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Epirus, 240 m long by 60 wide; bounded on the N by Servia, E by Macedonia and Thessaly, s by the kingdom of Greece, and on the w by the gulf of Venice and Dalmatia; it produces excellent wine; its chief exports are grain, spun cotton, wool, tobacco, oil, leather, and timber of a superior quality for ships; it is divided into five pashalics, which are named from their chief towns, Skutari, Okhrida, Avlona, Delvino, and Ioanina. The Albanians, or Arnauts, are stout and well made, never more happy than in action, and are brave and intrepid. In 1812, the vizier, Ali, pasha of Ioanina, became independent of the Porte, and his government was a perfect despotism. His power, but of a more controlled nature, also extended over a large portion of Macedonia, and nearly the whole of Thessaly and Livadia. A small portion, on the s at the head of the Gulf of Arta, has lately been assigned to the kingdom of Greece. Ioanina is the capital.
ALBANO, a town of Italy, Campagna di Roma, situated on an eminence, near lake Albano, 15 m SSE Rome; the lake, 7 m in circuit, is supposed to be contained in the crater of an extinguished volcano, and its outlet is bored through a rock more than a mile in length; it produces excellent wine.
ALBANO, a town of Italy, Naples, in Basilicata; it is a fertile country, situated on the Basiento, 15 m E by s Potenza.
ALBANAPOLIS, a town of Europe, in Turkey, situated on the Drino, 43 m E Alessio, it was formerly the capital of Albania, but is now a poor place.
ALBANY, a city of North America, United States, state New-York, and is the capital of Albany county, situated on the w side of the river Hudson; 162 m N of New. York, and 366 Washington. The churches and public edifices are built of brick or stone; and the houses are principally of brick, three or four stories high: it trades to and from Canada and the lakes; manufactures, tobacco, chocolate, mustard, starch, &c.; P. 24,238 in 1830: Lg. 73.44.49 w, Lt. 42.38.39 N.
ALBARAZIN, a city in Spain, province Aragon, and a bishop's see, situated on a mountain by the Guadalavir, 88 m SSW Saragossa, and 140 E Madrid: its wool is the best in Aragon: Lg. 1.21 w, Lt. 40.30 N.
ALBAZETE, a town in Spain, province Murcia, situated in a fertile country, 44 m w by N Almanza: manufactures are of iron and steel.
ALBAZIN, a town of Asia, Chinese Tartary; it has a fortress, and is situated on the N side of the Saghalien: Lg. 123.30 E, Lt. 53.0 N.
ALBEMARLE, or AUMALE, a town of France, department Seine-Inferieure, 20 m sw Dieppe, and 32 NNW Rouen; manufactures of surges and other stuffs.
ALBEMARLE-SOUND, North America, an inlet of the Atlantic, in North Carolina, 60 m long by 8 to 12 wide, 30 m x of Pimlico Sound; the tract of country between them both is called Dismal Swamp.
ALBENGA, a town of Italy, on the coast of Genova, surrounded by olive trees, 37 m sw Genova,
ALBION; see BRITAIN.
ALBION NEW; see NEW ALBION.
ALBOFERA, a town of Portugal, on the s coast of province Algarve, with a fort; 10 m Nw Faro.
ALBRET, a town of France, department Landes, 37 m s Bourdeaux.
ALBSHEIM, a village of Germany, Bavaria, 13 m wNw Worms.
ALBUERA, a village of Spain, province Andalusia, situated on a river of the same name, 12 m s Badajoz. In 1811 a bloody battle took place, in which the French were defeated by the English and their allies.
ALBURG, or AALBORG, Denmark, in North Jutland, capital of a diocese, situated on the s side of the Lum, or Limefiord, a good harbour, 15 m from Catigul, 40 m NE Viborg: it trades in herrings, cattle, and corn; manufactures, saddles, gloves, and small arms: Lg. 10.4 E, Lt. 57 N.
