts great emigrations take place in the beginning of the rainy season, to prevent the stock of cattle from being destroyed. There is a remarkable coincidence between the customs in the court of ancient Persia and those of Abyssinia. The religion of the country is a mixture of Judaism and of the Christianity of the Greek church, and the language bears a great affinity to the Arabic. The government is legally a despotism, but in an unsettled state; for the power of the neguz, or king, is very weak, and the ras, or prince, and the chiefs of the provinces, are generally in enmity with one another. They are of a dark olive complexion; their dress is a light robe, bound with a sash, and the head vered with a turban. The houses are of a conic form, meanly built of clay, and covered with thatch, and even the churches are of a round form. The natives at their feasts are fond of raw beef, and the soldiers, when on a march, will cut out a piece from each buttock of a cow, near the tail, and eat them; the wounds they sew up and plaster over with dung, and the maimed animal having performed the remainder of the day's journey, is then killed. The chief rivers are the Nile and the Tacazze, which have their sources in this country. BRUCE'S Travels.-Gondar is the metropolis.
ACADIA; see NOVA SCOTIA.
ACAPULCO, a city of North America, Mexico, on the Pacific ocean, with a large and commodious harbour, defended by a castle, 180 m ssw Mexico. Every year a ship was sent hence to Manilla, and another returned thence to this port laden with the most valuable Asiatic commodities. One of these ships, called galleons, valued at above 300,0001., was captured by commodore Anson in 1743: unhealthy situation; P. about 4000.-HUMBOLDT. Lg. 99.46 w, Lt. 16 50 N.
ACASABASTLAN, a town of North America, Mexico, province Vera Paz, situated on the Acasabastlan, 70 m ENE Guatimala: Lg. 91.20 w, Lt. 14.58 N.
ACBERABAD; see AGRA,
ACCOMAC, 2 in North America, United States, state Virginia; 1st, a county; P. 19,656.—2nd, a county town, with court
house, county Accomac, 214 m from Richmond, 206 from Washington.
ACCRA, or ACRE, a British fort in Africa, on the coast of Guinea, 60 m ENE CapeCoast castle, one of the most healthy and agreeable towns on the Gold coast. A little to the E is Dutch Accra, and two miles further Danish Accra.
ACERENZA, a city of Italy, in Naples, the capital of Basilicata, an archbishop's see, at the foot of the Appennines, 97 m E by s Naples.
ACETRI, a village of Italy, in Tuscany, famous for the confinement of Galileo in the Inquisition, for asserting the motion of the earth.
ACHALZICH, a town of Asia, in Armenia, near one of the sources of the Kur: Lg. 60.40 E, Lt. 41.47 n.
ACHEEN, a kingdom of Asia, in the NW part of Sumatra, now very different from earlier times, when its sovereigns received embassies from some of the greatest potentates of Europe. It does not now extend inland above 50 m to the SE; and at its ports on the w coast, the power of the Achenese sovereign is little more than nominal. The government is hereditary, and more or less arbitrary in proportion to the talents of the reigning prince, who usually maintains a guard of 100 sepoys from the Coromandel coast populous, and comparatively healthy, being more free from woods and swamps than the other parts of the island: chief products, tropical fruits, rice, cotton, goldThe Achenese are dust, and sulphur.
taller, stouter, and darker complexioned than the other Sumatrans. They are more active and industrious than their neighbours, have more sagacity and penetration, and are bold and expert navigators. are Mahomedans.
ACHEEN, a kingdom of Asia, the capital of the same name, near the mouth of a river, on the Nw point of the island, or Acheen Head, in a wild valley, formed by two lofty ranges of hills, 1000 m SE Madras: the river, which empties itself by several channels, is very shallow at the bar; it is an open town, in the centre of which is the sultan's palace, surrounded by a wide and deep moat, and strong walls; the houses are built of bamboos and rough timbers, and raised some feet from the ground, the country being overflowed in the rainy season. It manufactures a thick kind of cotton cloth, and of stuff for the short trowsers worn by the Malays and Achenese. Payments are commonly made in gold-dust, which is carried about in bladders. Crimes are punished here with remarkable rigour; but the rod of justice, it is supposed, falls only on the poor; yet the Achenese are reputed the most dishonest and flagi
tious people in the East: Lg. 95.26 E, Lt. 5.36 N.
