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10 m w Newbury Port: here some vessels are built, and shoes made for exportation.

BRADING, a corporate town of England, County Hants, near the E angle of the isle of Wight, at the head of Brading-bay, which admits small vessels to the quay at high water; 8 m E Newport, and 8 s Portsmouth; P. 2227.

BRAGA, a city of Portugal, capital of the province of Entre-Douro-e-Minho, and the see of an archbishop, primate of Portugal: it contains 4 churches, beside the cathedral, and 8 convents: here are considerable remains of a Moorish enclosure, some ruins of an amphitheatre, and an aqueduct; seated in a fertile country, on the Cavado, 190 m N Lisboa; P. about 20,000: Lg. 8.29 w, Lt. 41.42 N.

BRAGANZA, a city of Portugal, province Traz-oz-Montes, divided into the old and the new town; the former stands on an eminence, surrounded by double walls, now in ruins; and the latter on a plain at the foot of a mountain, defended by a fort: on the Fervanza, 32 m wNw Miranda, and 88 NE Oporto: Lg. 6.30 w, Lt. 42.2 N.

BRAGANZA, or CAYSE, a town of South America, Brazil, province Para, on the Cayse, which affords a port for coasting vessels: 28 m from the ocean, and 100 ENE Para: Lg. 40.12 w, Lt. 0.56 s.

BRAILA, a town of Europe, Turkey, in Walachia, with a castle, on the Danube, 110 m SE Tergovist.

BRAINE-LE-CHAT, a village of Belgium, province South-Brabant, 14 ms by w Brussels.

BRAINE-LE-COMPTE, a town of Belgium, province Haynau, 19 m ssw Brussels. BRAINE-LA-LEUD, a town of Belgium, province South-Brabant, 13 m s Brussels.

BRAINTREE, a town of England, county Essex, with a market on Wednesday: it has a considerable manufacture of baize, and is joined on the N by the extensive village of Bocking; on the Blackwater, 11 m N by E Chelmsford, and 40 NE London; P. 3422. Polling-place.

BRAINTREE, a town of North America, United States, state Massachusetts, Norfolk county, on a bay, 8 m s by E Boston: the birthplace of John Adams, the first vicepresident, and second president of the United States; P. 1752 in 1830.

BRALIO, a mountain of Switzerland, canton Grisons, which separates the valley of Münster from the county of Bormio: supposed to be the same that Tacitus mentions under the name of Juga-Rhætica.

BRAMBER, a borough of England, county Sussex, on the Adur, adjoining the s of Steyning, 41 m s by w London: no market or fair; P. 97.

BRAMPTON, a town of England, county Cumberland, with a market on Tuesday: on the top of a high hill is a fortified trench called the Mote; on the Irthing, 9 m ENE Carlisle, and 315 NNW London; P. 2842. Polling-place.

BRAMSTEDT, a town of Denmark, Holstein, on the Bram, 27 m x Hamburg, near which is a medicinal spring.

BRANAW, a town of Austria, Bohemia, with a manufacture of coloured cloth, 11 m NW Glatz.

BRANCASTER, a village of England, County Norfolk, 4 m w by x Burnham: the ancient Branodunum, a considerable Roman city: it has a great trade in malt.

BRANDEIS, a town of Austria, Bohemia, on the Elbe, 10 m NE Prague.

BRANDENBURG, a province of Prussia, bounded on the w by the province of Sachsen, on the x by the province of Pommern, or Pomerania, and Mecklenburg, on the E by the province of Posen, and on the s by the provinces of Silesia, Sachsen, and the kingdom of Saxony: the chief towns are, Berlin, the capital of Prussia, Potsdam, Frankfurt, Brandenburg, and Küstrin; the principal rivers are, the Havel, Spree, Oder, and Warte: the country is in general sandy, and the soil meagre, but it produces some corn, and abounds in wood, wool, iron, flax, hemp, hops, and tobacco: inhabitants mostly Lutherans. Berlin is the capital.

