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were unknown. Nor is it now any where in use,
where the Germans have not inhabited. The Coats of arms. ancient Greek commanders, when they went to
war, had their shields painted with such devices as they pleased; insomuch as an unpainted buckler was a sign of poverty, and of a common soldier ; but they transmitted not the inheritance of them. The Romans transmitted the marks of their families : but they were the images, not the devices of their ancestors. Amongst the people of Asia, Africa, and America, there is not, nor was ever, any such thing. The Germans only had that custom ; from whom it has been derived into England, France, Spain, and Italy, when in great numbers they either aided the Romans, or made their own conquests in these western parts of the world.
For Germany, being anciently, as all other countries, in their beginnings, divided amongst an infinite number of little lords, or masters of families, that continually had wars one with another ; those masters, or lords, principally to the end they might, when they were covered with arms, be known by their followers; and partly for ornament, both painted their armour, or their scutcheon, or coat, with the picture of some beast, or other thing; and also put some eminent and visible mark upon the crest of their helmets. And this ornament both of the arms, and crest, descended by inheritance to their children ; to the eldest pure, and to the rest with some note of diversity, such as the old master, that is to say in Dutch, the Here-alt thought fit. But when many such families, joined together, made a greater monarchy, this duty of the Herealt, to distinguish scutcheons, was made a private office
apart. And the issue of these lords, is the great PART 1. and ancient gentry; which for the most part bear living creatures, noted for courage, and rapine ; or castles, battlements, belts, weapons, bars, palisadoes, and other notes of war ; nothing being then in honour, but virtue military. Afterwards, not only kings, but popular commonwealths, gave divers manners of scutcheons, to such as went forth to the war, or returned from it, for encouragement, or recompense to their service. All which, by an observing reader, may be found in such ancient histories, Greek and Latin, as make mention of the German nation and manners, in their times.
Titles of honour, such as are duke, count, mar- Titles of quis, and baron, are honourable ; as signifying the value set upon them by the sovereign power of the commonwealth : which titles, were in old time titles of office, and command, derived some from the Romans, some from the Germans and French : dukes, in Latin duces, being generals in war : counts, comites, such as bear the general company out of friendship, and were left to govern and defend places conquered, and pacified: marquises, marchiones, were counts that governed the marches, or bounds of the empire. Which titles of duke, count, and marquis, came into the empire, about the time of Constantine the Great, from the customs of the German militia. But baron, seems to have been a title of the Gauls, and signifies a great man ; such as were the king's, or prince's men, whom they employed in war about their persons ; and seems to be derived from vir, to ber, and bar, that signified the same in the language of the Gauls, that vir in Latin ; and thence to bero, and
baro : so that such men were called berones, and after barones; and, in Spanish, varones. But he that would know more particularly the original of titles of honour, may find it, as I have done this, in Mr. Selden's most excellent treatise of that sub ject. In process of time these offices of honour, by occasion of trouble, and for reasons of good and peaceable
government, were turned into mere titles ; serving for the most part, to distinguish the precedence, place, and order of subjects in the commonwealth : and men were made dukes, counts, marquises, an
and barons of places, wherein they had neither possession, nor command : and other titles also, were devised to the same end.
WORTHINESS, is a thing different from the worth, or value of a man ; and also from his merit, or desert, and consisteth in a particular power, or ability for that, whereof he is said to be worthy : which particular ability, is usually named FITNESS, or aptitude.
For he is worthiest to be a commander, to be a judge, or to have any other charge, that is best fitted, with the qualities required to the well discharging of it; and worthiest of riches, that has the qualities most requisite for the well using of them : any of which qualities being absent, one may nevertheless be a worthy man, and valuable for something else. Again, a man may be worthy of riches, office, and employment, that nevertheless, can plead no right to have it before another ; and therefore cannot be said to merit or deserve it. For merit presupposeth a right, and that the thing deserved is due by promise: of which I shall say more hereafter, when I shall speak of contracts.
OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS.
BY MANNERS, I mean not here, decency of behaviour; as how one should salute another, or how a man should wash his mouth, or pick his teeth What is before company, and such other points of the small by manners. morals ; but those qualities of mankind, that concern their living together in peace, and unity. To which end we are to consider, that the felicity of this life, consisteth not in the repose of a mind satisfied. For there is no such finis ultimus, utmost aim, nor summum bonum, greatest good, as is spoken of in the books of the old moral philosophers. Nor can a man any more live, whose desires are at an end, than he, whose senses and imaginations are at a stand. Felicity is a continual progress of the desire, from one object to another ; the attaining of the former, being still but the way to the latter. The cause whereof is, that the object of man's desire, is not to enjoy once only, and for one instant of time, but to assure for ever, the way of his future desire. And therefore the voluntary actions, and inclinations of all men, tend, not only to the procuring, but also to the assuring of a contented life; and differ only in the way: which ariseth partly from the diversity of passions, in divers men ; and partly from the difference of the knowledge, or opinion each one has of the causes, which produce the effect desired.
So that in the first place, I put for a general in- A restless declination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless in all men.
Love of con
PART 1. desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in
death. And the cause of this, is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight, than he has already attained to; or that he cannot be content with a moderate power: but because he cannot assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more. And from hence it is, that kings, whose power is greatest, turn their endeavours to the assuring it at home by laws, or abroad by wars : and when that is done, there succeedeth a new desire; in some, of fame from new conquest ; in others, of ease and sensual pleasure ; in others, of admiration, or being flattered for excellence in some art, or other ability of the mind.
Competition of riches, honour, command, or tention from competition.
other power, inclineth to contention, enmity, and war: because the way of one competitor, to the attaining of his desire, is to kill, subdue, supplant, or repel the other. Particularly, competition of praise, inclineth to a reverence of antiquity. For men contend with the living, not with the dead; to these ascribing more than due, that they may obscure the glory of the other.
Desire of ease, and sensual delight, disposeth men to obey a common power: because by such desires,
a man doth abandon the protection that might be From fear of hoped for from his own industry, and labour. Fear death, or
of death, and wounds, disposeth to the same ; and wounds. for the same reason.
On the contrary, needy men, and hardy, not contented with their present condition; as also, all men that are ambitious of military command, are inclined to continue the causes of war; and to stir up trouble and sedi
Civil obedience from love of ease.