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in every shade of party, and even in Vautrin, cuisinier retiré : il savait every minor shade, which the pecu- lire, et la politique etait son fort.” liar character of the writer sheds on On the insurrection of the Lyonthe objects of his contemplation. nese, the good people of Villeneuve Every kind of intellect seems to have wished well to their cause,and sent their had its representative at this saturnalia congratulations, at the same time that of philosophy, from the poetic elo- they dispatched an epistle to the jacoquence of De Staël to the dull and im- bins at Paris, disowning any fraternity pious theism of Robespierre-orators with them. But Lyons succumbed, and philosophers even in crowds; re- and Villeneuve, at the instigation of spectable poets, suitable to the period, Lombard, who had become the poliwere not wanting, and Louvet was a tician of the village, sought to retrace novelist worthy of the times. With its steps. The club was re-opened, Carnot and Talleyrand for its states the streets fenced, and the red nightmen, and Napoleon for its hero, what cap in all its glory. Mr Truchot was could the age have wanted in a lite- the first commissioner of blood that rary point of view ?-a Joe Miller, a came among them, and they escaped collector of jests, a gleaner of bon him. Mr Truchot has since returned mots, uttered in prisons, on scaffolds, to his old profession, a leader of danand under the axe of the guillotine. cing dogs on the boulevard. But what Such a personage has it found in the was the peril of the whole town, when author of these Memoires, Mons. Lom- a column of republican troops, in passbard de Langres, ancien Ambassadeur ing Villeneuve one summer noon, disen Hollande.
covered that the cross still existed on Mr Lombard, the son of somebody the spire of the church ! Lombard, or nobody at Langres, and hence im- the then president of their club, was pudently self-styled De Langrcs, af- near paying the omission with his ter having received his early education head." In the midst of all this, Mr in the College of Chaumont, found Lombard amused himself with writing himself, in the year 1792, a student tragedies à la mode—Hear him! in Paris, and an inhabitant of that
« In the flourishing times of the terlearned quarter of it, called the Pays
I shone forth in all the splendour, Latin. He narrowly escaped being with which Melpomene can surround a included in the massacre of the Carmes
favourite At this time they representand the Abbaye, and to avoid a simi
ed at Paris, in short, in all theatres of lar danger, he closely adhered to the
the republic, a tragedy of my build, in revolutionary council of his section.
three acts, and blank verse, entitled, Le This worthy collection of legislators Français dans l'Inde. It consisted of was led by a furious demagogue of an the grand inquisitor of Goa violating a ironmonger, who, with an eye to busi
woman, roasting a man, and himself getness, as well as to the republic, pro- ting roasted in his turn. Since tbe inposed one evening, in full section, that vention of theatrical rhapsodies, never the whole body should proceed to de- were there better conditioned ones.” molish the iron grill and railing of Strange historic pets some people the Val de Grace, and therewith to take a fancy to. Warton says of Henry arm the faithful populace. An itch the Eighth, " That had he never to distinguish himself urged Lombard murthered his wives, his politeness to to unmask the popular ironmonger, in the fair sex would remain unimpeachwhich he succeeded; for which suc- ed.” Dr Clarke takes the part of cess he was obliged to decamp, and Richard the Third. Napoleon, in his beat a speedy and secret retreat from Memoirs, thinks Robespierre a man the metropolis to the little town of of humanity, and no shedder of huVilleneuve, on the great south-east man blood.' Danton is the favourite road from Paris. Here the Memoirs of Lombard, as he is indeed of Labecome interesting, depicting in lively cretelle. He was the fine, black, boldcolours, but with very ill-placed wag- faced villain of Venice Preserved, who, gery, the state of a little town during though inconceivably blind, and inthe reign of terror. The leading cha- capable of exerting himself to avoid racters of the village are all sketched his impending fate, still never lost his (somewhat better than Irving's ill- gaiety and presence of mind, even on shaven radical,) ending with “ Mr the scaffold: “ As they struck a great
number of victims at once, the leather but a crown a-day to live upon, is not sack which was to contain the heads a man to be easily intimidated.” was ample. While the axe was de
Under the Directory, Lombard scending upon some, the others await- found himself judge in the Court of ed their turn at the foot of the scaf- Cassation, from whence he was taken fold. Hérault de Schelles and Dan- by Talleyrand (for want of a better) ton were of these last; they were con
to act ambassador, or, in other words, versing together when the executioner pro-consul, in Holland. The old metold Hérault to mount. Hérault and moirist dwells with great self-complaDanton approaching each other to embrace, the executioner prevented them. and remarks, how easy it would have
cency on those times of his grandeur, Va, cruel, said Danton, nos têtes se
been for him to have covered himself rechercheront dans le sac.