BRANDENBURG, a city of Prussia, province Brandenburg, divided into the old and new town by the Havel, 32 m w by s Berlin: it has a cathedral and 7 other churches, and manufactures of woollen, cotton, and linen goods: Lg. 2.46 E, Lt. 52.27 N. BRANDENBURG NEU; see NEW BRAN

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BRANDON, a town of England, county Suffolk, 15 m N by w Bury, and 78 NNE London, with a market on Friday; on the

Little Ouse, over which is a bridge, and a mile below is a ferry to and from the isle of Ely: it has a great trade in corn, malt, coal, timber, &c., and in the vicinity are extensive rabbit warrens; P. 2065.

BRANDSBURTON, a town of England, county East York, 8 m NE Beverley; P. 585.

BRANFORD, a town of North America, United States, state Connecticut, Newhaven county, which has many iron-works in its neighbourhood; on the Branford, which enters Long-island-sound, 10 m E Newhaven, and 40 s by w Hartford; P. 2333 in 1830.

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BRASSTOWN, a town of North America, United States, state Tenessee, near the source of the Iwasse, about 100 m s Knoxville: 2 m s is the Enchanted Mountain, much famed for the curiosities found on its rocks, which consist of impressions resembling the tracks of turkeys, bears, horses, and human beings, as perfect as they could be made on snow or sand.

BRATSLAW, a town of Russia, government Podolia, chief town of the district, on the Boug, enclosed by a rampart and ditch; taken by the Poles from the Cosaques in 1654, taken by the Turks in 1672, retaken in 1675, and reunited to Russia at the dismemberment of Poland.

BRATTLEBOROUGH, a town of North America, United States, state Vermont, Windham county, on the Connecticut, 40 ra E Bennington, and 43 s Windsor: P. 2141 in 1830.

BRAVA, a seaport of Africa, on the coast of Ajan, with a good harbour, 90 m sw Magadoxa: Lg. 43.25 E, Lt. 1.20 N.

BRAVA, Africa, one of the Cape-Verdislands, 12 m wsw Fuego: it is high and mountainous, but fertile, and horses, beeves, asses, and hogs, are numerous; has 3 harbours, but Porto-Ferreo, on the s side, is the best for large ships: Lg. 24.39 w, Lt. 14.52 N.

BRAUBACH, a town of Nassau, on the Rhine, 8 m wsw Nassau, with a castle on a rock where state prisoners are confined: here are mines of silver and copper, and several foundries.

BRAUNAU, or BRANAU, a fortified town of Austria, formerly the residence of the elector: in 1742 it was taken by the Austrians; and, in 1779, by the peace of Teschen, the town and its district were ceded to Austria; in 1805 it was captured by the French and Bavarians, but was restored to Austria in 1814: on the Inn, 28 m sw Passau.

Elbing: it has an academy for Catholics, established in 1783.

BRAUNSCHWEIG, or BRUNSWICK, a duchy of Germany, consisting of several detached tracts, of which the principal, containing the capital, is bounded on the E and s by Prussia, sw and N by Hannover: it contains many mines, several medicinal springs, large forests, and plenty of all the necessaries of life; the principal rivers are, the Weser, Ocker, and Leyne.

BRAUNSCHWEIG, or BRUNSWICK, the capital of the duchy of Braunschweig, with a citadel: the palace is extensive, and the old palace, formerly the residence of the court, is now converted into barracks; it has: 10 Lutheran churches, a rich monastery of St. Blaise, and is famous for a kind of strong beer, called mum, which is exported even to Asia; other exports are linen, linen-yarn, linseed, oil, madder, hops, and honey: the first spinning-wheel is said to have been invented here by a statuary, named Jurgenn, in 1530: on the Ocker, 7 m N by E Wolfenbuttle, and 68 s Luneburg; P. about 32,000: Lg. 10.56 E, Lt. 52.35 N.

BRAUNSTON, a village of England, county Northampton, 4 m N w Daventry; here commences the Grand-Junction canal to the Thames, which, with the Oxford and Coventry-canals, render it the central place of inland navigation to the four principal seaports of England: P. 1380,

BRAY, a town of Ireland, county Wick low, on the Bray, near St. George's channel, 12 m SSE Dublin.