ALBURQUERQUE, a town of Spain, Estremadura, situated on the frontiers of Portugal, with a castle, 30 m NNW Badajoz: it has a considerable trade in wool and cloth.
ALBURQUERQUE, a town of North America, New Mexico, situated on the left bank of the Rio-del-Norte, 52 m ssw St. Fe.
ALBY, a city of France, department Tarn, formerly an archiepiscopal see, situated on the Tarn, 23 m N by w Castres, and 42 NE Toulouse. In point of architecture and decorations, the principal church is one of the most curious in France; the organ is fine, and the city ancient. The inhabitants, called Albicentury, for renouncing the Roman Cathogenses, were severely persecuted in the 13th lic faith. The promenade, called La Lice, is very beautiful: Lg. 2.8 E, Lt. 43.56 N.
ALCALA-DE-GU ADAIRA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, situated on the Guadaira, at the foot of a hill, on which are the extensive remains of a Roman castle, a part of which is converted into a modern church; 12 m NE Seville.
ALCALA-DE-HENARES, a town of Spain, province New Castile, having an university and castle; 15 m E of Madrid. Here is a spring of water so excellent, that it is preserved for the use of the king, and sent
to Madrid. Cardinal Ximenes, who is buried here, caused the first polyglot bible to be printed here. The celebrated Cervantes was born in this place in 1547.DILLON'S Travels in Spain. Delices de Espagne, &c.
ALCALA-DE-LOS-GAZULES, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, which has an ancient castle, on a mountain in a fertile plain, 14 m E by N Medina Sidonia.
ALCALA-REAL, a town of Spain, Andalusia, on a mountain, 18 m sw Jaen.
ALCAMO, a town of Sicily, Val-di-Mazara, at the foot of Mont Bonifacio, 34 m wsw Palermo.
ALCANTARA, a fortified town of Spain, in Estremadura, 42 m x by w Seville, the chief place of the knights of that name. It has a celebrated stone bridge over the Tajo, Tejo, or Tagus, built in the time of Trajan, the principal arch of which was destroyed in 1810, to arrest the progress of the French: Lg. 6.12 w, Lt. 39.20 N.
ALCANTARA, a town of Spain, province Andalusia, near the Guadalquiver, 14 m s Seville. It has a bridge built by the Romans to pass the marshes formed by the
ALCANTARA, a town of South America, Brazil, province Maranham, with a fort; on the w side of the south of the Meraion, 19 m Nw Maranham: exports much rice and
ALCARAZ, a town of Spain, province La Mancha, with a strong castle, and a re-. markable ancient aqueduct; surrounded by mountains, near the source of the Guadalquivir, 67 m E Ciudad-Real.
ALCAÇAR-DO-SAL, a town of Portugal, Estramadura, with a Moorish castle, 48 m SE Lisboa: fine white salt is made here: Lg. 9.5 w, Lt. 38.18 N.
ALCAZAR-QUIBER, a town of Africa, kingdom of Fez, near the Lucos, 20 m SE Larash. It has a profitable commerce with Tetuan and other places. At the N of the town, Sebastian, king of Portugal, lost his life in a battle with the Moors, in 1578.
ALCAZAR-SEGUER, a town of Africa, kingdom of Fez, on the strait of Gibraltar, 14 m E Tangier; taken by Alphonso, king of Portugal, in 1468, but soon after abandoned.
ALCESTER, or ALNCESTER, a town of England, county Warwick. It is situated at the conflux of the Alne with the Arrow, 14 m wsw Warwick, 103 Nw London: with a market on Tuesday. Many Roman coins, bricks, &c. have been found near it, and the Icknield-street passes through the town. It has a manufacture of needles; P. 2405.
ALKMAAR, a fortified city of Holland, province North Holland, on the Great Am
sterdam Ship Canal from the Helder, 17 m N by E Haarlem; unsuccessfully besieged by the Spaniards in 1573; occupied by the British, after the battle of Bergen, in 1799. The environs produce good cheese and fine tulips: Lg. 4.49 E, Lt. 52.38 N.
