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zealous and diligent labourers in ento. To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazines mological hunts as themselves, but not SIR, blessed with a classsical education; some F mathematicians at Cambridge never and confined for their inforination solely except to sign annual audit accounis, to Barkenhont, Martin, and other English or to write to antiquated maidens;" it authors. These collectors, laudably the intervals between the leaving the ambitious of improving the opportunities combination rooms and the whist parwhich these meetings afford, solicited the ties with them are always dreary, except honour of a more mutimate connexion; relieved by your Magazine; if they are and experience pointing out the increase vain of the reputation the boys of their of British entomological acquisitions college give them, and so conscious of which would arise from the union of the demerits of their compositions that practical collectors, after a short consi- it is necessary to boast of their own deration, the Entomological Society was learning, and of the degrees which they resolved to be founded, and every person have taken; if they are so intempewho is a practical collector, or an ama rate* as to be unahie to write atrer teur of the science, may be admitted dinner, and so idle that they can be by ballot, and under rules now modelled amused with shootiny; so unacquainted to bear a great similarity to those of the with the working otarches, as to talk of Linnaan. The principal obstacle to their “ sinking at the launches ;" It is to admission is immorality of character; for be wished that ibeir habits of life may an acquaintance with the languages, I become more mathematical, and that they have already observed, is not required. may learn to praise the lean and The object of the society is to unite men sallow abstinence." “ Old fellows of of a creditable degree in life, wino may colleges" have lately much exposed assist each other in the promotion of this themselves, and they have been correct. science, and disseminate information to ed; but they have yet to be convinced numbers who at present labour under the that “ renown is not the meed of indo. want of a liberal education, and a con lent repose.” Philo-veritas may blush, sequent abridgement of the means of like father Paul, at the extreme and entomological study.

deplorable ignorance of mankind; but The more learned members explain the monks of colleges are not as well to their brethren the subjecis of their acquainted with the theory and practice study, and publish their discoveries; they of the construction of vaults as the point out at each meeting all novel ac monks of the iniddle ages. If Philo. quisitions, and give appropiate names to veritas were able to excommunicate all new-discovered insects, whilst they the pontifices who disagree with bim, themselves increase their own knowledge and had authority to pull down all the of species by the numerous specimens bridges which prove the fallacy of, or if produced; for each collector is enabled no brisiges had been built but couformvery frequently to exbibit a new acqui. able, to the Emerson theory, Philo-verisition, which locality of habitat might tas must have waded ihrough, or have liave hidden from the eye of the ento- been ferried over, the Cani, and Cam. mological student, bad int this society bridge would have had another name. united such practical collectors residing If Philo-veritas had ever seen the in different counties. What then is vaulting of King's-college Chapel, Camthere in the objects of this institution, bridge, he would not have defended the which proposes only to encourage the Emerson theory of arches: if he knew practical collector, to lead on the student anything of the lives of the most emis of moderate education to higher attain- nent inathematicians at Cambridge, he ments, and to gain an extended exhibi- would not have drawn his own imaginary tion of British insects, that can be character so far from life. He may not construed into an infringement on the be able to discover the principles of Dr. province of the Linnæan Society of Lon- David Gregory's deductions, in spite don; or as tending to attack the works of of the information which he commuMr. Donovan, of whom the writer of this article bas a very slight personal

It is to be lamented, that the necessity knowledge, which, were they nearer of reading the Bible, and praying at Camresident, he should be happy to advance bridge, is dire. What meaning has the into a cordial and intimate friendship? word in the sentence: Druidarum religionem C.C. apud Gallos diræ immanitatis.



picates," that the simple catenaria is of another circumstance which your corre. no use ia determining the relations of an spondent seeins not to have discovered, arch," when, at the saine time, he faucies that Dr. Ilutton, in the letters in your the whole Emerson theory is “ legiti- Magazine, in answer to your review of mateix deduced from a remark of Dr. his Principles of Bridges, and thuse of Gegory:" neither may he be able to the Monthly Review, has virtualiy reline translate the parts which he'quotes from quished the theory; and he has left the Dr. Gregory into good English, although “promised improved edition, the he knows the Greek aluhabet; perhaps norumque prematur in annum " having. he thought proper to follow literally How long elapsed, to those who justly think race's precep::

that the inud, which so eminent a ma

thematician has been in, will not soil Nec verbum verbo curábis reddere fidus

them." 'It is hard to kick against the Interpres.

pricks.” He may not be able to understand how far the mechanical mole of determining catenarian archa

Pbilo-veritas forgot to account for the

being equally thick the fme of road way by suspending throughout, and at the same tine having weights from a chain, and the Einerson

a horizontal exirados; or the amusing the ty, ayrce; nor the difference between

surprise professor Robsont gives his tins experiment and when the weight is

readers upon discovering this phenome wholly in the links: and although he has read Vr. O. Gregory's Mechanics, those will examine the report again to which