BRAY, a village of England, county Berks, 1 m s Maidenhead; P. 3480.

BRAZIL, an empire of South America, which gave the title of prince to the heir apparent of the crown of Portugal: bounded on the N by Colombia, British, Dutch, and French Guyana, on the E by the Atlantic,, and w by Banda, Paragua, Bolivar, and Peru.. Its limit is in about Lt. 4 N, and extends to Lt. 32 s; its E limit is in 34.30 w Lg., and. the w in 68.25 w Lg. It was discovered in. 1500, by Alvarez Cabral, a Portuguese, who, was forced upon it by a tempest. It is divided into governments, or captainries,, which are subdivided into districts: the governments are Para, Maranhao, Piahaui, Pernambuco, Bahia, Goias, Matto-Grosso,, San Paulo, Minas-Geraes, Rio-Janiero, and Rio-Grande: the climate is temperate and mild, when compared with Africa, owing, chiefly to the refreshing wind that blows: continually from the sea. The rivers annually overflow their banks, and the soil in many places is very rich: more sugar is exported from this country than from all other BRAUNSBERG, a town of Prussia, pro- parts of the world: it produces tobacco, vince Oster-Preussen, on the Passarge, near maize, several sorts of fruit, and medicinal its entrance into the Frisch-Haff, 22 m NE drugs: beside the valuable Brazil wood,

BRAUNFELS, a town of Prussia, capital of the county of Solms: here is the magnificent seat of the prince of Solms-Braunfels, and near it is the decayed castle of Solms: near the Lahn, 10 m wsw Wetzlar: Lg. 8.18 E, Lt. 50.30 N.

there are spacious woods of citron, ebony, mastic, cotton, and five species of palm-trees. The mines of gold and diamonds, first opened in 1681, yield above five millions sterling annually, of which sum a fifth belongs to the crown. The cattle from Europe have increased so prodigiously that they are killed for their hides only, 20,000 being annually exported; and there is great plenty of deer, hares, and other game. In some of the provinces are found a great variety of noxious insects and reptiles, as the liboya, or roebuck snake, which is said to grow to the length of 30 feet; the rattle-snake; the ibibaboka, a serpent said to be 21 feet long, whose bite is almost instant death. No country produces a greater number of beautiful birds; in particular the colibri, whose body is very small, and which sings as harmoniously as a nightingale. The Indians, who inhabit the inland parts, consist of a vast number of tribes or hordes, which have each its peculiar idiom; and they wander about in a state of nudity, the chief part of their time employed in hunting, gathering honey, and such fruits as nature spontaneously produces. They believe in the immortality of the soul, and a Creator of all, whom they generally denominate Tupan; but, like many other barbarians, their adoration is divided between the good and evil spirits, which last they call Alhangea. No state of government exists among them, but each tribe has its elective chief to direct them in making assaults against an enemy. They are of a copper colour, with long, coarse, black hair on their heads, but without any on the other parts of their bodies, like the rest of the Ameri cans. They are not tall, but strong, lively, and gay, and subject to few diseases. They love to adorn themselves with feathers, are fond of feasts, at which they dance immoderately, and make no manner of scruple to marry their nearest relations. They have huts made of the branches of trees, and covered with palm leaves. Their furniture consists chiefly in their hammocks and dishes, or cups, made of calibashes, painted without of a red colour, and black within. Their knives are made of a sort of stone and split canes, and they have baskets of different sizes, chiefly made of palm leaves. Their arms are bows, arrows, and wooden clubs. In 1898 it became the residence of the royal family of Portugal, and continued such until 1821, when the king having returned to Portugal, the following year the Brazilians declared themselves independent, and placed upon the throne Don Pedro, eldest son of their former sovereign, with the title of emperor: the army amounts to 2500 regulars, and 6000 militia. In 1823 the navy consisted of I ship-of-the-line, 3 frigates, 3 corvettes, &c., and other vessels were then building. The revenue

amounts to above two millions and a half sterling. The capital is St. Sebastian. P. 3 millions.-CALDCLEUGH's Travels in South America.

