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into fragments may again be cement- ficiently strong for all legitimate pure ed together by a century of blood- poses. It is a remarkable fact, that, shed.

although they occasionally wrenched But this was not all; the form of the crown from the monarch in open government established in these states fight, and either returned it, or gave it was precisely that which was the most to another, on their own terms, when discordant with the knowledge, habits, they were smarting from its abuse of and characteristics of the people. power, they still placed no other per

The British Constitution was hap- manent limitations on this power, than pily formed before the making of Con- are found to be, in the present day, institutions had become a regular trade, dispensably necessary for public good. even when the name of Constitution When the Sovereign did not voluntawas scarcely known, and it was form- rily barter away a portion of his.aued by those who merely sought to re- thority for the supply of his needs, remove perceptible evils, and to supply straint was only cautiously forced upwhat was clearly necessary. It was no on him when it was felt to be imperi. imported -exotic, but it grew sponta- ously necessary, not by a faction, but neously out of the British heart, and by the body of the nation; and popuit grew according to the laws of na- lar institutions and privileges were onture. It was a seed before it became ly slowly conceded, one by one, as the a beautiful and productive tree. The want of them became pressing, and as proud, independent, jealous, queru- the people acquired the qualifications lous, stubborn, and dictatorial spirit for duly enjoying them. Whenever of the Briton, could only be governed a different system was adopted-whenby such a Constitution, therefore it ever creeds of faith were followed insprung into birth ;-the incorruptible, stead of public

wants, and the multigenerous, moral, honourable, reflec- tude were called upon to decide on tive, and intelligent spirit of the Bri- changes in the government--the powton could only support it, therefore it er of the crown was weakened until it flourishes and endures. He who wishes was unable to discharge its duties, and to know how arbitrary forms of go- faction took the helm of public affairs vernment may be changed into free-attempts were made to impose reones-how popular institutions may straints upon the Sovereign not clearly be rendered benefits, and not evils called for by, national necessities-and in what the food of liberty consists, popular institutions and privileges were and how the maximum of liberty may given when the people were not sufbe reached, must unlearn all that he ficiently enlightened, upright, and unhas learned of the present generation animous, to use them properly-then of “ Constitutionalists," and devote the consequences were, fanaticism, his days and his nights to the history phrenzy, civil war, and the loss of all of this Constitution.

that freedom had previously gained. The Crown, no matter from what The reasons are too obvious to need motive, fortunately placed the first li pointing out. When a question is left mit on its authority, and this afforded to the decision of those who underprecedent and analogy for gradually stand it, the probability is, that it will extending the limit afterwards, accor- be decided properly; but if it be carding to circumstances, in peace and ried to those who do .not understand good will.

The real rearers of our it, and who generally forsake truth Constitution were the wealth and in- when falsehood will lead them, it is telligence of the country, to the exclu- pretty certain that the decision will be sion of the multitude ; and they were precisely what it ought not to be. The guided, not by speculative theories, or people will be reasonably unanimous in the wish to usurp

the supreme autho- endeavouring to obtain what they feel, rity, but by plain common sense, and as well as think, to be necessary for their the visible needs of the nation. They own good; but if the necessity and the were careful to make that which was benefit beonly matter of speculation and meant to be a monarchy, essentially uncertainty, they are sure to be fiercemonarchical, and to endow the Sove- ly divided in opinion; and it is only reign with abundant power for dischar.. when unanimity

prevails to a very great ging the duties which devolved upon extent, that vital changes can be made him; and they were anxious to pre- in a government without producing serve at all times, a government suf- the utmost measure of calamity. The