with orders and decorations. “Ajoutez There is a meeting and scene of á cela la decoration du lis, qu'on donsome interest related in the Memoirs, nait pour rien ; celle de l'éperon d'or, which took place between Robespierre qu'on a pour trois sous ; et du lion and Danton a little before the fall of 'Holstein, qu'on rend six blancs : the latter. At length Thermidor voila le fils d'un directeur de la poste brought the turn of Robespierre him
aux lettres changé en constellation.” self, and his fall put an end to the
Among the acquaintances of Lombard reign of terror. What were the sen
at this time was Kosciusko, who had timents and conduct of French socie
come to Paris with a proposal of raity, emerging from those times of blood sing Polish regiments for the Direcand crime?-Hear again Lombard.
tory. His proposal was accepted, and " To the rage for carnage succeeded, the regiments were raised. But in the in Paris, the rage for pleasure. The
meantime arrived the 18th Brumaire, pavement was still red with blood, when
and the fall of the Directory; the games, feasts, spectacles, and balls, be leading power was Napoleon, and the came a frenzy. Balls !-you would not
Polish hero waited on him. “ Buonabelieve it, if an hundred thousand individuals were not there to vouch the fact :
parte was yet lodged at the Luxem– There were balls, to which one could bourg, when Kosciusko, still in purnot be admitted, unless he had lost some
suit of his project, waited on him, acone of his family upon the scaffold, and companied by his two aids-de-camp, where one could not dance without ha
Kidnadvitz and Dombrouski. Jealous ving the hair cut like those going to be
of everything great, the first Consul decapitated; if one had not, in short, ac
affected to address the two aids-decording to the expression of the day, les camp, and turned his back on Koscicheveux à la victime.”
usko, An anecdote of a very different kind The only historical points on which is the next we meet with in the collec- any light is thrown by these volumes, tion; it is of the late Pope, Pius the are the death of Pichegru, who, they Seventh. “ He was traversing the assert, was strangled, by Buonaparte's great gallery of the Louvre. The crowd order, in prison ;-the assassination fell prostrate as he passed, to receive was put off for a day, and the appointhis benediction. Two puppies, think- ed criers, uninformed of the change, ing to do something admirable, affect- began to proclaim a whole, full, and ed to hold themselves upright and un- particular account of Pichegru's suimoved, and began to smile and titter cide, till they were set right by some as the Pontiff approached them.- agents of the police, that Pichegru's
Messieurs,' said Pius to them, the suicide was put off till the morrow. benediction of an old man is not to be The other, one discussed is the 18th despised.'” The answer of Pius to Brumaire, accompanied with remarks the threatening emissary of Buona- on Las Cases, which, however, we shall parte, who found him at his frugal not trespass on-We have been inundinner, is equally dignified. “Mon- dated with reviews and articles on the sieur,” said he, "a sovereign that needs subject.
THE WEST INDIAN CONTROVERSY.
Though Honesty be no Puritan, it will do no hurt.
There has just appeared in the sider this Essay as altogether defec58th Number of the Quarterly Re- tive. In discussing the matters at is, view, a paper of very high merit, sue, regarding the actual condition of “On the condition of the negroes in the negroes, the author has written too our colonies.” This essay is evident- exclusively for the highest and most ly the work of an able hand, the re- intelligent class of readers; and, sesult of laborious, and, above all, dis- condly, what is of yet higher importpassionate investigation. It is com- ance, he has abstained entirely from posed in a style of calmness and clear- the most difficult and perilous part of ness which undoubtedly presents a the whole subject before him. Far from very remarkable contrast to that in us be the vanity of supposing that we which the authors of the African In- are capable of supplying these defistitution pamphlets have (with scarce- ciencies ; at present, indeed, it is from ly, an exception) indulged themselves. particular circumstances impossible for The writer gives a distinct view of the us even to make an attempt towards questions at issue, and also of the main this : But without entertaining any facts hitherto adduced on both sides views of this sort-with the most perconcerning them: he points out the fect feeling that at this moment
any spirit of tumultuous exaggeration that such views are altogether out of the has uniformly been exhibited on the one question as to ourselves--we may nehand;-and commends, almost while vertheless presume to say, that we have he laments, the feelings that have, the materials in our possession, and to comparatively speaking, left those who think, that by indicating the nature of act, and have all along acted, under these materials, something may be done, the influence of this unsuitable tem- we shall not say by, but through our per, in the full and entire command of the arena of popular discussion- We are of opinion, then, that the
The philosophical prin- Quarterly Review has written a paper ciples on which these questions must which, from the manner in which eventually be decided, are laid down things are condensed, and from the and illustrated with much logical pre- total absence of quotation, will scarcecision, and a liberality of feeling wor- ly produce its right effect, unless thy of the age; and altogether, the among those who have the external as impression which this paper leaves, is well as the internal requisites, for fillperhaps as nearly as may be, that un- ing up the blanks for their own use as der which the Members of the British they proceed in its perusal. He preSenate ought to come to such specific supposes a measure of knowledge discussions, as the Buxtonian agitators which the whole history of this conare most likely to force upon their troversy, up to this hour, shews not notice at the commencement of the to exist at all; herefers to books which ensuing session.
