Page images

Mecca, of which it is the port. It is the Emporium of trade between Egypt and India; for the ships from Suez seldom proceed further than this port, and those from India are not suffered to advance to Suez. The English are particularly favoured in the trade of this place; cloth, iron, furs, and other articles being transmitted by the way of Cairo, and gums, drugs, and coffee, sent in return. Jidda has no fresh water, but rain water is preserved good in cisterns: Lg. 39.6 E, Lt. 21.33 N.

JILLIFREY, a town of Africa, Senegambia, and a British establishment, on the right bank of the Gambia, 30 m from its mouth. On an islet opposite, 3 m from the nearest shore, is James-Fort, another establishment. Jillifrey stands in a healthy and fertile district, 125 m SE Goree : Lg. 16.9 w, Lt. 13.17 N.

JINBALA, a town of Africa, Nigritia, capital of an island so called, which is formed by two branches of the Niger that separate at leaving the lake Dibbie, and unite again about 15 m from Timbuctoo. It is a resting place for traders between Timbuctoo and the w parts of the country: stands on the w branch of the Niger, 80 m sw Timbuctoo.

JINNEE, a town of Africa, Nigritia, in Bambara, on the Niger, 170 NE Sego, and 180 sw Timbuctoo. It has a manufacture of gold ornaments of filigrane work, much esteemed.

JITOMIR, a capital of a government of Russia, chief of district, on the Tétéref. It is a Roman-Catholic bishop's see, who is styled Bishop of Volhinia and Jitomir. Its trade is considerable in woollen, linen, cotton, and silk goods; leather, wax, honey, tallow, and wine, from Hungary; manufactures of leather and hats. It has 4 annual fairs; P. 5500.

JIZDRA, a town of Russia, government Calouga, chief of a district, at the junction of the Jizdra with the Bredni, 103 m Calouga. It has an export trade of hemp and lint-seed oil; 1 annual fair; and contains 2 churches; P. about 2000.

JOACHIMSTHAL, a town of Austria, Bohemia, province Saatz, noted for its mines and a manufacture of lace, 15 m N by E Elbogen.

JOACHIMSTHAL, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, 31 m NNE Berlin. JOANNINA; see JANINA.

JOHANGEORGENSTADT, a town of Saxony, celebrated for its mines, and a considerable manufacture of lace, 28 m SE Zwickau.

JOHANNESBURG, a town of Prussia,

province Ost-Preussen, on the Pisch, near lake-Spirding, 114 m SSE Konigsberg.

JOHANNISBERG, a village and castle of Nassau, on the Rhine, 18 m w of Mainz, famous for its Rhonish wine.

JOHNSHAVEN, a village of Scotland, county Kincardineshire, with a harbour for small vessels, 4 m ssw Bervie. It has an extensive manufacture of canvas, and a trade in importing coal and exporting grain.

JOHNSON, 2 counties of North America, United States:-1st, state Indiana, Franklin county-town; P. 4139.-2nd, state Illinois, Vienna county-town; P. 1596, both in 1830.

JOHNSTON, a county of North America, United States, state North Carolina, Smithfield county-town; P. 10,938, in 1830.

JOHNSTOWN, a county-town of North America, United States, state New-York, Montgomery county, near the left bank of the Mohawk, 36 m Nw Albany; P. 7700, in 1830.

JOHNSTOWN, a town of North America, Upper-Canada, extending near a mile on the St. Lawrence, 60 m NE Kingstown, and 100 sw Montreal: Lg. 75.10 w, Lt. 44.42 N.

JOHORE, a town of Asia, Malaya peninsula, and the capital of a kingdom. The exports are pepper, gold, tin, and elephant teeth, sent to Prince-of-Wales-island, whence opium and other articles brought in return. It stands near the s coast, 20 m from the mouth of the Iohore, and 150 SE Malacca Lg. 103.30 E, Lt. 1.35 N.


JOIGNY, a town of France, department Yonne, on the side of a hill, by the Yonne, 17 m SSE Sens, with numerous vineyards.

JOINVILLE, a town of France, department Haute-Marne, with a magnificent castle, on the Marne, 22 m N Chaumont.


JONES, 3 counties of North America, United States:-1st, state North Carolina, Trenton county-town; P. 5628.-2nd, state Georgia, Clinton county-town; P. 13,342. -3rd, state Mississippi, Ellisville countytown; P. 1471, all in 1830.

JONESBOROUGH, a county-town of North America, United States, state Tennessee, Washington county; 8 m to the sw is Washington college. The town is seated near the foot of the Iron mountains, 298 m Nashville: Lg. 82.40 w, Lt. 36.8 N.