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monarch will, åt all times, be able to it more profusely, and the conserally round him, at least, half the na- quences were, civil war, anarchy, and tion, if attempts be made to diminish despotism. The iron sceptre which his power in any other than the pre- this revolution created, was fitted, even cise moment when he is abusing it. If to perfection, not merely for cutting he be not invested with sufficient pow- off liberty for the present, but for rener to control factions, he will exist dering the hearts of the French people only to produce public injury; his ad- incapable of receiving its seeds. It herents will continually use his name was not only the most galling one that to excite hatred against the govern- the world knew with regard to the ment of which he nominally forms a persons and possessions of its slaves, part; and his incessant efforts to ob- but it incessantly and most effectually tain his natural right, will render it a laboured, both by example and othermatter of self-preservation in the fac- wise, to banish knowledge, religion, tion that rules him, to make itself des- morality, honour, integrity, in a word, potic, and to look at its own interest everything that can give root to, and only, without regard to those of the na- sustain freedom. Yet with this sception. The struggle between them must tre the French people, notwithstandyield, in the first moment, all the ing what the revolution had taught worst fruits of mal-government; and, them, were perfectly contented; if it in the second, it must end either in his had not broke itself to pieces by its triumph or extinction. If popular in- mad attacks on other nations, it would, stitutions be formed unsuited to the in all probability, have ruled them for habits and genius, and uncalled for by centuries, without any curtailment of the actual needs, of the people, they its power. At the moment when must either fall into disuse, or be used Buonaparte was crushed, and when only for purposes of public evil: no France was even called upon to choose matter what the institutions and pri- herself a new form of government, no vileges may be, they will be nullities, cry was raised by the people for popublessings, or curses, according to the lar institutions and liberty. The charcharacter of those who possess them. ter emanated, rather from a few of The power of the ruler must be ex- Buonaparte's cast-off minions, than actly proportioned in extent to the ig- from the nation; and, judging from norance, incapacity, and vices of the their previous history, their object subject, and it must only be diminish- was to secure for themselves power as ed as these are diminished: men can a faction, rather than to give freedom only be kept in order either by the rod to their country. This charter renof authority, or their own good quali- dered France comparatively free, yet, ties ; and they can only be free by be- on the return of the tyrant-although ing enlightened, conscientious, and he would not evdeign to cry“ Lipeaceable. If, unhappily, a nation be berty !”-not a sword was drawn to deinvolved in civil war by doctrinal dis- fend it. He was again dethroned by putes respecting its form of govern- foreign prowess, and the present moment, the consequences must be, a narch was restored, but still liberty government despotic to the utmost ex- was only called for by a few indivitent of practice, or none at all.

duals, whose conduct since has abunOur present Whigs, who disgrace dantly proved, that they were demathe name of statesmen as it was never gogues seeking only their own intedisgraced before, have the hardihood rest. France does not owe her preto assert, that the freedom, which sent liberty to her revolution. She France now possesses, sprung from made no effort to throw off the yoke the Revolution. They might with of the tyrant which the Revolution equal truth maintain, that our first gave her; she made no general moverevolution gave us our present liberty. ment to obtain liberty when he was France possessed in Louis the Six- dethroned ; and she made no en Jeas teenth, a sovereign whose chief failing your to preserve liberty after it had was, his wish outran his wisdom in been even forced upon her. The Regiving freedom to his people. Had he volution had made frightful inroads only conceded it as they became qua- on public morals, 'and it had thereby lified for making a right use of it, disqualified her in a great degree from France had obtained durable liberty becoming free ; it had, however, without a revolution, but he conceded taught her population to regard poli



tical disputes with horror, and to be gree, their own will. What would our perfectly indifferent as to what was free press be, if it were chiefly in the their form of government, provided hands of ignorant, corrupt, immoral, they could enjoy internal peace; and and seditious writers ? What would perhaps it was owing to this, that the our trial by jury be, if the jurors were liberty - the unsolicited, unearned, not intelligent and conscientious ? and undeserved liberty-was enabled What would our House of Commons to take root, which was planted in be, if its members were not chosen by her by strangers. It is a remarkable the votes, or influence, of knowing, fact, that, while almost all that libere public-spirited, and honest men? And ty has lost in latter times, has been what would the Ministers, and even destroyed by those who call themselves the Monarch, be, if this House were its exclusive champions, the most chosen by persons of opposite characsplendid triumph that it has achieved ter ? Notwithstanding the perfection for ages, has been gained for it by the of our Constitution, it is in itself an swords of the very men whom we are inert instrument, as powerful for evil told to regard as despots, anxious to as for good, and it cannot compel those banish liberty from the universe. who possess it to use it properly. Our