ALCOBAÇA, a town and magnificent abbey of Portugal, 60 m N of Lisbon, built by Alphonso I in 1148, and in which most of the kings of Portugal are interred. It was burnt down in 1811 by order of the French marshal Massena, prince of Essling.
ALCONCHOL, a fort of Spain, on the frontiers of Estramadura, on the Alcaraque, which runs into the Guadiana, 20 m s by w Badajoz.
ALCOUTIM, Portugal, province Algarva, comarca Tavira, with a castle, on an island in the Guadiana, 16 m from its entrance into the gulf of Cadiz, and 22 NNE Tavira.
ALCOY, a town of Spain, province Valencia. It has a manufacture of cloth, and is situated near the source of the Alcoy, 22 m x Alicant.
ALCUDIA, a city of Spain, in the island of Majorca, surrounded by a wall and ditch, with two forts, on the NE coast, 34 m NE Palma; it contains about 1000 houses: Lg. 3.14 E, Lt. 39.50 N.
ALDBOROUGH, or ALDEBURGH, a town and seaport of England, county Suffolk, 25 m ENE Ipswich, 94 NE London, with a market on Wednesday and Saturday. It stands on the Alde, between a high hill and the sea, and the harbour is tolerably good, but small; it is defended by a tower, and was formerly much longer, but the sea has taken away whole streets: Lg. 1.37 E, Lt. 52.16 N; P. 1341.
ALDBOROUGH, a town of England, county York, situated on the Ure, near its junction with the Swale, 15 m Nw York, 208 x by w London; here are many remains of Roman works; P. 620; of parish 2447.
ALDERBURY, a village of England, county Wiltshire, on a hill near the Avon, 3 m from Salisbury: has a manufacture of fustians. It was considerably damaged by fire in 1777, when 100 houses were destroyed; P. 1323.
ALDERHOLM, an island of Sweden, formed by the three arms of the Gesle, in the gulf of Bothnia, 80 m N Stockholm: a considerable trade in planks and deals.
ALDERNEY, an island in the English channel, 8 m in circuit; separated from France on the E by a strait called the Race, which is a dangerous passage in stormy weather, when the two currents meet; and for three leagues to the w lie a number of rocks, called the Caskets, among which there are several dangerous eddies. It is famous for a fine breed of cows, and is fertile in
corn and pasture; P. about 1000, who live in a town called St. Ann: Lg. 2.17 w, Lt. 49.45 N.
ALDSTONE; see ALSTON-MOOR.
ALEGRE, a town of France, department Haute-Loire, 15 m SE Brionde.
ALEMQUER, a town of South America, Portuguese Guyana, on the central outlet of the lake Surubui, 15 m above its conflux with the Amazon, 60 wsw Montalegre.
ALEMTEJO, or ALENTEJO, a province of Portugal, bounded s by Algarve, w by the Atlantic, N by Estramadura, and E by Spain; divided into 8 comarcas; contains 4 cities, 101 towns, and 350 parishes; one archbishop and two bishops; and two priories of the military orders of Aviz and Malta. Evora is the capital.
ALENÇON, a city of France, capital of the department Orne, seated on the Sarte, 30 m N by w Mans, and 37 wsw Paris: the manufacture of lace considerable: Lg. 0.1 E, Lt. 48.26 N.
ALEPPO, Asia, Turkey, the capital of Syria, and, next to Constantinople and Cairo, the largest city in the Turkish empire. It is seated on the Koik, 75 m NE Latakia (its port), and 195 N by E Damascus, in the middle of a plain, surrounded by low rocky heights; is of an oval figure, six miles in compass. The castle, the residence of the pasha, is seen in the centre of the city. The houses are better than
in other places in Turkey, and consist of a large court, with a dead wall to the street, an arcade running round it, paved with marble, and a marble fountain in the middle. The streets are narrow, but well paved with large square stones, and kept very clean. Here are many stately mosques, caravanseries, fountains, vineyards, and dens. The water in the wells is brackish; but good water is brought from some springs about five miles off, by an aqueduct, said to have been built by the empress Helena. The Christians have their houses and churches in the suburbs, and carry on a considerable trade in silks, camblets, and leather. Large caravans frequently arrive from Bagdad and Bassora, charged with the products of Persia and India. Several European nations have factories here, and the merchants live in greater splendour and safety than in any other city in the Turkish empire: Lg. 37.8 E, Lt. 36.9 N.
