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BLUSHING; and consisteth in the apprehension of PART 1. some thing dishonourable ; and in young men, is a sign of the love of good reputation, and commend- Blushing. able: in old men it is a sign of the same; but because it comes too late, not commendable.

The contempt of good reputation is called IMPU- Impudence. DENCE.

Grief, for the calamity of another, is pity; and Pity. ariseth from the imagination that the like calamity may befall himself; and therefore is called also COMPASSION, and in the phrase of this present time a FELLOW-FEELING: and therefore for calamity arriving from great wickedness, the best men have the least pity; and for the same calamity, those hate pity, that think themselves least obnoxious to the same.

Contempt, or little sense of the calamity of others, is that which men call CRUELTY; proceeding from Cruelty. security of their own fortune. For, that any man should take pleasure in other men's great harms; without other end of his own, I do not conceive it possible.

Grief, for the success of a competitor in wealth, honour, or other good, if it be joined with endeavour to enforce our own abilities to equal or exceed him, is called EMULATION : but joined with Emulation. endeavour to supplant, or hinder a competitor,

Envy. When in the mind of man, appetites, and aversions, hopes, and fears, concerning one and the same thing, arise alternately; and divers good and evil consequences of the doing, or omitting the thing propounded, come successively into our thoughts ; so that sometimes we have an appetite




to it; sometimes an aversion from it; sometimes hope to be able to do it ; sometimes despair, or fear to attempt it; the whole sum of desires, aversions, hopes and fears continued till the thing be

either done, or thought impossible, is that we call Deliberation. DELIBERATION.

Therefore of things past, there is no deliberation; because manifestly impossible to be changed: nor of things known to be impossible, or thought so ; because men know, or think such deliberation vain. But of things impossible, which we think possible, we may deliberate; not knowing it is in vain. And it is called deliberation ; because it is a putting an end to the liberty we had of doing, or omitting, according to our own appetite, or aversion.

This alternate succession of appetites, aversions, hopes and fears, is no less in other living creatures than in man: and therefore beasts also deliberate.

Every deliberation is tben said to end, when that whereof they deliberate, is either done, or thought impossible ; because till then we retain the liberty of doing, or omitting ; according to our appetite, or aversion.

In deliberation, the last appetite, or aversion, immediately adhering to the action, or to the omission thereof, is that we call the WILL ; the act, not the faculty, of willing. And beasts that have deliberation, must necessarily also have will. The definition of the will, given commonly by the Schools, that it is a rational appetite, is not good. For if it were, then could there be no voluntary act against reason. For a voluntary act is that, which proceedeth from the will, and no other. But if instead of a rational appetite, we shall say an

The will.


appetite resulting from a precedent deliberation, PART I. then the definition is the same that I have given here. Will therefore is the last appetite in deliberating. And though we say in common discourse, a man had a will once to do a thing, that nevertheless he forbore to do ; yet that is properly but an inclination, which makes no action voluntary; because the action depends not of it, but of the last inclination, or appetite. For if the intervenient appetites, make any action voluntary; then by the same reason all intervenient aversions, should make the same action involuntary; and so one and the same action, should be both voluntary and involuntary.

By this it is manifest, that not only actions that have their beginning from covetousness, ambition, lust, or other appetites to the thing propounded ; but also those that have their beginning from aversion, or fear of those consequences that follow the omission, are voluntary actions. The forms of speech by which the passions are Forms of

speech, in expressed, are partly the same, and partly different

passion. from those, by which we express our thoughts. And first, generally all passions may be expressed indicatively; as I love, I fear, I joy, I deliberate, I will, I command: but some of them have particular expressions by themselves, which nevertheless are not affirmations, unless it be when they serve to make other inferences, besides that of the passion they proceed from. Deliberation is expressed subjunctively; which is a speech proper to signify suppositions, with their consequences; as, if this be done, then this will follow; and differs not from the language of reasoning, save that reasoning is






in general words ; but deliberation for the most part is of particulars. The language of desire, and aversion, is imperative ; as do this, forbear that ; which when the party is obliged to do, or forbear, is command ; otherwise prayer ; or else counsel. The language of vain-glory, of indignation, pity and revengefulness, optative : but of the desire to know, there is a peculiar expression, called interrogative ; as, what is it, when shall it, how is it done, and why so? other language of the passions I find none : for cursing, swearing, reviling, and the like, do not signify as speech; but as the actions of a tongue accustomed.

These forms of speech, I say, are expressions, or voluntary significations of our passions : but certain signs they be not ; because they may be used arbitrarily, whether they that use them, have such passions or not. The best signs of passions present, are either in the countenance, motions of the body, actions, and ends, or aims, which we otherwise know the man to have.

And because in deliberation, the appetites, and aversions, are raised by foresight of the good and evil consequences, and sequels of the action whereof we deliberate; the good or evil effect thereof dependeth on the foresight of a long chain of consequences, of which very seldom any man is able to see to the end. But for so far as a man seeth, if the good in those consequences be greater than the evil, the whole chain is that which writers call

apparent, or seeming good. And contrarily, when evil apparent.

the evil exceedeth the good, the whole is apparent, or seeming evil : so that he who hath by experience, or reason, the greatest and surest prospect of

Good and


consequences, deliberates best himself; and is able PART I. when he will, to give the best counsel unto others.

Continual success in obtaining those things whichaman from time to time desireth, that is to say, continual prospering, is that men call FELICITY ; Felicity. I mean the felicity of this life. For there is no such thing as perpetual tranquillity of mind, while we live here; because life itself is but motion, and can never be without desire, nor without fear, no more than without sense. What kind of felicity God hath ordained to them that devoutly honour Him, a man shall no sooner know, than enjoy ; being joys, that now are as incomprehensible, as the word of school-men beatifical vision is unintelligible.

The form of speech whereby men signify their opinion of the goodness of any thing, is PRAISE. Praise. That whereby they signify the power and greatness of any thing, is MAGNIFYING. And that Magnification. whereby they signify the opinion they have of a man's felicity, is by the Greeks called uakaplopós, Makapigiós. for which we have no name in our tongue. And thus much is sufficient for the present purpose, to have been said of the PASSIONS.


OF THE ENDS, OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE. Of all discourse, governed by desire of knowledge, there is at last an end, either by attaining, or by giving over. And in the chain of discourse, wheresoever it be interrupted, there is an end for that time.

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