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upon the proof of it.* The papacy being a spiritual power within the limits of the Roman empire, Mr. Faber argues, I think rightly, when he says that the giving the saints into the hand of the papacy, must be by some formal act of the secular power of that empire constituting the pope to be the head of the church. It is not, in fact, easy to conceive in what other mode the saints could be delivered into the hand of a spiritual authority, which, in its infancy at least, must have been in a great measure dependent upon the secular power for its very
existence, and much more for every degree of active power which it was permitted to assume or exercise.
Accordingly we are informed, by the unerring testimony of history, that an act of the secular government of the empire was issued in the reign of acknowledged to be the head of the church. That emperor, whose reign was marked by the publication of the volume of the Civil Law which was afterwards adopted through the whole extent of the Roman empire, by the different nations who had divided among themselves its territories, was no less ambitious of distinction as a theologian than as a legislator. At an early period of his reign, he promulgated a severe edict against heretics, which contained a confession of his own faith, and was intended to be the common and universal standard of belief to his subjects. The severest penalties were enacted by it against all who refused implicit submission.
A second edict of the same nature was issued by
* See Preface to the second edition, where some reasons are given for this opinion.
Justinian in the month of March 533; and on this occasion he formally wrote to the pope, as the acknowledged head of all the holy churches, and all the holy priests of God, for his approbation of what he had done. The epistle which was addressed to the pope, and another to the patriarch of Constantinople, were inserted in the volume of the Civil Law; and thus the sentiments contained in them obtained the sanction of the supreme legislative authority of the empire: and in both epistles, the above titles were given to the pope.
. The answer of the pope to the imperial epistle was also published with the other documents; and it is equally important, inasmuch as it shows that he understood the reference that had been made to him, as being a formal recognition of the supremacy of the see of Rome.
From the date of the imperial epistle of Justinian to Pope John, in March, 533, the saints, and times, and laws of the church, may therefore be considered to have been formally delivered into the hand of the papacy, and this is consequently the true era of the twelve hundred and sixty years.
There is no other recorded act of the secular government of the Roman empire, which confers a greater authority on the pope than the one above mentioned, It has indeed generally been supposed that in the year 606 the Emperor Phocas bestowed on the pope the new title of Universal Bishop; but this seems to have been taken for granted by historians and commentators on prophecy without evidence. Paulus Diaconus and Anastasius, the only original historians who mention the grant of
Phocas, do it in such terms as to show that no new title was given by this emperor, but that he merely renewed and confirmed the title of head of all the churches, which had been granted by Justinian, but was afterwards disputed by the see of Constantinople, which wished to appropriate the title to itself. Besides, it may be observed, that the grant of Phocas has not been preserved, and it wants the requisite formality of having been recorded in the volume of the laws of the empire.
* In order to enable the reader to judge for himself on the subject of the acts of the Emperors Justinian and Phocas, concerning the papal supremacy, I shall lay before him in this note what evidence I have been able to collect on the subject.
The first religious edict of Justinian seems to have been issued in the year 528. It begins with a short preamble, stating that the emperor had thought it fit to declare unto all men his adherence to the tradition and confession of the holy catholic church of God. It then states the substance of the emperor's faith, and next proceeds to pronounce an anathema against all heretics, especially the Nestorians, Eutychians, and the Apollinarians; and from this part of the edict I quote the following passage: “ Hæc igitur cum ita se habeant, “ anathematizamus ompeni hæresin, præsertim verò Nestorium,
anthropolatram dividentem unum Dominum nostrum Jesum Chris“ tum, filium Dei et Deum nostrum, nec diserte et secundum verita. “ tem confitentem sanctam gloriosam semper Virginem Mariam “ Theotocon esse, hoc est, Deiparam," &c. The edict concludes in the following words: “Si enim aliqui post hanc nostram præmoniti"onem, certo et liquido id cognoscentibus et comperientibus locorum
episcopis Deo amantissimis, inventi fuerint posthac in contrariâ his
opinione esse; hi nullius indulgentiæ expectent veniam : Jubemus “ enim tales tanquam confessos bæreticos competenti animadversione “ subjugari."
Justinian's next edict is the one upon the occasion of wbich he addressed his epistle to the Pope, containing an acknowledgment of his spiritual supremacy. This edict begins as follows:
“ Imp. Justinian. A. Constantinopolitis.
