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PART I.

16.

Irrational.

False gods.

cannot be authors, nor therefore give authority to their actors : yet the actors may have authority to procure their maintenance, given them by those that are owners, or governors of those things. And therefore, such things cannot be personated, before there be some state of civil government,

Likewise children, fools, and madmen that have no use of reason, may be personated by guardians, or curators; but can be no authors, during that time, of any action done by them, longer than, when they shall recover the use of reason, they shall judge the same reasonable. Yet during the folly, he that hath right of governing them, may give authority to the guardian. But this again has no place but in a state civil, because before such estate, there is no dominion of persons.

An idol, or mere figment of the brain, may be personated; as were the gods of the heathen: which by such officers as the state appointed, were personated, and held possessions, and other goods, and rights, which men from time to time dedicated, and consecrated unto them. But idols cannot be authors : for an idol is nothing. The authority proceeded from the state : and therefore before introduction of civil government, the gods of the heathen could not be personated.

The true God may be personated. As he was ; first, by Moses; who governed the Israelites, that were not his, but God's people, not in his own name, with hoc dicit Moses ; but in God's name, with hoc dicit Dominus. Secondly, by the Son of man, his own Son, our blessed Saviour Jesus Christ, that came to reduce the Jews, and induce all nations into the kingdom of his father; not as of himself, but as sent from his father. And thirdly,

The true God.

16.

men, how one

author.

by the Holy Ghost, or Comforter, speaking, and PART I. working in the Apostles : which Holy Ghost, was a Comforter that came not of himself ; but was sent, and proceeded from them both.

A multitude of men, are made one person, when A multitude of they are by one man, or one person, represented ; person.

" so that it be done with the consent of every one of that multitude in particular. For it is the unity of the representer, not the unity of the represented, that maketh the person one.

And it is the representer that beareth the person, and but one person : and unity, cannot otherwise be understood in multitude.

And because the multitude naturally is not one, Every one is but many; they cannot be understood for one ; but many authors, of every thing their representative saith, or doth in their name ; every man giving their common representer, authority from himself in particular; and owning all the actions the representer doth, in case they give him authority without stint: otherwise, when they limit him in what, and how far he shall represent them, none of them owneth more than they gave him commission to act.

And if the representative consist of many men, An actor may the voice of the greater number, must be consi- made one by dered as the voice of them all. For if the lesser plurality of number pronounce, for example, in the affirmative, and the greater in the negative, there will be negatives more than enough to destroy the affirmatives; and thereby the excess of negatives, standing uncontradicted, are the only voice the representative hath.

And a representative of even number, especially Representawhen the number is not great, whereby the con- the number tradictory voices are oftentimes equal, is therefore is even; un

. oftentimes mute, and incapable of action. Yet in

voices.

PART 1.

$18.

OF

Negative voice.

some cases contradictory voices equal in number,
may determine a question; as in condemning, or
absolving, equality of votes, even in that they con-
demn not, do absolve; but not on the contrary
condemn, in that they absolve not. For when a
cause is heard; not to condemn, is to absolve: but
on the contrary, to say that not absolving, is con-
demning, is not true. The like it is in a deli-
beration of executing presently, or deferring till
another time: for when the voices are equal, the
not decreeing execution, is a decree of dilation.

Or if the number be odd, as three, or more, men
or assemblies; whereof every one has by a nega-
tive voice, authority to take away the effect of all
the affirmative voices of the rest, this number is no
representative; because by the diversity of opinions,
and interests of men, it becomes oftentimes, and in
cases of the greatest consequence, a mute person,
and unapt, as for many things else, so for the go-
vernment of a multitude, especially in time of war.

Of authors there be two sorts. The first simply so called; which I have before defined to be him, that owneth the action of another simply. The second is he, that owneth an action, or covenant of another conditionally ; that is to say, he undertaketh to do it, if the other doth it not, at, or before a certain time. And these authors conditional, are generally called SURETIES, in Latin, fidejussores, and sponsores ; and particularly for debt, prædes; and for appearance before a judge, or magistrate, vades.

PART II.

OF COMMONWEALTH.

CHAPTER XVII.

OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION

OF A COMMONWEALTH.

17.

of common

The final cause, end, or design of men, who natu- PART 11. rally love liberty, and dominion over others, in the introduction of that restraint upon themselves, in The end which we see them live in commonwealths, is the wealth, parti

cular security: foresight of their own preservation, and of a more contented life thereby; that is to say, of getting themselves out from that miserable condition of war, which is necessarily consequent, as hath been shown in chapter xili, to the natural passions of men, when there is no visible power to keep them in awe, and tie them by fear of punishment to the performance of their covenants, and observation of those laws of nature set down in the fourteenth and fitteenth chapters.

For the laws of nature, as justice, equity, mo- Which is not desty, mercy, and, in sum, doing to others, as we the law of would be done to, of themselves, without the terror of some power, to cause them to be observed, are contrary to our natural passions, that carry us to

nature:

17.

PART 11. partiality, pride, revenge, and the like. And cove

nants, without the sword, are but words, and of no strength to secure a man at all. Therefore notwithstanding the laws of nature, which every one hath then kept, when he has the will to keep them, when he can do it safely, if there be no power erected, or not great enough for our security; every man will, and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art, for caution against all other men. And in all places, where men have lived by small families, to rob and spoil one another, has been a trade, and so far from being reputed against the law of nature, that the greater spoils they gained, the greater was their honour ; and men observed no other laws therein, but the laws of honour ; that is, to abstain from cruelty, leaving to men their lives, and instruments of husbandry. And as small families did then; so now do cities and kingdoms which are but greater families, for their own security, enlarge their dominions, upon all pretences of danger, and fear of invasion, or assistance that may be given to invaders, and endeavour as much as they can, to subdue, or weaken their neighbours, by open force, and secret arts, for want of other caution, justly; and are remembered for it in after ages with honour.

Nor is it the joining together of a small number conjunction of a few men or of men, that gives them this security ; because in

small numbers, small additions on the one side or the other, make the advantage of strength so great, as is sufficient to carry the victory; and therefore gives encouragement to an invasion. The multitude sufficient to confide in for our security, is not determined by any certain number, but by

Nor from the

families :

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