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Torn from Pelorus ', or the shattered side
Of thundering Ætna, whose combustible
And fuelled entrails thence conceiving fire,
Sublimed with mineral fury, aid the winds,
And leave a singèd bottom all involved
With stench and smoke : such resting found the sole
Of unblest feet. Him followed his next mate,
Both glorying to have 'scaped the Stygian food
As gods, and by their own recovered strength,
Not by the sufferance of supernal Power.






“Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,” Said then the lost Arch-Angel, “this the seat That we must change for heaven; this mournful gloom For that celestial light ? Be it so, since he Who now is Sovran, can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from Him is best, Whom reason hath equalled, force hath made supreme Above his equals. Farewell, happy fields, Where joy for ever dwells! Hail, horrors ! hail, Infernal world! and thou, profoundest Hell, Receive thy new possessor ! one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time: The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heaven of Hell, a Hell of Heaven. What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be; all but less than he Whom thunder hath made greater? Here at least We shall be free; the Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, — will not drive us hence: Here we may reign secure, and, in my choice, To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell : Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven ! But wherefore let we then our faithful friends, The associates and co-partners of our loss, Lie thus astonished on the oblivious pool, And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion ; or once more 1 The ancient name of Cape Faro the poets, flowed nine times round in Sicily.

the infernal regions. 2 Stygian — infernal ; from Styx, 5 The Italian form of the word the river of hate, which, according to “Sovereign.”







With rallied arms to try what may be yet
Regained in Heaven, or what more lost in Hell ?”
So Satan spake ; and him Beëlzebub

Thus answered. “Leader of those armies bright,
Which but the Omnipotent none could have foiled :
If once they hear that voice, their liveliest pledge
Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft
In worst extremes, and on the perilous edge
Of battle when it raged, in all assaults
Their surest signal, they will soon resume
New courage and revive; though now they lie
Grovelling and prostrate on yon lake of fire,
As we erewhile, astounded and amazed,
No wonder, fallen such a pernicious height."
He scarce had ceased, when the superior Fiend
Was moving towards the shore : his ponderous shield,
Ethereal temper, massy, large and round,
Behind him cast ; the broad circumference
Hung on his shoulders like the moon, whose orb
Through optic glass the Tuscan artist1 views
At evening from the top of Fesolé 2
Or in Valdarno, to descry new lands,
Rivers, or mountains, in her spotty globe.
His spear, to equal which the tallest pine
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast
Of some great ammiral4, were but a wand
He walked with, to support uneasy steps
Over the burning marle, not like those steps
On Heaven's azure; and the torrid clime
Smote on him sore besides, vaulted with fire :
Nathless 5 he so endured, till on the beach
Of that inflamèd sea he stood, and called
His legion, Angel forms, who lay entranced
Thick as autumnal leaves that strow the brooks
In Vallambrosa 6, where the Eturian shades
High over-arched, embower; or scattered sedge
1 Galileo.




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5 Nathless for na-the-less, or not % A town of Tuscany, near Flo- the less ; i. e. nevertheless.

6 Now the Val d'Ombrone, or of 3 Valdarno, or Val d'Arno; the Pistoja, one of the numerous valleys valley of the Arno.

which follow the course of the rivers 4 Åmmiral; any large ship.

that flow into the Arno.





Afloat, when with fierce winds Orion 1 armed
Hath vexed the Red-Sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew
Busiris and his Memphian chivalry”,
While with perfidious hatred they pursued
The sojourners of Goshen', who beheld
From the safe shore their floating carcases

And broken chariot-wheels; so thick bestrown,
Abject and lost lay these, covering the flood,
Under amazement of their hideous change.
He called so loud, that all the hollow deep
Of Hell resounded.