ALESSANDRIA; see ALEXANDRIA.
ALESSIA, a town of Europe, Turkey, Albania, and a bishop's see; seated on a rock, washed by the Drino, 36 m SE Scutari, and 40 NNE Durazzo. It is the burial place of the heroical Scanderbeg, prince of Albania, who died here in 1467.
ALET, a town of France, department
Aude. It is noted for its baths, and stands near the Pyrenees, on the river Aude, 15 m s by w Carcassone.
ALEUTIAN ISLANDS; see NORTHERN ARCHIPELAGO.
ALEXANDRETTA, or ISKENDEROON, a town of Asia, Turkey, Syria, on the Mediterranean sea, and formerly the port of Aleppo, 69 m wNw Aleppo. It is now a poor place, the tombs being more numerous than the houses. The anchorage is subject to many inconveniences, but the unwholesomeness of the air from the marshes is the worst. While the heats are excessive the
principal inhabitants retire to the neighbouring villages, among the mountains, where there is excellent water, and delicious fruits: Lg. 36.12 E, Lt. 36.32 N.
ALEXANDRIA, a town of Russia, government Kherson, contains one church. It is seated on the Ingouletz, 75 m w Ecatherinoslav; P. 1000: Lg. 33.35 E, Lt. 48.21 N.
ALEXANDRIA, a town of Africa, Egypt, on the Mediterranean, 125 m NW Cairo; now much decayed, though there are still some remains of its ancient splendour. Here is an obelisk full of hieroglyphics, called Cleopatra's Needle, which is 66 feet long, and 7 square at the base; also Pompey's pillar, the shaft of which is one entire piece of granite, 67 feet high, and 9 in diameter, and the whole column is 99 feet high; but these two monuments are, without doubt, much more ancient than their present names indicate. The ancient Pharos, so famous in antiquity that it was numbered among the seven wonders of the world, is now a castle called Pharillon, and still used to direct the vessels into the harbour. From the harbour is a canal to the w branch of the Nile, at Rhamanie. mile to the w are the catacombs of Necropolis, the most wonderful and extensive yet known. This city was first built by Alexander the Great, and was several miles in extent. It now consists chiefly of one long street, facing the harbour, the rest being a heap of ruins; part of the walls are standing, with great square towers 200 paces distant; and the gates are of Thebaic and granite marble; formerly a place of great trade, all the treasures of the East Indies being deposited here, before the discovery of the route by the Cape of Good Hope. The pasha of Egypt has a palace here. Alexandria was taken by the French invaders, under Buonaparte, in 1798, and taken from them by the English in 1801. It surrendered to the English in 1807, but was soon after evacuated: Lg. 30.10 E, Lt. 31.11 N.
taken in the various wars in Italy: considerable trade, particularly in cotton and silk: Lg. 8.33 E, Lt. 44.53 N.
ALEXANDRIA, a town of North America, United States, district Columbia, on the right bank of the Potomac, 6 m ssw Washington. The streets are straight, and the houses neatly built; 9 m below is Mount Vernon, once the seat of the celebrated general Washington, whose remains were deposited in a vault on the bank of the river; P. 8263 in 1830: Lg. 77.4 w, Lt. 38.49 N.
ALEXANDRIA, a town of North America, United States, state Ohio, on the Ohio, at. the influx of the Scioto, 90 m SE Cincinnati.
ALEXANDROV, a town of Russia, government Vladimir; it contains one con
vent, two churches, and 500 houses: Lg. 38.59 E, Lt. 57.11 x.