JONKOPING, a town of Sweden, capital of province Jonkopings, at the s end of lake Wettern, 64 m sw Linkoping. In 1790 it was burnt down, and has since been wholly rebuilt: has a citadel, numerous public edifices, and a manufacture of arms. The houses are large and comfortable, chiefly of wood, and the roof covered with

turf or wood; P. 117,000: Lg. 14.46 E, Lt. 57.12 N.

JONKOPINGS, a province of Sweden, bounded N by lake-Wettern and Oster Gothland, E by Kalmar, s by Kronobergs, and w by Elfsborgs and Halland; area, 2865 geographical square m; P. 129,116. Jonkopings, at the s extremity of lakeWettern, is the capital.

JOOGDEA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, Bengal, where is an establishment for the manufacture of salt, 76 m SE Dacca.

JOONEER, or SOONUR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Aurungabad, the original capital of a strong hilly district, containing Poonah, the Mahratta metropolis. The fort is on a perpendicular rock; and here are the ruins of many Mohamedan buildings and Hindoo excavations. It is 48 m N by E Poona: Lg. 74.10 E, Lt. 19.12 N.


JORJAN, or CORCAN, a town of Asia, Persia, in Chorasan, capital of district, bordering on the Caspian sea and Asterabad. This place is reckoned one of the strongest fortresses in the kingdom. It is 50 m ENE Asterabad, and 120 wsw Mesched: Lg. 56.45 E, Lt. 37.0 N.

JORKAU, a town of Austria, province Bohemia, Saatz, where great quantities of beer are brewed. On a mountain by the town is the magnificent castle of Rothenhaus, and near it are celebrated alum works. It is 5 m N Commautau.

JOSIMATH, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gurwal, the residence of the high priest and the other inhabitants of Bhadrinath, during winter, while the temple is shut up. It is 26 m ENE Serinagur.

JOUARE, a town of France, department Seine-et-Marne, 10 m SE Meaux, and 35 E Paris.


JOUDPOOR, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Ajmeer, capital of district, and of an extensive Rajpoot principality, anciently named Marwar, 92 m w Ajmeer. The raja is deemed one of the most powerful native princes in India. The chief articles of trade are salt, camels, oxen, and horses: Lg. 73.0 E, Lt. 26.27 N.


JOYEUSE, a town of France, department Ardeche, on the Baume, 27 m sw Privas.

JOUPANOVSKAIA-SOPKA, a volcano of Russia, Kamtschatka, district Nijné Kamtschatsk. It has not had any irruptions yet, but is constantly smoking, and frequent shocks of earthquakes are felt in its vicinity.

The natives believe that all those who die occupy the interior of this burning mountain, and that the smoke issuing thence is that of their kitchen.

JUAN-FERNANDEZ, an island of South America, in the Pacific-ocean, lying 110 leagues w of Chili, formerly uninhabited. Alexander Selkirk, a Scotchman, was left on this solitary place, by his captain, where he remained 5 years, till discovered in 1709. The narrative of his proceedings in this island gave rise to the celebrated adventures of Robinson Crusoe. It is about 40 m in circuit, and at a distance appears like a naked rock; but there are intersecting valleys coveredwith wood, and a great number of goats on the sides of every hill. In 1766 a settlement was made by the Spaniards, on the N and highest part of the island, at Cumberland-bay, which is defended by batteries. The town is situated in a fine valley, between 2 high hills: Lg. 79.30 w, Lt. 33.40 s.

JUANPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Allahabad, capital of district, formerly the seat of an empire, and Sullam Shirki built the great mausoleum, which is yet remaining, 38 m NNW Benares; though sandy, is well cultivated, and covered with wood. It is seated on the Goomby, and has a stone fort that rises considerably above the level of the country; on all sides are monuments and mosques in ruin. Here is a famous bridge of 10 arches, built in 1567, which extends over the Goomby, but in the rainy season is sometimes submerged; it has hitherto withstood the force of the stream: Lg. 82.39 E, Lt. 25.45 N.

JUBA, a country on the E coast of Africa, with the town of Juba, about Lg. 43.20 E, Lt. 0.10 s.

JUBBLE POOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gundwana, modern capital of the districts that lately belonged to the Nagpoor It was taken by raja, N of the Nerbudda. the British in 1817, and the following year ceded to them, with the whole of its territories. It is 150 m NNE Nagpoor: Lg. 80.16 E, Lt. 23.11 N.