are in few hands; considers that deWe confess, then, that, so far as bate as understood to the bottom, the senatorial intellect is concerned, which was but cursorily read at the enough seems already to have been time, and has since been forgotten by done as to those parts of this great many, and misrepresented by many ; subject on which the Quarterly Review in a word, loses sight of this great has thought fit to touch. In a few fact that the parliamentary proinstances, indeed, we dissent from the ceedings in regard to these matters writer ; but, on the whole, we are have uniformly been the result of igdisposed to say, that his Essay is a norant noise and clamour out of doors masterly and unanswerable one, and —that the agitators, even when they that it has exhausted the subject, in are Members of Parliament, uniformso far as it has gone, with a view to ly write and publish the pamphlets men in Parliament.
before they come into the House to In two respects, however, we con- make their speeches—and that, of
course, the business of those who would somehow or other many ineffably infereduce these agitators to their proper rior persons have acquired a temporary level, is not (generally speaking) to and factitious sort of credit that serves convince the Members of the British the turn of the moment; and the flatParliament, who, with a few intelli- tery even of a Buxton or a Macaulay, gible exceptions, are and have been to- has not always been treated as it should lerably well informed as to this sub- have been. ject in its most important bearings Mr Brougham, then, adopts boldly, at least-but to shew the signers of in the Edinburgh Review, the very petitions, the subscribers to associa- simple and satisfactory argument on tions, the mass of the public—that which Mr Clarkson rests the whole they really have been played upon substance of his late pamphlet. It by a set of uncandid agitators, who amounts to this : -Every man has an have uniformly entertained them with in-born indefeasible right to the free arguments and facts, bearing, or sup- use of his own bodily strength and exposed to bear, in favour of one side ertion : it follows that no man can be only ;-that these men have dealt with kept for one moment in a state of bonde them in a manner degrading to the age, without the guilt of ROBBERY: British public, and implying the therefore, the West Indian negroes grossest insult to the general intellect ought to be set free. This is an arguof the nation. The two papers which ment of very easy comprehension, and have already appeared in this Journal, the Edinburgh Reviewer exclaims, were designed chiefly for these—for with an air of very well enacted trithe common citizen and the common umph, “Such plain ways of considerreader—and we purpose to devote our- ing the question are, after all, the selves on this occasion also to their best !" service, by collecting in our columns Ingenious Quaker, and most ingesome statements and some arguments, nuous Reviewer! If this be so, why too, which we apprehend are not, in write pamphlets and reviews full of their present shape, very likely to be arguments and details, or pretended extensively considered through the details of fact? If every West Incountry at large. Our ambition is, in dian planter is a thief and a robber, so far, therefore, a very humble one; why bother our heads about the proon some future occasion we may per- priety, the propriety forsooth, of comhaps do something in another way; pelling him to make restitution? If at present we do what our time and the British nation is guilty as an means permit towards an object which accessary both before the fact, and we certainly consider as of the highest in the fact, of theft and ROBBERY, and most immediate importance. why tell the British nation that they
The great artifice of the agitators, are the most virtuous and religious has been to say or insinuate, that the nation in the world, and that they whole of this affair is quite easy and ought to restore what they have stolen simple of comprehension---that it is a and robbed, because they are so virmatter in which any
man who possesses tuous and so religious ? The affair is common sense and human feelings, so base, that it will scarcely bear lookis qualified to judge de plano—that ing at for one second.