ALEXANDROV, two forts of Russia; one belongs to the military line of Caucasus, 10 m NW of fort Andreerskoï, forms a square, three sides fortified with rampart, dry ditch, palisaded, and mounted with cannon, the other by the precipice bank of the Toncula; the other fort, government Ecatherinoslav, is on the right bank of the Dnieper, near the mouth of the Moskovka.
ALEXANDROVSKAIA-STANITZA, a cosaque village of Russia, seated on the Don, about 14 m from Teherkask.
ALEXINE, a town of Russia, government Tula, chief of district, on the right bank of the Oca; stands on a hill, at the junction of the Mordovka; contains two churches; P. 2288.
ALEXOPOL, a small town of Russia, in Ecatherineslav, on the Orelly; one annual fair.
ALFARO, a town of Spain, province Old Castile, on the Ebro, 9 m wxw Tudela,
12 E Calahorra.
ALFELD, a post town of Hannover, province of Hildesheim, on the Seine, 31 m s by E Hannover, post road to Cassel.
ALFORD, a town of England, county Lincoln, with a market on Tuesday; stands on a small brook, 6 m from the sea, 30 E Lincoln, and 135 N by E London; P. 1784.
ALFORD, a town of Scotland, county Aberdeen, near the Don, over which is a bridge, 27 m wNw Aberdeen; P. 894.
ALFORDSTON, a town of North America, United States, state North Carolina, Moor county, 40 m from Fayette-ville.
ALFRETON, a town of England, county Derby, seated on a hill, 13 m x by E Derby,
and 142 NNW London; has a market on Monday, and manufactures of stockings and brown earthenware; P. 5691. Polling place.
ALGAGLIOLA, a small fortified seaport, on the NW coast of Corsica, at the mouth of the Aregno, 28 m w by s Bastia.
ALGARVE, the most s of the six provinces lantic, N by Alemtejo, and E is separated of Portugal, bounded s and w by the Atfrom Spain by the Guadiana; divided into and 67 parishes. Faro is the capital: the 2 comarcas, and contains 4 cities, 12 towns, chief trade is in figs, almonds, raisins, and tunny-fish.
ALGEZIRA, a province of Asia, Turkey, now usually called DIARBEK.
Andalusia, on the w side of Gibraltar-bay.
hending a great part of the ancient Numidia
ALGIERS, a strongly walled city of Africa, the capital of the whole country of Algiers, 380 m w Tunis. It is built on the side of a hill, next the harbour; other, of a resplendent whiteness, make and the houses appearing one above ana fine appearance from the Mediterranean sea. The tops of the houses are flat, covered with earth, and form a sort of gardens. The streets are very narrow, and serve to keep off the extreme heat of the sun. There are five gates, but no public places or squares of considerable extent. The larger mosques are nine; and the Dey's palace has two great courts, surrounded with spacious galleries. The
harbour is small, and the entrance incommoded by numerous rocks; but it has a continent to a small island, where there is mole 500 paces long, extending from the a castle and a large battery. The hilly country around is adorned with gardens and villas, orange and olive groves, and numerous vineyards. Algiers has for ages
braved the resentment of the most powerful states in Christendom, for its piracies, and sending into slavery the crews of all Christian vessels that were taken. Emperor Charles V lost a fine fleet and army in an expedition against it in 1541. The English burnt the vessels in the harbour in 1685 and 1670. It was bombarded by the French in 1688. In 1775 the Spaniards made a descent near the city with a formidable army; and in 1784 a powerful fleet attacked the forts that defend the harbour; both of which were repelled with great slaughter. But in 1816 a formidable British fleet (aided by a Dutch fleet) destroyed the vessels in the harbour, and so reduced the city that it was compelled to surrender; but it was immediately restored to the Dey on certain conditions, and particularly, that all Christian slaves should be given up, and such slavery for ever abolished. In 1830, the French landed a considerable army, and captured it, and have retained possession; an immense treasure is said to have been found there; P. 120,000 Lg. 3.28 E, Lt. 36.40 N.