“ Cum Salvatorem et Dominum omnium Jesum Christum verum “ Deum nostrum colamus per omnia, studemus etiam (quatenus
Haying thus established that the true era of the formal recognition of the papal supremacy was the
" datum est humanæ menti assequi) immitari ejus condescensionem
seu demissionem. Etenim cum quosdam invenerimus morbo atque “ insanià detentos impiorum Nestorii et Eutychetis Dei et sanctæ “catholicæ et apostolicæ ecclesiæ hostium, nempe qui detrectabant “ sanctam gloriosam semper Virginem Mariam Theotocon sive
Deiparam appellare propriè et secundum veritatem : illos festina“ vimus quæ sit recta Christianorum fides edocere. Nam hi “ incurabiles cùm sint, celantes errorem suum passim circumeunt “ (sicut didicimus) et simpliciorum animos exturbant ét scandalizant,
ea astruentes quæ sunt sanctæ catholicæ ecclesiæ contraria. Neces“sarium igitur esse putavimus, tam hæreticorum vaniloquia et men“ dacia dissipare, quàm omnibus insinuare, quomodo aut sentiat “ sancta Dei et catholica et apostolica ecclesia, aut prædicent sanc“ tissimi ejus sacerdotes ; quos et nos sequuti, manifesta constituimus
ea quæ fidei nostræ sunt; non quidem innovantes fidem (quod
absit) sed coarguantes eorum insaniam qui eadem cnm impiis hære“ ticis sentiunt. Quod quidem et nos in nostri imperii primordiis pridem satagentes cunctis fecimus manifestum.”
In the remainder of the edict, the Emperor gives a statement of his own faith, and denounces anathemas against Nestorius, Eutyches, and Apollinarius, and their followers. The edict is dated on the ides of March, 533. The same edict was addressed to twelve other cities of the empire, among which were Jerusalem, Cesarea, and Ephesus.
Upon the promulgation of this edict, Justinian addressed an epistle to the pope, as the acknowledged head of all the holy churches, which was transmitted by the hands of Demetrius and Hypatius, two bishops. From this epistle I quote the following extracts : “ Victor Justinianus, pius, felix, inclytus, triumphator, semper
Augustus, Joanni sanctissimo Archiepiscopo almæ Urbis Romæ et " Patriarchæ. “ Reddentes honorem apostolicæ sedi, et vestræ sanctitati (quod
semper nobis in voto et fuit et est), et ut decet patrem honorantes " vestram beatitudinem, omnia quæ ad ecclesiarum statum pertinent “ festinavimus ad notitiam deferre vestræ sanctitatis ; quoniam semper
nobis fuit magnum studium, unitatem vestræ apostolicæ sedis, et “ statum sanctarum Dei ecclesiarum custodire, qui bacțenús obtinet, " et incommotè perinanet, nulla intercedente contrarietate. Ideoque
omnes sacerdotes universi Orientalis tractus et subjicere et unire “ sedi vestræ sanctitatis properavimus.' In præsenti ergo quæ
year 533, it is requisite that we should endeavour to ascertain, in the next place, upon what principle
“commota sunt (quamvis manifesta et indubitata sint et secundum
apostolicæ vestræ sedis doctrinam ab omnibus semper sacerdotibus “ firme custodita et prædicata) necessarium duximus, ut ad notitiam “ vestræ sanctitatis perveniant. Nec enim patimur quicquam, quod " ad ecclesiarum statum pertinet, quamvis manifestum et indubitatum “ sit, quod movetur, ut non etiam vestræ innotescat sanctitati
quæ caput est omnium sanctarum ecclesiarum. Per omnia enim (ut dictum est). properamus honorem et auctoritatem crescere vestræ sedis."
The epistle next states the circumstance of certain men having maintained heretical doctrines respecting the person of Christ, and it then contains a statement of the faith of the church and of the Emperor himself on this point, and it concludes as follows : “ Susci
pimus autem sancta quatuor concilia : id est, trecentorum decem “ et octo sanctorum patrum, qui Nicæna urbe congregati sunt: “et centum quinquaginta sanctorum patrum qui in hac regia urbe
convenerunt: et sanctorum patrum qui in Epheso primo congregati sunt, sanctorum patrum qui in Chalcedone convenerunt : sicut
vestra apostolica sedes docet atque prædicat. Omnes ergo sacer“ dotes sequentes doctrinam Apostolicæ sedis vestræ ita credunt “ et confitentur et prædicant.
Unde properavimus hoc ad notitiam deferre vestræ sanctitatis per Hypatiam et Demetrium, beatissimos episcopos, ut nec vestram "sanctitatem lateat, quæ et a quibusdam paucis monachis male “et Judaice secundum Nestorii perfidiam denegata sunt. Petimus
ergo vestrum paternum affectum: Ut vestris ad nos destinatis “ literis, el ad sanctissimum episcopum hujus almæ urbis, et patriar“cham vestrum fratrem ; (quoniam et ipse per eosdem scripsit ad “ vestram sanctitatem, festinans in omnibus sedem sequi apostolicam “ beatitudinis vestræ), manifestum nobis faciatis, quod omnes qui
prædicta recte confitentur, suscipit vestra sanctitas, et eorum qui " Judaice ausi sint rectam denegare fidem, condemnat perfidiam. “ Plus enim ita circa vos omnium amor, et vestræ sedis crescet aucto“ ritas! et quæ ad vos est unitas sanctarum ecclesiarum inturbata ** servabitur, quando per vos didicerint omnes beatissimi episcopi
eorum, quæ ad vos relata sunt, sinceram vestræ sanctitatis doctri“nam. Petimus autem vestram beatitudinem orare pro nobis, et Dei “ nobis adquirere providentiam.”
The above epistle was dated at least as early as the 25th of March, 533 ; for in his letter to the Archbishop of Constantinople, which