JUCATAN, or YUCATAN, a province and peninsula of North America, Mexico, be tween the bays of Campeachy and Honduras, and bounded at the isthmus by VeraCruz, Chiapa, and Fera-Paz. It projects from the continent 360 m, and is 150 in breadth. The s part has mountains, rivers, and lakes; and produces a great quantity of logwood and mahogany, as also sugar, cassia, maize, cotton, indigo, cattle, fowls, and bees. Here the English have a settlement, on the coast of the bay-of-Honduras, between the Bellize and Hondo. N part is less productive, and not only without mountains, but almost without any inequality of ground. The inhabitants obtain water from pits, and, wherever they dig them, find it in abundance; but there is not a river or stream. Merida is the capital.


JUDENBURG, a town of Austria, capital of Upper-Stiria, with a handsome castle. The public buildings, with the square, are magnificent. This town was taken by the French in 1797. It is 40 m w Gratz.


JUJUI, a town of South America, Tucuman, situated at the skirt of a mountain, on a river of its name, called also St. Salvador, which flows E to the Vermejo. It is 60 m NNE Salta.

JULAMERIK, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Kurdistan, with a stone fort. It is the capital of a populous district, governed by a bey; on the Hakiar, 80 m ESE Betlis.

JULFAR, a town of Asia, Arabia, province Oman, on a bay of the gulf-of-Persia, 100 m NW Oman: Lg. 56.14 E, Lt. 25.55 N.

JUJUY, a city of South America, Tucuman, capital of a district on the frontier of Charcas. It stands on a river of the same name, at the skirt of a mountain of the E Andes, 230 m N by E Tucuman: Lg. 63.40 w, Lt. 23.25 s.

JULICH, or JULIER, a post-town of Prussia, province Lower-Rhine, on the Roer, 51 German m by post-road w Cologn, post-road to Aix-la-Chapelle.

JULIERS, or JULICH, a duchy of Prussia, province Westfalin, and part of province Neider-Rhein, 68 m long by 30, bounded N by Gelderland, E by Cologne, s by Luxemburg and Treves, and w by Limburg. It is remarkable for the quantity of woad it produces.

JUMBOSIER, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat. It has a considerable trade with Bombay and other places, the exports consisting of cotton, grain, oil, and piece goods. It stands near the Jumbosier, which flows into the gulf-of-Camboy, 26 m N by w Broach.

JUNGEYFOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Bengal, the greatest silk station belonging to the East-India-Company, 17 m N by w Moorshedabad.

JUNGFRAU, a lofty mountain of Switzerland, Bernese Alps, in the valley of Lauterbrun, and the loftiest but one of this range. -BAKEWELL's Travels. It is 13,600 feet above the level of the sea.

JUNKSEYLAN, an island of Asia, Indianocean, sw coast of Siam, 60 m long by 10 to 20. The soil is luxuriant, and it has a considerable trade in ivory and tin. Junkseylan is the principal town on the N coast, and has a harbour for vessels of a moderate size: Lg. 98.0 E, Lt. 8.10 N.

JURA, an island of Scotland, one of the Hebrides, lying NNE of Isla, 23 m long by 7, separated from the mainland of the county of Argyle, by a strait 4 m wide, called the Sound-of-Jura. On the w coast are 4 mountains of a conic form; 2 of these are near each other, and are called the Paps of Jura, one of which is elevated 2600 feet above the level of the sea. The rest of the island is rugged, and generally covered with heath; but it feeds numerous flocks of sheep and goats. Here is abundance of iron ore; and on the w coast a great quantity of fine sand, which is carried away for making glass. Near the NE point of Jura is the small island of Scarba, and in the channel between them is the dangerous whirlpool of Curryverekan, so named from a Danish prince, who perished in its vortex. has a village of the same name, on the E coast, with a good harbour; P. of parish 1312: Lg. 5.44 w, Lt. 56.8 N.


JURA, a department of France, including the s part of the old province of FrancheCo, the SE part borders on Switzerland, and others on the departments of Ain, Saone-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or, Haute-Saone, and Doubs. It contains mines of iron, copper, and lead; and quarries of black marble, jasper, and alabaster. It takes its name

JUMELLA, a town of Spain, province after Mount-Jura. Lons-le-Saunier is the Murcia, 22 m sw Murcia.

JUMIEGE, a town of France, department Seine-Inferieure, with a Benedictine abbey; seated on the Seine, 12 m sw Rouen.

JUMMOO, or JUMBO, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Lahore, on the Rawee, 80 m NE Lahore. It is a place of considerable trade: Lg. 73.40 E, Lt. 31.52 N.

JUNAGUR, a town and fortress of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, chief of district Soreth, 170 m sw Ahmedabad: Lg. 70.38 E, Lt. 21.49 N.

JUNGERPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, on a mountain, 88 m NE Ahmedabad.


JURA, MOUNT, a chain of mountains in Switzerland, which begins in the canton of Argau, extends into the cantons of Soleure, Neufchatel, and Vaud, then branches into France, and separates that country from the canton of Geneva as far as the Rhone. In Vaud this chain forms many elevated valleys, particularly one on the top of that part called Mount-Joux, which is watered by two picturesque lakes, the largest called Joux, and the other Brenet.

JUSHPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gundwana, chief of a barren and hilly district, 74 m N by E Sumbhulpoor: Lg. 83.5 E, Lt. 22.11 N.

JUSSEY, a town of France, department Haute-Saone, 15 m Nw Vesoul, and 22 E Langres.

JUTERBOCH, a town of Prussia, province Brandenburg, where, in 1813, the French, under marshal Ney, were defeated by the allies, under the prince royal of Sweden. It is 12 m NE Wittenberg.


JUTLAND, a peninsula, the principal part of the kingdom of Denmark, 210 m long by from 30 to 80; bounded on the s by the duchy of Holstein, and on the other sides by the German-ocean and the Baltic. In the middle of the N part the soil is fertile in corn, and feeds a great number of horses and beeves, which are sent to Germany, Holland, &c. It was anciently called Cimbrica Chersonesus, and is supposed to be the country whence the Saxons came who conquered England. It is divided into North and South Jutland. North Jutland is subdivided into the dioceses of Alburg, Wiburg, Arhusen, and Ripen, so named from the chief towns; and Wiburg is the capital of the province. South Jutland is not half the size of the other province, and is commonly called the duchy of Sleswick, from its capital of that


JYENAGUR, or JEYPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Ajmeer, capital of a Rajpoot principality, the most fertile and populous in the province, and abounding in fortresses. The town is commanded by a citadel, built on a steep rock, and around it a chain of fortifications extends 4 m in circuit. The raja's court is distinguished by its pride, splendour, and formality. The town is reckoned one of the most regularly built in Hindostan, and is a great mart for horses from the N provinces and Persia. It is 70 m ENE Ajmeer: Lg. 75.37 E, Lt. 26.55 N.

JYHTPOOR, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Allahabad, 19 m N by w Chatterpoor.


[Words that sometimes begin with K, and are not found under this letter, may be sought for under the letter C.]


KABIS, or KUBBEEз, a town of Asia, Persia, in Kerman; in a desert, 130 m NE Kerman.

KADKEMA, a seaport of Asia, in Arabia, province Bahrin, on a bay of the gulf-ofPersia, 170 m N by w Lachsa. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the pearl fishery: Lg. 47.36 E, Lt. 28.40 N.

KAIN; see KIN.

KAIRA, a town of Asia, Hindostan, in Gujerat, near the Wautruck and Seyree, 40 m N Cambay.

KAIRVAN, a city of Africa, in Tunis, the second in the kingdom for trade and popu lation, and has the most magnificent mosque in Barbary. It is 60 m SSE Tunis: Lg. 10.25 E, Lt. 35.40 N.

KISARIEH, a town of Asia, Turkey, in Caramania, the capital of a sangiacat. It was the ancient Cesarea of Cappadocia, of which extensive ruins remain; a consider. able part of the walls and several towers are still standing, but the castle is rapidly sinking to decay. The principal trade is in cotton and Morocco leather. It stands on the s side of a fertile plain, at the foot of a mountain, always capped with snow, 150 m ENE Cogni; P. about 25,000: Lg. 35.15 E, Lt. 38.41 N.

KAKETI, a town of Asia, in Georgia, province Kaketi, which comprehends a part of the ancient Iberia; near Mount-Caucasus, 45 m NNE Teflis, and 120 Nw Derbend.

KALAMATA, the ancient Theramene, a town of the kingdom of Greece, department Messania, in the Morea, the capital of province Kalamata; on the Spinazza, at the head of the gulf-of-Koroni, 21 m wsw Mistra, with a trade in dried figs: Lg. 22.9 E, Lt. 37.1 N.

Brandenburg, which has a great trade in KALAU, a town of Prussia, province

wool, 11 m SE Luckau.

KALAVRYTA, a town of kingdom Greece, in the Morea, Áchaia-and-Elida, capital of province Kalavryta; on the right bank of a river descending from Mount-Velia, and which falls into the gulf-of-Lepanto 12 m below the town: Lg. 22.10 E,

Lt. 37.59 N.

[blocks in formation]

Tabriz. It has mines of saltpetre, copper, authority of one principal khan, who is

and lead.

