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PART II. traction, and trembling of the limbs; and afterward
a hot, and strong endeavour of the heart, to force a passage for the blood; and before it can do that, contenteth itself with the small refreshments of such things as cool for a time, till, if nature be strong enough, it break at last the contumacy of the parts obstructed, and dissipateth the venom into sweat ;
or, if nature be too weak, the patient dieth. Monopolies, and abuses
Again, there is sometimes in a commonwealth, of publicans. a disease, which resembleth the pleurisy; and that
is, when the treasure of the commonwealth, flowing out of its due course, is gathered together in too much abundance, in one, or a few private men, by monopolies, or by farms of the public revenues; in the same manner as the blood in a pleurisy, getting into the membrane of the breast, breedeth there an inflammation, accompanied with a fever,
and painful stitches. Popular men. Also the popularity of a potent subject, unless
the commonwealth have very good caution of his fidelity, is a dangerous disease ; because the people, which should receive their motion from the authority of the sovereign, by the flattery and by the reputation of an ambitious man are drawn away from their obedience to the laws, to follow a man, of whose virtues, and designs they have no knowledge. And this is commonly of more danger in a popular government, than in a monarchy; because an army is of so great force, and multitude, as it may easily be made believe, they are the people. By this means it was, that Julius Cæsar, who was
he people against the senate, having won
affections of his army, made himself of senate and people. And this pro
To which Liberty
ceeding of popular, and ambitious men, is plain Part 11. rebellion ; and may be resembled to the effects of witchcraft. Another infirmity of a commonwealth, is the im- Excessive
greatness of a moderate greatness of a town, when it is able to town, multifurnish out of its own circuit, the number, and ex-rations.
tude of corpopense of a great army: as also the great number of corporations; which are as it were many lesser commonwealths in the bowels of a greater, like worms in the entrails of a natural man. To which may be added, the liberty of disputing against ab- of disputing solute power, by pretenders to political prudence ; reign power. which though bred for the most part in the lees of the people, yet animated by false doctrines, are perpetually meddling with the fundamental laws, to the molestation of the commonwealth ; like the little worms, which physicians call ascarides.
We may further add, the insatiable appetite, or Bouleuia, of enlarging dominion ; with the incurable wounds thereby many times received from the enemy; and the wens, of ununited conquests, which are many times a burthen, and with less danger lost, than kept; as also the lethargy of ease, and consumption of riot and vain expense.
Lastly, when in a war, foreign or intestine, the Dissolution of enemies get a final victory; so as, the forces of the wealth. commonwealth keeping the field no longer, there is no further protection of subjects in their loyalty ; then is the commonwealth disSOLVED, and every man at liberty to protect himself by such courses as his own discretion shall suggest unto him. For the sovereign is the public soul, giving life and motion to the commonwealth ; which expiring, the members are governed by it no more, than the car
PART II. case of a man, by his departed, though immortal,
soul. For though the right of a sovereign monarch cannot be extinguished by the act of another ; yet the obligation of the members may. For he that wants protection, may seek it any where ; and when he hath it, is obliged, without fraudulent pretence of having submitted himself out of fear, to protect his protection as long as he is able. But when the power of an assembly is once suppressed, the right of the same perisheth utterly; because the assembly itself is extinct; and consequently, there is no possibility for the sovereignty to re-enter.
OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVEREIGN
The procura- THE OFFICE of the sovereign, be it a monarch or good of the an assembly, consisteth in the end, for which he was people.
trusted with the sovereign power, namely the procuration of the safety of the people; to which he is obliged by the law of nature, and to render an account thereof to God, the author of that law, and to none but him. But by safety here, is not meant a bare preservation, but also all other contentments of life, which every man by lawful industry, without danger, or hurt to the commonwealth, shall acquire
to himself. By instruction And this is intended should be done, not by care
applied to individuals, further than their protection from injuries, when they shall complain; but by a general providence, contained in public instruction, both of doctrine, and example ; and in the making
and executing of good laws, to which individual PART II. persons may apply their own cases.
And because, if the essential rights of sovreignty, Against the specified before in the eighteenth chapter, be taken sovereign to away, the commonwealth is thereby dissolved, and relinquish any every man returneth into the condition, and cala- of sovereignty. mity of a war with every other man, which is the greatest evil that can happen in this life; it is the office of the sovereign, to maintain those rights entire; and consequently against his duty, first, to transfer to another, or to lay from himself any of them. For he that deserteth the means, deserteth the ends; and he deserteth the means, that being the sovereign, acknowledgeth himself subject to the civil laws; and renounceth the power of supreme judicature; or of making war, or peace by his own authority; or of judging of the necessities of the commonwealth; or of levying money and soldiers, when, and as much as in his own conscience he shall judge necessary; or of making officers, and ministers both of war and peace; or of appointing teachers, and examining what doctrines are conformable, or contrary to the defence, peace, and good of the people. Secondly, it is against his or not duty, to let the people be ignorant, or misinformed
people taught of the grounds, and reasons of those his essential the
grounds of rights; because thereby men are easy to be seduced, and drawn to resist him, when the commonwealth shall require their use and exercise.
And the grounds of these rights, have the rather need to be diligently, and truly taught; because they cannot be maintained by any civil law, or terror of legal punishment. For a civil law, that shall forbid rebellion, (and such is all resistance to
to see the
PART II. the essential rights of the sovereignty), is not, as a
civil law, any obligation, but by virtue only of the law of nature, that forbiddeth the violation of faith; which natural obligation, if men know not, they cannot know the right of any law the sovereign maketh. And for the punishment, they take it but for an act of hostility; which when they think they have strength enough, they will endeavour by acts of
hostility, to avoid. Objection of As I have heard some say, that justice is but a those that say there are no word, without substance; and that whatsoever a reason for ab- man can by force, or art, acquire to himself, not
only in the condition of war, but also in a commonreignty.
wealth, is his own, which I have already showed to be false : so there be also that maintain, that there are no grounds, nor principles of reason, to sustain those essential rights, which make sovereignty absolute. For if there were, they would have been found out in some place, or other; whereas we see, there has not bitherto been any commonwealth, where those rights have been acknowledged, or challenged. Wherein they argue as ill, as if the savage people of America, should deny there were any grounds, or principles of reason, so to build a house, as to last as long as the materials, because they never yet saw any so well built. Time, and industry, produce every day new knowledge. And as the art of well building is derived from principles of reason, observed by industrious men, that had long studied the nature of materials, and the divers effects of figure, and proportion, long after mankind began, though poorly, to build : so, long time after men have begun to constitute commonwealths, imperfect, and apt to relapse into disorder,