315 SATAN.

“Princes, Potentates, Warriors, the flower of Heaven! once yours, now lost, If such astonishment as this can seize Eternal spirits ; or have ye chosen this place After the toil of battle to repose Your wearied virtue 4, for the ease you find To slumber here, as in the vales of Heaven? Or in this abject posture have ye sworn To adore the Conqueror? who now beholds Cherub and Seraph rolling in the flood, With scattered arms and ensigns; till anon5 His swift pursuers from Heaven-gates discern The advantage, and, descending, tread us down Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf. Awake! arise! or be for ever fallen!” They heard, and were abashed, and up they sprung Upon the wing; as when men wonto to watch On duty, sleeping found by whom they dread, Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel ?; Yet to their General's voice they soon obeyed, Innumerable. As when the potent rod


335 340

1 A constellation, whose rising and 5 Anon — in one (moment), soon. setting was believed to be accompa- 6 Accustomed, or used. nied by storms and rain.

7 “Nor did they not,” &c., i e. ? Pharaoh, and his Egyptian host. they did perceive; a double negative 3 The Israelites.

- a Latin idiom. 4 Virtue is here used in its Latin sense - valour, courage.




Of Amram's son', in Egypt's evil day,
Waved round the coast, up called a pitchy cloud
Of locusts, warping on the eastern wind
That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung
Like night, and darkened all the land of Nile :
So numberless were those bad Angels seen
Hovering on wing under the cope of Hell
'Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding fires;
Till, as a signal given, the uplifted spear
Of their great Sultan? waving to direct
Their course, in even balance down they light
On the firm brimstone, and fill all the plain ;
A multitude, like which the populous North
Poured never from her frozen loins, to pass
Rhene or the Danaw, when her barbarous sons
Came like a deluge on the South, and spread
Beneath Gibraltar to the Lybian sands.
Forthwith from every squadron, and each band,
The heads and leaders thither haste, where stood
Their great Commander; Godlike shapes, and forms
Excelling human; princely Dignities
And Powers that erst3 in Heaven sat on thrones;
Though of their names in heavenly records now
Be no memorial ; blotted out and rased
By their rebellion from the books of life.
Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve
Got them new names ; till, wandering o'er the earth,
Through God's high sufferance for the trial of man,
By falsities and lies the greatest part
Of mankind they corrupted to forsake
God their Creator, and the invisible
Glory of him that made them to transform
Oft to the image of a brute, adorned
With gay religions 4 full of pomp and gold,
And Devils to adore for Deities :
Then were they known to men by various names,
And various idols through the Heathen world.”






1 Moses. See Exod. vi. 20.

5 Here follows a catalogue of the 2 Commander, or sovereign. infernal spirits, whom the poet iden

3 Erst; up to the present time; tifies with the various heathen deities the superlative form of “ ere.'

of antiquity. 4 Rites, ceremonies.





All these and more came flocking; but with looks Downcast and damp; (yet such wherein appeared Obscure some glimpse of joy, to have found their Chief Not in despair, to have found themselves not lost In loss itself;) which on his countenance cast Líke doubtful hue; but he, his wonted pride Soon re-collecting, with high words, that bore Semblance of worth, not substance, gently raised Their fainting courage, and dispelled their fears. Then straight commands, that at the warlike sound Of trumpets loud and clarions be upreared His mighty standard: that proud honour claimed Azazel as his right, a Cherub tall ; Who forthwith from the glittering staff unfurled The imperial ensign ; which, full high advanced, Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind, With gems and golden lustre rich emblazed, Seraphic arms and trophies; all the while Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds : At which the universal host up sent A shout that tore Hell's concave, and beyond Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night. All in a moment through the gloom were seen Ten thousand banners rise into the air,

400 With orient colours waving : with them rose A forest huge of spears; and thronging helms Appeared, and serried shields in thick array Of depth immeasurable: anon they move In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood ? Of flutes and soft recorders ; such as raised To height of noblest temper heroes old Arming to battle; and instead of rage Deliberate valour breathed, firm and unmoved With dread of death to flight or foul retreat ; Nor wanting power to mitigate and 'suage With solemn touches troubled thoughts, and chase Anguish, and doubt, and fear, and sorrow, and pain, From mortal or immortal minds. Thus they,



1 The antecedent to “which” is the each other in pitch and interval. word “looks,” in line 377.

The principal of these were, the % There were several kinds of mu- Lydian, used at funerals; the Phrysical scales, or modes, in use among gian, on festive occasions; and the the ancients, supposed to differ from Dorian, in solemn processions.

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