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with characteristic varieties in each) in the Negroes, Hungarians, Poles, and Celts, the which are nations most given to dancing. It is the form with which the sentiment of the ballet may be most perfectly expressed ; and in some of the antique statues of Minerva it is represented with a sharpness, simplicity, and grandeur, such as might claim for it the name of psychical and an analogy with the psychical hand.
The pure motor foot has the true medium form of the wellmade foot, especially that of the man. It has neither the stumpyness of the elemental foot, nor the slenderness of the sensitivemotor, nor the great muscularity of the athletic; but, avoiding all these extremes, it is, with variations according to sex, justly adapted to its simple purpose of supplying a well-formed strong support for the weight of the body.
The motor-athletic foot is distinguished by its great size, its strength of bone, and its muscularity. It is typified in the foot of the Farnese Hercules. It always marks a powerful, athletic constitution; and in its possessor we may look, perhaps, for vehemence of will, but not for the profound insight of the reason or the vivid creation of the fancy.
We have now placed before our readers nearly all that we think can be fairly said for the symbolics of the human form. We have seldom interrupted our statement with any doubts; for with a subject in which every assertion is suggestive of discussion, it seemed the best course, first, to state it fully and then to express a general judgment on it. Thus, then, we would conclude :
1. That in the general evidences adduced in the first part of this article there is sufficient foundation for the doctrine, that each man's mental nature is indicated or symbolised by his bodily forms; by the forms, namely, not of one or a few, but of ail, parts of his body; and of these, not only in their gestures or acquired expressions, but in those fixed forms, which depend, at least in part, upon the skeleton.
2. That there is in most persons a natural faculty of discerning characters in the forms of their fellow-men; a faculty which is capable, in certain persons, of being so cultivated that their judgments of character derived from it alone are very generally true.
3. That much is yet needed to give the study the rank of a science. Especially, the several observations of correspondence between mind and form need to be much more numerous and more exact, and to be expressed with specific detail instead of being confined to general statements. The exceptions which we may find to nearly every rule derived from them need also to be explained; and the theory and the art require to be more
In all ages,
closely bound together. Carus has, indeed, done something towards this end, by reducing many physiognomic observations to rules connected and consistent with those of physiology; but much more remains to be accomplished by minds of a less imaginative tendency than that of Carus.
4. This want of sure connexion between the theory and the art is, however, no disproof of either. The same defect, though in a much less degree, is chargeable against all the studies that are occupied with life and mind. for example, there have been truths in the science of physiology, and truths in the art of medicine ; and in every age it has been thought that the two were united by close bonds; but in every succeeding age many of the bonds have been changed, the truths alone abiding; and even now, those who are wisest hold by the science and by the art as branches of knowledge nearly related, indeed, and in some parts mutually supporting, but in many parts self-subsisting, and in some dissociated. So, we believe, it will long be with the art and the theory of symbols in the human form.
Art. VII.-Port-Royal. Par C. A. Sainte-Beuve. Paris.
1840-48. 3 vols. 8vo. ‘AN event,' says M. Sainte-Beuve, which happens sometimes
even to philosophers,' has happened to M. Cousin. He has fallen in love with Madame de Longueville in person; yes, with the Great Condé's sister. The place in which he has most particularly shown his passion for her is where he has to deal with La Rochefoucauld. He does not speak of him as a judge or a critic would speak, but as a rival. “She never truly loved but a single person,” says he; "it was La Rochefoucauld;" and this leads him to add, " I don't deny it; I do not like La Rochefoucauld.” La Rochefoucauld is for him the great adversary, the rival who, two centuries ago, supplanted him.'
The sarcasm launched against M. Cousin by M. Sainte-Beuve was not without a personal motive. The author of the History of Port-Royal was the first to rescue the subject from the oblivion into which it had fallen, and he had no sooner entered the holy monastery than he would fain have shut the gates on all aftercomers. Among the poachers upon his domain M. Cousin has been the most persevering and successful. In fact, his depredations were not confined to Madame de Longueville. Notwithstanding her noble birth, her remarkable beauty, and the important part which she played in the intrigues of the Fronde, she was, after all, but a secondary actor in the scenes of Port-Royal. A far greater offence of M. Cousin was to have denied to M. SainteBeuve the privilege of showing Pascal in a new light. Before his narration could reach the period at which this surprising genius shone forth in all his glory, his discoveries were anticipated, and his principal hero torn away from a frame which, it must be confessed, was too narrow for so illustrious a man. Others joined in pursuit of the game which had been started, and there was even a contest for the right to use the manuscripts preserved in the public archives. In compliance with an old and mischievous usage students are permitted in France to borrow and retain as long as they choose the books and documents which are necessary for their researches. The right gives rise to incessant inconvenience and frequent abuses. The manuscript which is taken at first for the honest purpose of investigation may afterwards be kept to prevent a rival from making use of it. Whether this was the motive in the Pascal chace we will not attempt to determine, but certain it is that M. Faugère, who published a new edition of the Pensées, was obliged to have recourse to a ministerial order to obtain some papers detained by a fellow-hunter. The republic of letters has bitherto rather gained than lost by the emulation which has been excited, but we should be of a different opinion if M. Sainte-Beuve allows himself to be driven away by this irruption into his territory. The hedge sparrow, it is said, forsakes the eggs which have been handled, and, fearful for the safety of an offspring which she is too weak to protect, refuses to give them life. But the stronger eagle fights for her young, and, if an enemy succeeds in ravishing one from the nest, the remainder of the brood does but become the dearer. Let V. Sainte-Beuve copy the example of the nobler bird, and, after an absence already too prolonged, return to his beloved nest of Port-Royal. If M. Cousin has not yet conquered his resentment against his fair Longueville for having been admired by La Rochefoucauld, M. Sainte-Beuve should be more generous, and forgive her for having been loved by M. Cousin.