Our own Constitution is unques- freedom, and the blessings which it tionably the most stupendous and yields, must, after all, be found, not magnificent monument of human wis- in our Constitution, but in our knowdom and ingenuity that the world can -ledge, wisdom, activity, concord, hoboast of. That it is as perfect in its nour, disinterestedness, morality, and essentials as it can be made, seems to religion. When these depart, freedom be proved by the fact, that, although must depart with them, and our free half the heads in the country are coll- institutions, instead of retarding, will stantly occupied in endeavours to carry only hasten its exit. it a step farther, not one of them can Our Liberals, indeed, stoutly mainhit upon a scheme that wears the fea- tain, that the establishment of liberty tures of plausibility. Yet it is impos- will immediately produce in the peosible to contemplate it without per- ple everything necessary for its proper ceiving, that it is calculated for our- use, but they only support the stupid selves alone, and that to the mercu- doctrine by those hackneyed declamarial Frenchman, the ignorant and slug- tions which have become loathsome to gish Spaniard, the profligate Italian, the ear from their absurdity and horand, perhaps, the enthusiastic and ima- rible consequences. Did our Constigination-led German, it would be but tution give us those natural qualities, an instrument of mischief in the first which it makes its foundation ? Could moment, and of ruin in the second. it make the Frenchman and the SpaWe must see, that we are only enabled niard, the Negro and the Russian, the to work it properly by being trained New Zealander and the Esquimaux, to the art from our infancy, and that to resemble each other in intellect and if it were now given us entire, in temperament? Can it even melt the exchange for a despotism to which Irishman, the Scotsman, and the Enwe had been alone accustomed, we glishman into one race? Freedom will should scarcely draw anything from it expand the intellect of all, but it will at the outset but calamity, or acquire not remove the inequalities which nasufficient skill to manage it as we ture has made ; it will strengthen, ought, before we destroyed it by our and not change, the temperament ignorance. What would this boasted which nature has given, and, if we be Constitution be if the King were in dis- by nature“ prone to evil,” its natural position a tyrant, and

the people were tendency is, to pollute rather than to ignorant and regardless of matters of purify the heart. It removes regovernment ?--if the people were in- straints, places temptations before us, furiated with false political doctrines, and multiplies our means of indulging and the House of Commons used its in vice and guilt. From the factions mighty power for purposes of usurpa- which it creates, the competition which tion and oppression ? What keeps the it causes for public trusts, the coin“ Three Estates,” distinct and endow. parative poverty of those who dispose ed with distinct and often adverse in- of many of those trusts, the inability terests, as they are, in general har- of the government to command supmony Assuredly, in a very great de- port, and various other causes, it is

constantly making the most fearful their own, they wished to have one
attackson public morals, instead of be- that would be the most suitable for
ing their parent and protector. In all their character and circumstances.
the free states that have gone before They were Englishmen in character
us, freedom, instead of giving birth to, and habit; they had been trained to
destroyed, public morals, and by this the use and enjoyment of liberty, and
it destroyed itself. If we glance at they knew nothing else; they were
the history of our constitution, we without materials for forming a mo-
find, that for ages it was frequently narchy, and therefore there was only
either inoperative, or at work only for a republic for them. Those who for
public injury. Now the King was vir- med the scheme of government were
tually a despot,--then he was the tool practical men, anxious to benefit their
and slave of a faction. Now, contend- country, and the structure which they
ing rivals desolated the country with raised contained nothing of moment
civil war, for the crown, as though no that was new to the people in practice,
constitution had ever existed ; then, a while it contained almost everything
band of nobles trampled upon the to which they had been accustomed.
throne with one foot, and upon the The people, moreover, were unani-
peasantry with the other, as though mous in favour of this form of govern-
their will was the only constitution. ment, and when they had obtained it,
Now, the House of Commons was in they believed that they possessed the
a state of suspended animation, then best in the world. It does not fall
it was the cringing lacquey of the within the scope of this Article to
crown, and then it seized upon the speak of its defects, to examine its
sovereignty, butchered the sovereign, operation, and to inquire what it will
demolished the constitution, and ri- be when factions shall become so un-
vetted upon the nation the fetters of principled and violent in America, as
military despotism. The most revolt- they have so long been in this coun-
ing atrocities that stain our annals try.
were perpetrated by the instrument- What has been said will clearly in-
ality of the Houses of Parliament, the dicate the path which ought to have
Peers in their judicial capacity, and been followed in South America, but
Juries-by the institutions which we the directly opposite one was followed.
reverence, and justly too, as the most The authors of the South American
precious of our national possessions. revolution were Liberals, and they
It was only when that immense class, commenced it almost wholly, not from
which exists between the lower orders pressing national needs, or just quar-
and the nobility, attained maturity, rel with the parent state, but to prac-
that the Constitution was put into pro- tise their political doctrines. This
per operation in all its parts, and was would have been most perilous, even
made the dispenser of liberty and bles- if their creed had been true, rational,
sings. If it be possible to prove any- and practical; if it had been high
thing whatever, this must prove that Toryism. It was of necessity to dis-
popular institutions will not of them- tract those with disputes on abstract
selves create freedom,--that freedom principles of government who were
rather militates against, than origi- destitute of political knowledge—it was
nates and sustains, that from which it to make political fanaticism the grand
draws its vitality,--and that it is de- spring of action, and to attempt to ob-
pendent upon the higher mental en- tain freedom by the agency of that
dowments, and the highest virtues, for which can establish no other govern-
birth and longevity.