BRAZZA, an island of Austria, in the gulfof-Venice, coast of Dalmatia, 35 m long by 6. The soil is stony, but produces much excellent wine; and this article, with firewood and sheep, form the chief trade. It has a town named Brazza: Lg. 16.30 E, Lt. 43.25 N.

BRECHIN, a borough of Scotland, county Forfar, on the s Esk, 8 m w Montrose, and 12 ENE Forfar. The cathedral is partly ruinous, but one of its aisles serves for the parish church; at the NE corner stands a square tower, 120 feet high, built at the same time with the church; and at the sw corner is a curious antique round tower, 103 feet high, which tapers from the bottom, and is very slender in proportion to its height; its manufactures are canvass, linen, and cotton, with a considerable brewery. P. 6508.

BRECKNOCK, or BRECON, a borough of Wales, capital of Brecknockshire; returns 1 M.P.; with a market on Wednesday and Saturday, and on Friday for cattle. It is ancient, as appears by the Roman coins that are often dug up; and its once magnificent castle is now an insignificant ruin: it has 3 churches, one of which is collegiate, and in that part of the town called the Watton is a fine arsenal. It has a good trade in clothing; and to the E of the town is a considerable lake, well stored with fish, whence runs a rivulet into the Wye; and to the s are lofty mountains called the Brecknock Beacons, the principal of which, denominated Cader-Arthur, is the highest mountain in South Wales; situated on the Hondey, at its conflux with the Uske, 34 m Nw Monmouth, and 171 w by N London; P. 5026: Lg. 3.32 w, Lt. 51.54 N. Polling-place.

BRECKNOCK, a county of Wales, bounded E by Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, s by Glamorganshire, w by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire, and N by Radnorshire, 38 m long by 28; containing 467,840 acres ; divided into 6 hundreds and 67 parishes; it has 4 market towns; returns 1 county and 1 borough M.P., and has 1 pollingplace. It is mountainous, some of which are exceedingly high; but there are large fertile plains and valleys, which yield plenty and feed great numbers of cattle. The s part abounds with coal and iron; its principal rivers are the Wye and Uske. P. 31,633 in 1801, and 47,763 in 1831.

of corn,

BREDA, a fortified city of Holland, province North-Brabant, surrounded on all sides by water and morasses. The great church is a noble structure, with a lofty spire. In 1625 the Spaniards, after a me

morable siege of 10 months, reduced this city; but in 1637 the Prince of Orange retook it: in 1793 it surrendered to the French, after a siege of only three days, but was retaken soon after: situated on the Merk, 25 m NNE Antwerp, and 60 s Amsterdam: Lg. 4.50 E, Lt. 51.37 N.

BREDEVOORT, a fortified town of Holland, province Gelderland, 24 m SE Zutphen.

BREEDON, a village of England, county Leicester, 5 m NNE Ashby-de-la-Zouch, at the base of a high lime-stone rock, on the summit of which the church stands. P. 2656.

BREEDS-HILL, North America, United States, state Massachusetts, on an eminence on the N side of Charleston, celebrated for the stand made by the Americans against the British troops in 1775, at the commencement of hostilities with the mother country. This action, from another hill near it, is often called the battle of Bunker's Hill.

BREEWOOD, a town of England, county Stafford; the market discontinued; on a branch of the Penk, 10 m s by w Stafford, and 130 xw London.

BREGENTZ, a town of Austria, in Tyrol,

with a castle on an eminence; at the mouth of the Bregentz, E end of lake Constance, 6 m SE Lindau.

BREHAR, the most mountainous of the Scilly islands, 30 m w of the Land's-end: Lg. 6.47 w, Lt. 50.2 N.

BREMEN, province Hannover, between the Weser and the Elbe; the former of which separates it on the w from Oldenburg, and the other, on the NE, from Holstein; the E and s is bounded by Luneburg, Verden, and Hoya: fertile and populous, but in winter is subject to inundations. It formerly belonged to the Swedes, but was sold to the elector of Hannover in 1719. Stade is the seat of regency: area 2060 square m. P. 175,000.