What ! long minute details are of no import- prosing discussions about whether we ance in reality—that the great out- ought to cease to be thieves and roblines are clear, and that they are suffi- bears, now, or ten years, or a hundred cient to all intents and purposes, years hence! Was ever such a mon
This is always a cunning method of strous perversion of human powers? procedure, when the object is to work Sir, that estate is not yours—it is upon the multitude. It flatters ordinary your neighbour's estate, and you
have people to be told that they know all no more right to cultivate it, or any that there is any need for knowing. part of it, for your own behoof, than Above all, such flattery is delightful, the man in the moon. You must when it comes from men of acknow- restore this estate to its rightful owner ledged intellectual eminence. Mr-Immediately? No, not immediateBrougham is indeed the only man of ly. Your neighbour ought to have those who have recently taken any lead the acres, and he knows that he in this scheme, that can be justly held ought to have them. They are his right, entitled to such a character as this; but he has been long deprived of the estate
FROM YOUR PRESENT CRIMES.
-his father was deprived of it before fore, it would certainly turn the heads him. The family have all been brought of all these poor people—the parish up in a way quite different from what would be kept in a state of hot water would have been, had they been in by them. Perhaps they would take possession of their rights. They have it into their heads to bother you, even formed habits altogether unlike what you, with law-suits and prosecutions those of the proprietors of such an es- for dainages and by-gone rents, &c. &c. tate ought to be. They have been ac- Time must be allowed for taming them; customed to poverty, and they are an they were always a hot-headed family. ignorant, uneducated family. You IN DUE TIME YOU OUGHT TO DESIST must not give up their land immediately. No--the poor people would cer- Such substantially is—such cannot tainly go and get drunk, if you gave be denied to be the “plain and simthem their land. They would play the ple” argument of Mr Clarkson, and devil in all the ale-houses. In short, his disciple Mr Brougham; and so is they would be injured in their health it applied by themselves to the subject and morals, by the immediate posses- which, plain and simple as it is, they sion of their estate. Indeed, it may be have taken such huge pains to elucidate. doubted whether the present man Of Mr Clarkson's heart we have the ought ever to get his land at all. His best opinion possible ; and
we have an son is young; he may be sent to excellent opinion of Mr Brougham's school, and taught reading, writing, head; but really, looking at the mat
; arithmetic, &c.; and then, when he ter as they have been pleased to set comes of age, you may give him the it forth, it appears, we must own, estate which you have robbed him of somewhat difficult to suppose, that eiyou may then cut robbery, and give ther a sound head, or a feeling heart, him his property ; or, if he turns out a could have been in any way consulted wild young man, perhaps it might be in the promulgation of this exquisite
, as well to let another generation still farrago. The absurdities in which these pass before you give up the estate. apostles have involved themselves are You, therefore, must, from a regard so glaring, that a child must smile at for the best interests of this family, them; and yet it is upon such
argucontinue, in the meantime, thief and ments that the public of 1823 are callrobber of their goods. Let the young ed to force the British Parliament into men be hedgers and ditchers on your a measure, or rather into a series of estate, as they have been; let the young measures, by far the most delicate, as women continue at service. But you regards principle, and by far the most must improve the parish school ; lower perilous, as regards effect, of any that the schoolmaster's wages by degrees, ever engaged the attention of an enso as to let all these young people have lightened political assembly in any age an opportunity of picking up some of the world. It is upon such argueducation. Be kind to them-promote ments that a complete revolution of the best hedgers and ditchers to be the whole domestic, as well as political coachmen, and even bailiffs, if you find relations, in the whole of these great them trust-worthy: By all means, colonial establishments, is demanded ; make the well-behaved girls of them a revolution involving, if we are to lady's maids and house-keepers. By listen for a moment to the proprietors this means, the family will gradually of these islands, the absolute ruin of get up their heads a little; and, at all their possessions ; a revolution, the some future period, it may be found perilous nature of which is confessed quite safe and proper to give them all by these men themselves in the lantheir rights. The present people, to guage — the indescribable, ineffable be sure, will be dead and rotten ere language which says to all the world, then-but how can you help that? “ This revolution must be : JUSTICE You are not the original thief, you demands it-RELIGION demands it: know,--you can't answer for all the but we confess, that in spite of Justice consequences of a crime, into which
and Religion, it must not be now.” you may be said to have been led by If such imbecilities had been introyour own parents, and by the whole duced where none but Britons were to course of your own education. No, be entertained with them, it might no-it would never do to give up the have been of little consequence. The stolen goods at once. As I said be- fallacy of the outset might have been