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of hell.

And because by the Enemy, the Accuser, and Part II. Destroyer, is meant the enemy of them that shall be in the kingdom of God; therefore if the kingdom of God after the resurrection, be upon the earth, as in the former chapter I have shown by Scripture it seems to be, the Enemy and his kingdom must be on earth also. For so also was it, in the time before the Jews had deposed God. For God's kingdom was in Palestine; and the nations round about, were the kingdoms of the Enemy ; and consequently by Satan, is meant any earthly enemy of the Church.

The torments of hell, are expressed sometimes, Torments by weeping, and gnashing of teeth, as Matth. viii. 12. Sometimes by the worm of conscience; as Isaiah lxvi. 24, and Mark ix. 44, 46, 48: sometimes, by fire, as in the place now quoted, where the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched, and many places beside : sometimes by shame and contempt, as Dan. xii. 2, And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth, shall awake; some to ererlasting life; and some to shame, and everlasting contempt. All which places design metaphorically a grief and discontent of mind, from the sight of that eternal felicity in others, which they themselves through their own incredulity and disobedience have lost. And because such felicity in others, is not sensible but by comparison with their own actual miseries; it followeth that they are to suffer such bodily pains, and calamities, as are incident to those, who not only live under evil and cruel governors, but have also for enemy the eternal king of the saints, God Almighty. And amongst these bodily pains, is to be reckoned




seuse of the

PART 111. name of Gehenna, or Valley of Hinnon. And this

Gehenna, is that word which is usually now translated HELL; and from the fires from time to time there burning, we have the notion of everlasting

and unquenchable fire. Of the literal

Seeing now there is none, that so interprets Seripture con- the Scripture, as that after the day of judgment, cerning hell.

the wicked are all eternally to be punished in the Valley of Hinnon; or that they shall so rise again, as to be ever after under ground or under water ; or that after the resurrection, they shall no more see one another, nor stir from one place to another : it followeth, methinks, very necessarily, that that which is thus said concerning hell fire, i spoken metaphorically; and that therefore there i a proper sense to be enquired after, (for of all me taphors there is some real ground, that may be es pressed in proper words,) both of the place of hel

and the nature of hellish torments, and tormenter Satan, Devil, And first for the tormenters, we have their n not proper names, but

ture and properties, exactly and properly deliver appellatives. by the names of, the Enemy, or Satan; the A

cuser, or Diabolus; the Destroyer, or Abadde Which significant names, Satan, Devil, Abadd set not forth to us any individual person, proper names use to do ; but only an office, quality; and are therefore appellatives; wh ought not to have been left untranslated, as tl are in the Latin and modern Bibles ; beca thereby they seem to be proper names of demo and men are the more easily seduceplto believe doctrine of


And because by te mire Destroyer, is meant be in the kingdom Geim dom of God after the S. earth, as in the forme Scripture it seems to be the dom must be on earth is. He the time before the Jews inlige God's kingdom was in Palestina round about, were the kinetilos

and consequently by Saten, enemy of the Church

The torments of bel az a by weeping, and gnasking of 12. Sometimes by the af Isaiah lxvi. 24, and Mark i... times, by fire, as in the place dos quai worm dieth not, and the fire iz malo many places beside: sometimes by in terapt, as Dan. xii. 2. And many of the in the dust of the earth, shall am rrerlasting life, and some to sex lasting contempt. All which plans de phorically a grief and discontest the the sight of that eternal felicity in they themselves through their om and disobedience have lost. And felicity in others, is not sensible but is son with their own actual that they are to suffer such bodily pains nities, as are incident to the der evil and cruel ceny the eternal ki And amongst the




Church the


THE WORD CHURCH. The word Church, (Ecclesia) signifieth in the books of Holy Scripture divers things. Some

times, though not often, it is taken for God's house, Lord's house. that is to say, for a temple, wherein Christians

assembled to perform holy duties, publicly, as (1 Cor. xiv. 34) Let your women keep silence in the Churches: but this is metaphorically put for the congregation there assembled ; and hath been since used for the edifice itself, to distinguish between the temples of Christians and idolaters. The Temple of Jerusalem was God's house, and the house of prayer; and so is any edifice dedicated by Christians to the worship of Christ, Christ's house : and therefore the Greek fathers call it Kuplaka, the Lord's house : and thence in our language it came

to be called kyrke, and church. Ecclesia, Church, when not taken for a house, signifieth properly what.

the same that ecclesia signified in the Grecian commonwealth, that is to say, a congregation, or an assembly of citizens, called forth to hear the magistrate speak unto them; and which in the commonwealth of Rome was called concio: as he that spake was called ecclesiastes, and concionator. And when they were called forth by lawful authority, (Acts xix. 39) it was Ecclesia legitima, a lawful Church, έννομος εκκλησία. But when they were excited by tumultuous and seditious clamour, then it was a confused Church, εκκλησία συγκεχυμένη.

It is taken also sometimes for the men that have right to be of the congregation, though not actually


assembled, that is to say, for the whole multitude PART III. of Christian men, how far soever they be dispersed: as (Acts viii. 3) where it is said, that Saul made havoc of the Church : and in this sense is Christ said to be the head of the Church. And sometimes for a certain part of Christians, as (Col. iv. 15) Salute the Church that is in his house. Sometimes also for the elect only; as (Eph. v. 27) A glorious Church, without spot, or wrinkle, holy, and without blemish ; which is meant of the Church triumphant, or Church to come. Sometimes, for a congregation assembled of professors of Christianity, whether their profession be true or counterfeit; as it is understood, (Matth. xviii. 17) where it is said, Tell it to the Church; and if he neglect to hear the Church, let him be to thee as a Gentile, or publican.

And in this last sense only it is that the Church In what sense can be taken for one person ; that is to say, that it can be said to have power to will, to pronounce, to command, to be obeyed, to make laws, or to do any other action whatsoever. For without authority from a lawful congregation, whatsoever act be done in a concourse of people, it is the particular act of every one of those that were present, and gave their aid to the performance of it; and not the act of them all in gross, as of one body; much less the act of them that were absent, or that being present, were not willing it should be done. According to this sense, I define a CHURCH Church to be, a company of men professing Christian religion, united in the person of one sovereign, at whose command they ought to assemble, and without whose authority they ought not to assemble.

the church is one person.


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