The Monastery of Port-Royal exists no longer. All that remains of it are some shapeless ruins, situated in a dark and marshy valley not far from Versailles. It is supposed to bare been founded by Bishop Eudes of Sully, and Mathilda of Garlande, in the year 1204, that prayers might be said there for the happy return of Mathieu I. of Montmorency, Mathilda's husband, who was fighting in the Holy Land. A Bull, in 1223, conceded to the convent the privilege of receiving secular ladies, who, disgusted with the vanities of life, might wish, without taking the vows, to give themselves up to God. It was perhaps the admission of these worldly recruits, who were not wholly detached from the frivolities of society, which was the cause of that taste for fashion which was reproved at the beginning of the sixteenth century by the superior of the house. The inmates had committed the enormity of wearing sleeves wbich were wider at the bottom than at the top, and the abbess was ordered to have them made narrower. Later it was found necessary to prohibit the use of masks, gloves, and starched linen. These trifles were the symbols of more serious irregularities. The service was not duly attended, the rule of seclusion was violated, and dances and banquets had greater charms than the offices of religion. Such deviations from monastic strictness were then general throughout France. The reform in Port-Royal was brought about by a girl who was forced against her will into the office of abbess, and who not only succeeded in making her community a model of discipline and virtue, but who attracted into her sphere so many persons illustrious for piety, for learning, and for genius, that, of all the institutions of the kind which ever existed, this is the one which has obtained the largest renown and the most universal admiration. No glory was wanting to it-not even the distinction of bearing nobly a long and cruel persecution. The means by which these results were obtained are a rare example of the power of simple and persevering rectitude, and give a perennial interest and importance to the history of Mother Angélique,' though the house over which she presided is in ruins, and the succession of her disciples was not permitted to continue.
Antoine Arnauld, the representative of an ancient and distinguished family in Auvergne, married the daughter of M. Marion, an avocat-général. This M. Marion was a favourite of Henry IV., and obtained from him the abbacies of Port-Royal and st. Cyr for two of his grand-daughters. The eldest, Jacqueline Marie Arnauld, was then only seven and a half years old ; the younger, Jeanne, was six. Abuses of this kind were frequent at that era, but it was not always easy to obtain the ratification of the appointments at Rome; and Antoine Arnauld, who was noted for a famous speech which he had delivered against the Jesuits, was not likely to obtain much indulgence from the Pope. In consequence the fraud was committed of representing the sisters to be older than they were, and, the better to dissemble the truth, they were described not by their true Christian names, but by the names which they received at confirmation, and which became their religious appellations. This was the reason why Jacqueline was ever after called Mother Angélique, and Jeanne, Mother Agnes. The opening of the drama does not prognosticate reform. The next scene in the history was still less promising
The two child-abbesses, who were set to preside over religious communities long before they were themselves emancipated from the bondage of the nursery, first spent a year together in the convent of St. Cyr, which belonged to Mother Agnes, the younger sister. At the close of a life devoted to humility, she still reproached herself with an outbreak of domineering authority, when, in a quarrel with her elder sister, she asserted her right, if she pleased, to turn her out of her abbey. “She was proud and romantic,' says M. Sainte-Beuve, to such a degree as to ask God why he had not permitted that she should be born Madame de France !! It would be idle to moralise on traits like these. The whole case may be summed in the fact that she was six and an abbess.
Mother Angélique, with whom we are more immediately concerned, next spent two years at the abbey of Maubuisson, the last place which was calculated to inspire a young girl with religious sentiments; for it was presided over by Madame d'Estrées, the sister of the fair Gabrielle, so famous for her beauty, and the visits which the royal lover paid to the convent were an open insult to morality and religion. It was from Madame d'Estrées that the future reformer of Port-Royal was named Angélique at her confirmation. This most assuredly was not a very edifying beginning.
At first Mother Angélique was only the coadjutor of Jeanne de Boulebard, the existing abbess. The latter died in 1602, and her successor, when hardly eleven years old, was definitively installed in her office, and invested with all its functions and prerogatives. One day, when Henry IV. was hunting in the neighbourhood, he took it into his head to visit M. Arnauld, who was at Port-Royal with his daughter. The little abbess went out to meet him at the head of her community, and marched gravely along with ludicrous dignity upon thick-soled shoes, some five or six inches high, that she might appear to have the stature of a woman. That merry monarch could not fail to be delighted with the mock-heroic scene. He left with reluctance, and kept shouting as he rode away, 'I kiss my hand to Madame the Abbess.'
Nothing as yet seemed to foreshadow the changes which were soon to take place. On the contrary, Mother Angélique felt no vocation for a religious life. She regretted the world from which she had been cut off so young, preferred the reading of Plutarch's Lives to her Breviary, and often meditated joining two of her aunts who had embraced the Protestant religion and resided together at La Rochelle. She even desired to marry, for she justly thought that a holy domestic life was more agreeable to the