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woman by receiving its barbarian invaders into its bosom, and their gradual commixtion, with the ancient subjects of the empire.
“And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and "went to make war with the remnant of her seed or which keep the commandments of God, and
have the testimony of Jesus Christ.”'*
The efforts of the dragon to destroy the church having proved ineffectual, we are informed in this verse, that he still continued to feel the most rancorous hatred against the woman, and he sought out with the most anxious and malignant activity the remnant of her seed, or all true Christians, whom he continued to persecute during the whole prophetical period of the woman's abode in the wilderness. In the vision which follows, we shall learn what were the means adopted by the dragon for this nefa
THE TEN HORNED BEAST OF THE SEA.
“And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw "a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads " and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, “and upon his heads the names of blasphemy. And “ the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, « and his feet was as the feet of a bear, and his “ mouth as the mouth of a lion : and the dragon
gave him his power and his seat, and great autho“rity. And I saw one of his heads, as it were “ wounded to death ; and his deadly wound was “ healed : and all the world wondered after the “ beast. And they worshipped the dragon which
gave power unto the beast, and they worshipped “ the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast ? " Who is able to make'war with him ? And there “ was given unto him a mouth speaking great things “and blasphemies; and power was given unto him “ to continue (or practise prosperously) forty and “ two months. And he opened his mouth in blas
phemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and « his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.'
Having in the preceding chapter described the enterprises of Satan to destroy the woman and her seed, the Holy Spirit now proceeds to show us the instruments through whom Satan was to act in all his endeavours against the church, during the period
* Rev. xiii. 1-6.
of twelve hundred and sixty years. The first of these is the beast above mentioned.
It is one of the first principles which I take for granted in the discussions which occupy these
pages, that the fourth beast of Daniel represents the Roman empire. This indeed is so evident a truth, that it has been acknowledged by nearly all the writers on prophecy, whether Jewish or Christian ; and if the reader desire further satisfaction on the subject, I must refer him to the works of Mede and Bishop Newton.
The ten horned beast seen by the apostle John to rise out of the sea, is plainly the same with the fourth beast of Daniel, though with one important point of difference; the Apocalyptic beast not having the little horn, which forms so conspicuous a part of the beast of Daniel.* But it will be seen afterwards, that the place of this little horn is supplied in the Apocalypse by a distinct symbol, a second beast having horns like a lamb, but speaking like a dragon, which arises out of the earth. I
If then the beast with seven heads and ten horns be the same with Daniel's fourth beast, he must represent the secular Roman empire ; and the ten crowns upon his horns denote, that when the apostle first saw the beast, his territories had been already divided into ten kingdoms by the invasions of the Goths and Vandals.
Before I proceed to vindicate this opinion respecting the Apocalyptic beast, I shall mention what are the sentiments of some celebrated commentators with regard to this symbol. Mede and Bishop Newton both
* Dan. vii. 7, 8. 19-26. + Rev. xiii. 11.
maintain that the beast is the secular Roman empire, though they very inconsistently suppose that his eighth head of sovereignty, which is not mentioned till the seventeenth chapter of the Apocalypse, is the pope. This error with respect to the last head, has been very generally, though not universally, adopted by protestant commentators, and is refuted with much strength of argument by Mr. Faber.*
" The “ beast that arose out of the sea,” says the learned Jesuit Alcaser, evidently relates to the fourth “ beast in Daniel, chap. vii.” + “ It is,” says Dr. Cressner, “ unquestionable, that the fourth beast “ in Daniel is the same with the beast in the Reve
lations, and especially in the time of the little “ horn.”I—"This beast,” says Daubuz, “is the
representative of the ten monarchies which arose out of the ruins of the Roman empire."-" He
represents,” according to Mr. Pyle, " the civil “ powers of the Roman empire.”'S “How is it (says
Vitringa) that we are backward in here discovering “the empire of mystical Babylon, or Rome Anti“ christian, the persecutor of the saints, which was to “ arise out of the rubbish of the ancient Roman “empire in the west, and to show itself in ten “powerful European kingdoms uniting themselves a to Rome for the sake of religion, and becoming “ subservient for a time to her superstition and
cruelty.”l. Having produced so many authorities in support * Dissertation on Prophecies respecting the 1260 years, vol. ii. p. 197. 5th edit.
+ Quoted by the author of the Illustrations of Prophecy, p. 51. * Illustrations of Prophecy, p. 51.
Ibid. p. 54. ! Vitringa, on Rev. xiii. .
of this interpretation of the symbol, I shall now give one or two arguments to show that it is the true one. Daniel's prophecy of the four kingdoms extends down to that period when the Son of Man shall come with the clouds of heaven, and establish his universal kingdom on the ruins of all the preceding empires. This is evident from the seventh chapter of his prophecies. Now, this coming of the Son of Man takes place at the period when the body of the fourth beast is given to the burning flame to be consumed, i. e. when the Roman empire is finally destroyed. * But, in like manner, it will be found that the Apocalyptic beast is the great enemy to be destroyed, when the personal Word of God comes with his saints, at the period of the treading of the winepress of the wrath of God at Armageddon, which is the same advent as is mentioned in the passage of Daniel already referred to. Since then the fourth beast of Daniel, and the beast in the Apocalypse, are equally destroyed at the coming of Christ with the clouds of heaven, it follows that they are one and the same; and, as the fourth beast of Daniel is the Roman empire, the Apocalyptic beast is also the Roman empire. The only way of avoiding the above conclusion would be, to suppose that two different secular beasts or empires are to be destroyed at the second coming of Christ. But as there is not the shadow of a proof for such an hypothesis in the scriptures, it seems never to have been advanced. T'he above argument is further confirmed by the similarity of the two beasts, for they both had ten horns, to signify the ten
+ Rev. xix. 16.
* Dan. vii. 11-13.