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ing steps to protect the forests through the creation of a body similar to the United States Forest Service.

The Mexican Foreign Office has given its assurance that recent decisions of the Supreme Court established the fact that article 27 of the Constitution is not retroactive. Secretary of State Hughes, however, stated that this government could not regard those decisions as adequately protecting the rights of American owners in land held prior to May 1, 1917, but not developed before that date. Further affirmative action on the part of the Mexican government is necessary before recognition can be extended.

Initial returns from the congressional elections held July 2 indicated a great increase in the number of Obregon supporters in both houses. Since the results were announced, however, at least half of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies conceded to President Obregon's coalition or co-operative party have been contested.

Adolfo de la Huerta has announced that the Mexican government is planning a central bank of issue based on the Federal Reserve System of the United States. Fifty-one per cent of the stock will be taken by the government.

According to figures given out by the Mexican embassy in Washington the population of Mexico at the end of 1921 was 13,887,080 as against 15,180,359 in 1910. The decade of revolution is given as the reason for the decrease of 1,293,279.

The Mexican Government has entered a protest with the Department of State relative to the killing of two Mexican citizens and the beating of several others in connection with the mine massacre in Herrin, Ill.

On July 23, the chief of police of the Federal District broke up a Bolshevist parade in Mexico City.

President Obregon has signed the agreement entered into between Finance Minister Huerta and the representatives of the international committee of bankers. Congress is expected to ratify this solution which covers securities with

a face value of more than $500,000,000 on which the interest in arrears amounts to approximately $200,000,000. Agreement also has been reached with the heads of American oil companies operating in Mexico with regard to the taxes to be paid on oil produced by those companies.

PANAMA

An amendment to the constitution has been adopted by the Assembly extending the length of terms of the assemblymen from four to six years, thus doing away with the necessity for holding elections in September. The opposition party has petitioned the United States to pass upon the matter.

SANTO DOMINGO

The plan announced by Secretary Hughes as the basis for the withdrawal of the American forces has been accepted by Horace G. Knowles, counsel for the deposed constitutional Government. Mr. Knowles predicted the acceptance by the Dominician people of the plan which embraces the negotiation of a convention recognizing as binding certain acts of the American Military Government. The American forces are to be withdrawn upon the creation of a permanent government.

NEWS AND NOTES
EDITED BY B. F. WRIGHT, JR.

University of Texas

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS IN TEXAS

IRVIN STEWART
University of Texas

Since the present constitution of Texas was adopted in 1876, twenty-two sessions of the legislature have met; and of these, twenty have proposed a total of ninety amendments to that constitution. Fifty-one of these amendments were defeated at the polls, while thirty-eight were being adopted; one, proposed by the Thirty-third Legislature was never submitted. General elections seem to have proved more favorable to constitutional amendment than special elections; for nearly two-thirds of the amendments submitted at general elections have been adopted, and over two-thirds of those submitted at special elections have been defeated. The figures for general elections are: thirty-two submitted, twenty-one adopted, and eleven defeated; and for special elections: fifty-seven submitted, seventeen adopted and forty defeated. As the table below indicates, the vote in general, has been small, even in proportion to the vote for governor in the same election. In terms of the qualified electorate, constitutional amendments usually have drawn from ten per cent to forty per cent of the total, the average ranging from twenty per cent to twenty-five per cent. Only two issues, those of prohibition and woman suffrage, seem to have made the popular appeal necessary to attract a large number of voters.

Different practices have been followed by various legislatures, the number of amendments submitted ranging from one to thirteen, and the number of elections held on the amendments being one, two, or three. One amendment, that increasing the salary of the legislators, has made an appeal to the legislature which has found no responsive

chord in the votes of the people; submitted seven times this amendment has been defeated every time. Confederate pension and taxation increases which also have been submitted on several occasions have met a more favorable reception.

The following tables briefly outline the history and fate of constitutional amendments from three different angles :

TABLE I

NUMBER AUTHORIZED BY EACH LEGISLATURE AND

RESULTS

Legislatures authorizing one:

Sixteenth-adopted.
Twenty-sixth-defeated.

Twenty-seventh-adopted.
Legislatures authorizing two:

Seventeenth-defeated.
Twenty-first-adopted.
Twenty-third--adopted.

Twenty-fourth—one adopted and one defeated.
Legislatures authorizing three:

Twenty-eighth-adopted.
Twenty-ninth-two adopted, one defeated.

Thirty-fifth-adopted.
Legislatures authorizing four:

Eighteenth-adopted.

Thirty-first-adopted (two elections).
Legislatures authorizing five:

Twenty-second-adopted.
Twenty-fifth-one adopted, four defeated (three elections).
Thirty-second-four adopted, one defeated (two elections).

Thirty-seventh-one adopted, four defeated.
Legislature authorizing six:

Twentieth-defeated. Legislatures authorizing seven:

Thirty-third-six defeated, one never submitted.

Thirty-fourth-defeated. Legislature authorizing nine:

Thirtieth-one adopted, eight defeated (two elections). Legislature authorizing thirteen:

Thirty-sixth-adopted three, defeated ten (three elections).

TABLE II

CLAUSES OF THE CONSTITUTION ATTACKED

ARTICLE I

BILL OF RIGHTS

SECTION 10
Thirty-fifth Legislature (1917). Adopted.

Permitting the state and the defense in a suit for violation of the state anti-trust laws to introduce depositions of witnesses resident out of the state.

ARTICLE III

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

SECTION 1
Thirty-third Legislature (1913). Defeated.

Initiative and referendum upon petition signed by 20 per cent

of qualified voters of state. SECTION 24. Seventeenth Legislature (1881). Defeated.

Eliminating clause providing a maximum of $2 for each day after the first sixty days of each session. Twentieth Legislature (1887). Defeated.

Extending the $5 per day period to ninety days. Twenty-fifth Legislature (1897). Defeated.

Providing for salary of $5 per day for the first 100 days of each session and $3 per day for the remainder of the session. Twenty-ninth Legislature (1905). Defeated.

Changing salary to $1,000 for the first year, and $5 per day for every special session held during the second year; mileage 3 cents; acceptance of railroad passes, rebates, and other special

privileges forbidden on penalty of forfeiture of office. Thirtieth Legislature (1909). Defeated.

Changing salary to $1,000 for first year and $5 per day for each special session of the second year; 3 cents mileage. Thirty-third Legislature (1913). Defeated.

Changing salary to $1,200 for the first year with $5 per day for every special session of the second year; 5 cents mileage; regular session to continue until all business is disposed of. Thirty-seventh Legislature (1921). Defeated.

Changing salary to $10 per day for special sessions and the first 120 days of the regular session; and $5 per day after the first 120 days of the regular session; mileage 10 cents.

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