ALGONQUINS, the name of several tribes of Indians, spread over different parts of North America, but all supposed to have the same origin.
ALGOA BAY, Africa, on the s coast of the Cape territory: it lies open to the SE wind, and the entrance is difficult when it blows from other quarters. Here is a military establishment, at the mouth of the Baaker, environed by a country rich in corn, fruit, and cattle; on the summit of a hill is fort Frederick, built by the English in 1799: Lg. 25.24 E, Lt. 34.12 s.
ALGUE, a town of S. America, in Chili, province Rancagua, 26 m Nw Rancagua: it has a rich mine of gold.
ALHAMA, a town of Spain, province Granada, 25 m sw Granada: the hot baths are the best in Spain.
ALICANT, a city and seaport of Spain, in Valencia, seated on a bay of the same name, 85 m s Valencia; it is famous for excellent wine and fruit. The trade declining from 1000 ships per annum to 300; the chief exports are barilla, almonds, raisins, and salt. The castle, on a rock about 900 feet high, was taken by the English in 1706; it was likewise taken by the French and Spaniards, after a siege of almost two years, and then part of the rock was blown up: Lg. 0.32 w, Lt. 38.16 N.
ALICATA, a seaport in the island of Sicily, in Val-di-Mazara, stands at the mouth of the Salso, 28 m SE Girgenti, with a fortress on a small cape: exports much corn and sulphur: Lg. 14.15 E, Lt. 37.6 N.
ALICUDI, the most western of the Lipari islands, in the Mediterranean, 10 m w Felicudi.
ALIFI, a town of Italy, Naples, Terra-diLavoro, at the foot of the Apennines, 27 m NW Benevento.
ALINGSAHS, a town of Sweden, province Elfsborgs, with manufactures of silk and wool, 28 m NE Gotrebog.
ALISEDA, a town of Spain, in Estramadura, on the Salon, 23 m SSE Alcantara.
ALJEZUR, a small town of Portugal, province Algarve, on the w coast, 31 m NNE Cape St. Vincent; on the E side of the coast there are sand hills; the town is very dirty and poor.
A Moorish castle, in ruins, stands above this place, which Alfonso III carried by assault, when he finally conquered Algarve, in 1250: it contains one church; P. about 100 families.-LANDMANN'S Portugal.
ALJUSTREL, a small town of Portugal, province Alentejo, at the foot and x side of the mountains of Caldeirao, which rise on the boundaries of Alemtejo and Algarve; the streets are narrow and dirty, and the inhabitants poor; there is no fuel near, nor any water within the town; it contains about 300 houses.-LANDMANN's Portugal.
ALLAHABAD, Asia, a province of Hindostan Proper, 260 m long by 20; bounded on the N by Agra and Oude, E by Bahar, s by Guadiana, and w by Malwah and Agra. The Nerbudda, which rises on the SE border of the province, flows from E to w near its s side; and the Ganges, which is here joined by the Jumna, crosses it from w to E near its N side; the sw part, called Bundelcund, is an elevated hilly territory, but in other parts it is flat, and very productive. The largest city is Be
ALLAHABAD, Asia, the capital of the province Allahabad, with an excellent citadel, 470 m WNW Calcutta: it was founded by the emperor Aebar; and its fortifications are impregnable to a native army. It stands at the conflux of the Jumna with the
Ganges, which is the largest and most holy prayaga of the Hindoos, and visited by numerous pilgrims: Lg. 81.56 E, Lt. 25.27 N.
ALLAH-SHEHR, a large city of Asia, Turkey, Natolia, the ancient Philadelphia, five days' journey from Smyrna.
ALLCHURCH, a village of England, county Worcester, 5 m E by N Bromsgrove: the bishop of Worcester had formerly a palace here.
ALLEGANY, or APALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, a long range of mountains in North America, United States, between the Atlantic, the Mississippi, and the lakes; extending, nearly parallel with the sea-coast, 900 m in length, and from 60 to 200 in breadth. The various ridges which compose this immense range have different names in the different states. Advancing