BREMEN, one of the four free cities of Germany; its territory bounded N, E, and s by Hannover, and w by Oldenburg. The Weser divides it into old and new towns; the former is the largest, and contains the cathedral. It has a harbour 9 m below the town, and carries on an extensive trade. In 1757 it was taken by the French, who were driven out in 1758 by the Hannoverians; formerly one of the leading cities of the Hanseatic league. The vaults under the principal church have the property of preserving dead bodies from corruption during a vast number of years-WRAXALL'S Tour through the North of Europe. Situated 22 m E Oldenburg, and 62 wNw Zell; P. 48,000: Lg. 8.40 E, Lt. 53.5 N.


vince Bremen, defended by a castle, on the Oste, 32 m w Hamburgh.

BREMGARTEN, a town of Switzerland, canton Aargau ; trades chiefly in paper; on the Reuss, 10 m w Zurich.

BRENTFORD, a town of England, county Middlesex, with a market on Tuesday; on the Thames, into which, at the w end of the town, enters the rivulet Brent and the Grand-Junction canals. It is a long town, divided into old and new-Brentford, which last contains the church and market-place, 7 m w London; P. of old, 2274; of new, 2085. Polling-place.

BRENTWOOD, a town of England, county Essex, with a market on Thursday; on an eminence, 11 m wsw Chelmsford, and 18 ENE London; P. 1642.

BRESCIA, a city of Austria, Italy, kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, capital of Bresciano, and a bishop's see, with a citadel: the cathedral and palace are adorned with beautiful paintings, and in the former is shown the standard of Constantine: here are several flourishing manufactures, and its fire-arms are particularly celebrated: it was taken by the French in 1796, retaken by the Austrians in 1799, and again possessed by the French in 1800; on the Garza, 42 m Nw Mantua.

BRESCIANO, a district of Austria, UpperItaly, kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, bounded on the s by Mantua and Cremonese, w by Bergamasco, N by Bormio and Trent, and E by Veronese and Mantuan: it is watered by several small rivers, and fertile in wine, oil, and maize, with excellent pasturages, and some mines of copper and iron: Brescia is the capital; P. 500,000.

BRESLAU, a city of Prussia, capital of province Silesia, and a bishop's see, with a university: it is seated at the conflux of the Ola with the Oder, the former of which runs through several of the streets, and forms two islands; it is surrounded by walls, has a great trade in linen, leather, and Hungarian wines, and its beautiful cast-iron ornaments are justly esteemed: the public squares are spacious, streets tolerably wide, and houses lofty; the 2 principal churches belong to the Protestants, near one of which is a college: this city became subject to the king of Prussia in 1741, was taken by the Austrians in 1757, but regained the same year; was for some time besieged by the French, and surrendered to them in 1767: 112 m NE Prague, and 165 N Vienna; P. 85,000: Lg. 17.9 E, Lt. 51.3 N.

BRESSAY, Scotland, one of the Shetland islands, about 44 long by 3, separated from the mainland of Shetland by Bressay-sound, a fine harbour; P. with Burray and Quarff

EREMEVORD, a town of Hannover, pro- 1699: Lg. 1.12 w, Lt. 60.14 N.

BRESSE, an old province of France, bounded on the N by Burgundy and Franche Compte, and E by Switzerland: it now forms the department of Ain.

BRESSUIRE, a town of France, department Deux-Sevres, 35 m Nw Poitiers, with a college.

BREST, a fortified town of Russia, government Grodno, chief town of the district, on the Boug, with a strong castle on a rock, in the midst of a swamp: here is an imperial palace and a celebrated synagogue; P. 4000.

BREST, a seaport of France, department Finisterre, with a castle on a craggy rock by the seaside, a great naval arsenal, 30 m SE Morlaix, and 325 N Paris; the best in the kingdom, with a narrow entrance, and both sides well fortified: the inner part, called Brest-Water, is capable of holding 500 large ships. The streets are narrow, crooked, and steep. The quay is above 1 m in length. The arsenal was built by Louis XIV, whose successor established a marine academy; the English attempted in vain to take this place in 1694; P. 26,500: Lg. 4.29 w, Lt. 48.23 N.