ACHEN, or AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, a city of Prussia, province Cleves-Jülich-Berg, a bishop's see, in a hollow surrounded by mountains, 26 m ENE Liege. Charlemagne was so delighted with this place, that he chose it for his residence; he is interred in the cathedral of Notre Dame, where they keep his sword and belt. It is large, and in general well built; but within the walls are many fields and gardens. Its famous mineral waters attract a great number of persons every year; its chief manufactures are cloth, kerseymere, needles, and pins. Near it, at Burscheid, are similar manufactures, and several warm springs; in the vicinity are mines of iron, lead, calamine, sulphur, and coal. In 1668 and 1748 it was distinguished by two celebrated treaties of peace; taken by the French in 1792, retaken by the Austrians in 1793, and again taken by the French in 1794. In 1818, a congress of the sovereigns in Europe met here to adjust the public affairs; P. 27,164 in 1807: Lg. 5.54 E, Lt. 50.52 N.
ACHESON'S-HAVEN, a village of Scotland, county Haddington, on the Frith of Forth.
ACHILL-ISLANDS, on the w coast of Ireland, county Mayo, form the entrances into Clew bay; the w point of the largest island is called Achill-Head: Lg. 10.40 w, Lt. 53.50 N.
ACHLEITEN, a town of Austria, on the Danube, 12 m ESE Ens.
ACHLIN'S KEYS, two small islands of North America, 50 m sw the Bahamas.
ACHMETCHET; see SIMPHEROPOL. ACHMIM, a town of Asia, in Upper Egypt, the ancient CHEMNIS, or PANOPOLIS: it manufactures coarse cottons. Situated on a small eminence on the right bank of the Nile, 200 m s Cairo: Lg. 31.56 E, Lt. 26.40 N.
ACHMUNEIN, a large village of Asia, in Upper Egypt: has magnificent ruins of the ancient Hermopolis.-DENON, Voyage en Egypte, P. 5000.
ACOBAMBA, a town of South America, in Peru: Lg. 74.32 w, Lt. 13.16 s.
ACHONRY, a town of Ireland, county Sligo, a bishop's see united to Killala; on the Shannon, 16 m wsw Sligo; P. of parish 12,334.
ACONCAGUA, a town of South America, in Chili, and capital of a province it is rich in grain, fruit, silver, and copper. The town, sometimes called St. Philip, stands on the Aconcagua, 74 m NNE St. Jago.
ACOURY, or ACKORU, a town of Asia, in Hindostan, 12 m Nw Attock, situated on the Indus.
Acas, a town of France, department Arriege, on the Arriege, 20 m SSE Foix : noted for its hot springs.
ACQUA, a town of Italy, in Tuscany, 15 m E Leghorn: noted for its warm baths.
ACQUACKNACK, a town of North America, in the United States, state New Jersey, county Essex, 10 m N Newark.
ACQUAPENDENTE, a town of Italy, situated on a mountain, 10 m w Orvieto.
ACQUARIA, a town of Italy, 12 m s Modena: noted for its medicinal waters.
ACRA; see ACCRA.
ACRE, or ACCHA, a city of Asia, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, a bishop's see: the ancient Ptolemais, on a plain, near the mouth of the Kardanah, or ancient Belus, 47 m NNE Jerusalem, at the N point of a bay, which extends in a semicircle to the point of Carmel, 10 m w of the city. In the time of the Crusades it underwent several sieges; and little is now to be seen of the ancient city, but the remains of buildings constructed in the earliest ages. The new city is distant a mile from the ancient walls, and is fortified by a wall and ditch. The palace of the grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem is the residence of the pasha of Acre; it has seven mosques, four churches, and two synagogues. Its port has been at all times the key to Palestine, and though now a bad one, is better than any other along the const: its trade, cotton, cattle, corn, olives, and linseed, and rice brought from Egypt. In 1799, aided by the British under Sir W. S. Smith, it withstood a siege by the French under Bonaparte, who retreated after failing in a twelfth assault. In 1191, Edward I was wounded here by a poisoned arrow, but saved by his wife Elinor, who sucked the poison from the wound: Lg. 35.25 E, Lt. 32.48 N.
ACRON, Africa, a division of the Fantee territory, on the Gold coast. The Dutch possess fort Patience: Lg. 0.28 E,
Lt. 5.10 N.
ACTON, 5 in England;-1st, a parish, county Chester; P. 3923.-2nd, a town, county Chester; P. 309.-3rd, a town, County Chester; P. 335.-4th, a parish, county Middlesex, 5 m w London: mineral waters; P. 2453.-5th, a parish, county Suffolk; P. 565.
ACTON-BURNELL, a village of England, siderable remains of a castle, in which a county Salop, 8 m s Shrewsbury: it has conparliament was held by Edward I, in 1283; P. 381.
ACTOPAN, North America, capital of a district in Mexico, and 23 leag. NNE of it. ADAES; see MEXICANO, under Rivers. ADALIA, or ANATALI; see SATALIA,