KALKAS, Asia, a tribe of Mogul-Tartars, in Chinese-Tartary, N of the Mongols, properly so called, which extend to the kingdom of the Eluths; nearly 300 leagues in extent from E to w. They live in tents, on the banks of their numerous rivers, the principal one called Kalka-Pira. They adore a lama of the second order, who is held in such veneration, that bonzes from China, Hindostan, Pegu, &c. come to pay their devotions at his residence in Iben-Pira.

KALLINGBURG, a seaport of Denmark, in Zealand, on an inlet of the Great-Belt, with the best harbour, next to Copenhagen, on the island. Here is the ruin of an ancient castle, in which Christian II ended his days of captivity. It is 55 m w by N Copenhagen: Lg. 11.11 E, Lt. 55.47 N.

KALMAR, a seaport of Sweden, capital of province Kalmar, about midway in Kalmarsound, in the Baltic, 40 m NNE Carlscrona, and 190 ssw Stockholm. It is celebrated as the place where the deputies of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, were appointed to assemble for the election of a king, according to the Union of Calmar, in 1395. On an eminence, near the town, is the ancient castle, now a gunpowder manufactory. The chief exports are planks, alum, and hemp: Lg. 16.8 E, Lt. 56.38 N.

KALMAR and OLAND, a province of Sweden, on the w coast of the Baltic, including the island of Oland, which is long and narrow, and extends along the continent about 85 m in a NNE and sw direction, whence it is separated by Kalmar-sound or strait. The continental part of this province is bounded N and Nw by Oster-Gottland, E by the Baltic, s by Blekings, w by Kronobergs and Jonkopings. Its area, including Oland, is 3002 geographical square m; P. 159,335. Kalmar is the capital.

KALMUCKS, or ELUTHS, a nation of Asia, Mongul-Tartars, inhabiting that part of the Russian government of Caucasia, which lies between the Volga and the Ural, toward the Caspian-sea. They live in tents, and remove from place to place in quest of pasture for their horses, camels, cows, and sheep. They neither sow corn, nor make hay; so that they live without bread, and, in winter, their cattle fare like the wild beasts. Their food is flesh (especially of horses), fish, wild fowl, and venison; and they have great plenty of milk, butter, and cheese; but mare's milk is the most esteemed, and from it they make a strong spirit, to which they are partial. They are divided into a number of hordes or clans, each under their own particular khan, and all acknowledge the

called Orchicurtikhan, or the king of kings, and derives his pedigree from the great Tamerlane. All of them, however, have submitted to the government of Russia, or live under its protection. They are pagans, and believe in the transmigration of souls. They are of low stature, and bow-legged, occasioned by their being so continually on horseback, or sitting with their legs below them. Their faces are broad and full of wrinkles, with a flat nose and small black eyes, distant from each other, like the Chinese. They are of an olive colour, have very little beard, and shave their heads, leaving only a tuft of hair on the crown. The better sort wear coats of stuff or silk, with a wide surcoat of sheep-skins, and a cap of the same. Their weapons are the scimitar, lance, bow, and fire-arms. In winter they are obliged to cross the river, and live on the bare plains of Astracan, where their only firing is the dried dung of the cattle, and the cattle themselves starving on the scanty produce of a desert. In spring their former habitation on the E side of the river is overflowed, for near a month, by the melting of the snow; and when the water subsides, they swim their loaded camels and cattle over the river where the intervening islands make the passage easiest. When they go upon an expedition every one takes a sheep with him for his provision, and three horses, which he rides alternately; and when any one of them fails, they kill it and divide the flesh, putting pieces of it under their saddle, and after riding some time upon it, they eat it without further preparation. Their kibbets, or tents, are round, with a fire in the middle, and a hole at the top, to let out the smoke, on which is a krine that can be turned against the wind. The tents can be enlarged or contracted at pleasure, their sides being made of wicker-work, and the cross sticks jointed for folding together or extending; and they are covered over with thick felt, more or less, according as the season is cold or warm.

KALNICK, a town of Russia, province Poland, 16 m ENE Braclaw.

KALO, a town of Austria, in Hungary, capital of district Szabolt, which contains several soda lakes and saltpetre-works; on a lake, 27 m NNE Debretzin.

KALOTSA, a small town of Austria, in
It is
Hungary, and an archbishop's see.
68 m s Pest.

KALPEE, a town and fort of Asia, Hindostan, in Agra, on the right bank of the Jumna, 136 m SE Agra. It is a place of great trade, and the entrepot for the transport of cotton from the w and s provinces into the British territories. Here, in 1765, was the first action between the British

« PreviousContinue »