BRETAGNE, or BRITANY, an old province of France, on the NW coast, and washed on three sides by the ocean. It now forms the departments of Finisterre, Cotesdu-Nord, Morbihan, Ille-Vilaine, and BasseLoire.

BRETEUIL, 2 towns of France:-1st, department Oise, on the Noye, 14 m NNE Beauvais ; P. 2000.-2nd, department Eure, on the Iton, 15 m sw Evreux.

BRETIGNY, a village of France, department Eure-et-Loire, 3 m from Chartres, famous for the treaty concluded here in 1360, by which Edward III restored John of France to his freedom.

BRETTEN, a town of Baden, Germany, 33 ms Heidelberg.

BREVORD; see Bredevoort.

BREWER, a town of North America, United States, state Maine, Penobscot County; P. 1078 in 1830.

BRIANÇON, a town of France, department Hautes-Alps, with a castle on a craggy rock, and other fortifications, 50 m ESE Grenoble: manna is gathered here from a sort of pine-tree. It has a handsome church, and a noble bridge over the Durance; P. 2850.

BRIANÇONNET, a fortress of Sardinia, duchy Savoy, near the town of Moustiers, on a rock inaccessible every way, except by the side of a river, where it is ascended by above 200 steps. The common passage from Savoy to Italy is by this fortress.

BRIANSK, a small town of Russia, go

vernment Orel, chief of a district on the Desna, 70 m w by N Orel. It has 16 churches; P. 3000.

BRIARE, a town of France, department Loiret, on the Loire, and has a canal between that river and the Loire, near Montargis, 46 m ESE Orleans.

BRIDGEND, a town of Wales, county Glamorgan, with a market on Saturday, and a woollen manufacture; 2 m to the N is Coity castle, on the Ogwore, 7 m www Cowbridge, and 181 w London. Pollingplace.

BRIDGENORTH, a borough of England, county Salop, on the Severn, 23 m SE Shrewsbury, and 140 Nw London; with a market on Saturday, and sends 2 M.P. It has 2 churches, and a free-school that sends and maintains 18 scholars at the university of Oxford. It was formerly walled, the castle now in ruins. It manufactures cloth, stockings, and iron tools; the trade by land and water considerable; P. 5065. Polling-place.

BRIDGETOWN, North America, West Indies, capital of the island of Barbadoes, in Carlisle-bay, which is large enough to contain 500 ships, but the bottom is foul, and apt to cut the cables. It has four times suffered greatly by fires, and in 1780 it was torn from its foundations by a hurricane, in which many of the inhabitants perished; it was soon restored; and again, in 1831, suffered severely by hurricane. The streets are broad, houses high, wharfs and quays convenient, and the forts strong. The church is as large as some hospital, and college: the latter erected by cathedrals; and it has also a free-school, the Society for Propagating the Gospel, pursuant to the will of colonel Codrington, who endowed it with 20901. a-year: Lg. 58.38 w, Lt. 13.10 N.

BRIDGETOWN, 3 in North America, United States:-1st, county-town, state New Jersey, Cumberland county, on Cohanzie creek, 20 m above its entrance in Delaware-bay; navigable by ships of 100 tons to this place; 14,433 tons entered in 1815; it has a court-house, gaol, bank, and academy. 2nd, town, state Maryland, w side of the Tuckahoe, 8 m E Centreville.3rd, state Maryland, Kent county, on the Chester, 17 m above Chester, and 45 E Bal


BRIDGEWATER, a borough of England, county Somerset, governed by a mayor, with a market on Thursday and Saturday; returns 2 M.P. It is seated on the Parret, over which is a stone bridge, and near it vessels of 100 tons burden may ride; 44 m ssw Bristol, and 137 w by s London. It has a large church, and carries on a considerable coasting trade. The summer

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