ment than a tyranny. But the creed Our American Colonies went to war of these persons consisted of “ liberal with the mother country from no doc. opinions”--the old farrago respecting trinal fanaticism ; “Liberal opinions” the equality of man, and not the good were then unknown, or, at least, had of man.--the possession of liberty, and not been condensed into a system to the destruction of all that can nurture wage war with genuine liberty, and liberty. Of course, those principles curse mankind. At the commence- only were inculcated that were the most ment, they fought for what they be- false and dangerous, and those instilieved to be a right, without thinking tutions only were thought of, that were of independence, and when at last they the most unfit, and the most likely to determined on having a government of be perishable.


The condition of South America was follow the saine conduct in all counexactly the reverse of that. of North tries, and they must, above all things, America, in the contest of the latter appropriate the sovereign power to for its independence. The most mark- themselves. A population like this was ed inequalities existed in the circum- formed into a variety of petty repubstances of its inhabitants. One class lics, each, of course, having at its head, was rich, luxuriant, fond of splendour a party of the leaders of the revoluand magnificence, and, in the highest tion. degree, aristocratic from birth and the South America therefore presents degradation of those amongst whom it the following monstrous incongruities. moved. The remainder of the popu- A population consisting of three or lation, comprehending a very large pro- four distinct, hostile, and unmixable portion of the whole, existed in the races of men, of which, one is comlowest stages of poverty, servitude, vice, posed of decided aristocrats, who reand ignorance-of mental and bodily gard the others, not merely as inferidegradation. The former displayed the ors in station, but as beings ranking inertness of the Spaniard, doubled by only just above the brute.--and of the enervating influence of a tropical which a very large portion are slaves, climate; the latter possessed the spright- or nothing better, is governed by rely, unreflective, unstable, foppish, sen- public. A population ignorant in all sual, selfish, insincere, dishonest, wild, things, and profoundly ignorant of the and passionate temperament of the In- principles and practice of liberty, hadian, Negro, and Creole. It was not ving no literature and no public opipossible to amalgamate both into one nion, composed chiefly of the rich and adhesive body. They had been accus- of the extreme poor, and licentious in tomed only to the rule of an absolute the highest degree, is governed by remonarch, they knew nothing whatever publican institutions. The degraded of practical liberty, and, in addition slave, the outcast Indian, and the deto this, the higher class, the wealth spised Creole, have governments which and intelligence of the country, were continually ring in their ears the docof royalist principles, and opposed to the trine of equality, the rights of man,

' revolution. Common sense loudly pro

&c. &c. Ultra Liberals are formed inclaimed that monarchy was alone cal- to governments which profess to be liculated for such a population, and that berty personified, and still render one while this population was disabled by part of the people the tyrants of the mental defects, habit, and condition, for other ;—which affect to secure a comrendering republican institutions ope munity of political rights, and still rative for public good, it was endowed give to a great part of their subjects with almost everything that could con- no political rights whatever. Governvert republican liberty into a plague. ments are established which are hated The erection of a rational monarchy by one part of their subjects, as being with a member of the royal family of founded on false principles, which are Spain at its head, would, in all proba- despised by another part, as conceding bility, have converted the higher class nothing that they ought to concede, of the people into supporters of the re- and which are scarcely cordially revevolution, while it would, no doubt, renced by any, except those who draw have been as palatable to the lower emoluments from them. class as a republic. Unanimity, so es

Some of the fruits have already apsential for the stability of new govern peared, and others will speedily folments, would thus have been secured. low. These republics are already agiThe power of the Crown might have tated by factions of the worst descripbeen limited to the utmost extent. The tion-factions struggling only for the King must have accepted it on the reins of power. Even before the contest terms of the givers, and he would have with the mother country is ended, we possessed no party, and no means of see in some of them, one setof men after any kind, to enable him to violate the another, seizing upon the government compact. Such a government would by main force, as though no constituhave stood on the natural foundation tion existed. If human nature remain of governments; it could scarcely have unchanged, and chance interrupt not failel of being permanent, and of real- the operation of natural causes, this izing the best hopes of its subjects. will continue until it end in the deThe Liberals, however, must always struction of South American republi

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