It may be hoped that Philo-veritas, important parts which have been taken he alludes, particularly itsat part by froin professor Robison, may have

professor Robson on Mansard roof, he escaped his observation. He inay not

will learn something respecting the have found out, ihat, exactly that part of “ sinking at the baunches:" perhap, Dr. the semi-circle which, by the Emerson Milner's report may amuse him. The theory,* cannot be used, viz. the two opinions of tifteen out of the seventeen sixty degrees nest the springing, almost who gave their opinions in that report, invariably compose the vaultings of the

are not very Hatcering to the theory of Gathic buildings; and that part, viz. the equilibration. Philo-verilas, next time esirty degrees on each side the vertex, he writes, will do well to take the name which, by the Emerson theory, is the only of Pseudo-veritas. Is it intended by the part that can be used, was never used by disciples of the Einerson iheory to the Gothic architects. The Einerson

assert, that Dr. Gregory pretends that extrados affixed to a section of the vault the catenaria is the best form for an arch of King' Chapel, Cambridge, of a bridge, and that he pretends it in the will be an entertaining diagram at the whiet-table, to shew them how ignorant enemies of the Emerson theory would

passage, “ Et cujus-cunque," &c? The the builders of the vault of King's-college rejoice to see this avowed. Chapel were of the Emerson theory :

In regard to the question of equal, is miracles were not over, it might be spheres, it is necessary only at present inathematically proved by this theory, to observe, that it may be proper in pure to be sustained by the Virgin Mary and inathenatics to be positive, but in inixed St. Nicholas.

mathematics it is not philosophical. The Philo-veritas may not perceive that complex diagram must be very simple to professor Robson introduced Theory into the Suppleinent to the En- any one wbo was acquainted with Dr.

· paper :

but Philo-veritas cyclopædia Britannica, with a view to attaches no value to it, otherwise he shew how simply it might be confuted, would have discovered that the first senand how it violated common sense and tence in Lapicida's quotation was none iniform experience. Philo-veritas says, sense, and consequently not a true trans. that “the baunches of an arch sink;

lation. It might have been expected they must be arches built after the that one who had acquired reputation Emerson theory, which, to be mathema. for learning in his college, would have tically in equilibration, must literally been ashained to read Dr. Gregory's priek the very heavens; and the haunches paper through a translation, or at least of which must bear as mucli fat

not until he had examined it with the mould as may be contained in the land original: see Ex Mechanicis, &c. Why of Philo-verstas' fat benefice. There is has not your correspondent given soine

See page 26, Principles of Bridges, 2nd edition.

See Ency. Brit. Supp. page 26,


mformation concerning ahuiment piers ? Lapicida will be obliged; he is not desiHe found it prudent tot 10 agitate the roos of having an account of the anjours question, as the gentlemen in the report of a college, that being the only part of alluded to, did in getting over the 11111 the history lett out. Lapicida has question of the select committee of the always been of opinion, however the Ilouse of Commons. Sir, I believe in a lives of soune few of the "old fellows" of great measure I repeat your own senti. the universities may have devia:ed from ments, in stating that the Emerson theory the stoic regimen, ibat they never forget does not in any way take into consider to maintain ihe characters of gentlemen. ation the arch, but applies to a wall The Lapicidæ, and the Lignicidæ, are an with a hole in it, composed of materials obstinaie race: no persuasion can induce united by cement, either wholly or them to adopt what is diametrically opround the curve :* whether an arch of posite to experience and practice; and any thickness is to be placed in this they presume to assert, in opposition to Holet remains to be explained. Through the learning of the scbools, that they can the whole of the Principles of Bridges, discover what is false, ihough they cannot except in the last ten lines of the last exactly define what is true. The public paye, the worl voussoir is not menti. cation on arches, &c. was not referred to oned; and then, in the dictionary, merely through friendship to the author, as to state that there are such things. Dr. Pbilo-veritas insinuates; but now still Jiutton's definition of an arch, viz. more so, as the dire Philo- 'eritatis opening of a briilge through which, or acumen, without having any know.' under which, the water passes;" esta- leriye of it, has already devoted it blishes the opinion' which is universally to those purposes from which the repuheld of the theory, that nothing more is tation of the Monthly Magazine will required than a curved intrados, or ma, preserve his own farrago. Lapicida has thematical archi, or arch of no ibickness, 'seen the article “ Bridge" in the New Cy. Hence it is a mis-somer to call the clopæclia, in which he finds the following Emerson theory, a theory of the equili- notable passage :-“A mere arch conbration of arches: it is literally, when structed in this way, viz. according to applied to bridges, a theory of the form De la Hire, Belidor, Varignon, Parents of the fat mouli, &c. on the extradosses other French philosophers, and Mr. of the arches of bridyes. If Mr. Atwood, would remain in equilibrio as Mylne's practice, in regard to the long as the constituent voussoirs had voussoirs, be just, and Mr. Atwood, and liberty to slide without friction down the the French philosophers, are not deplo- respective inclined planes on which they rably ignorant, the Enerson theorists lay:", and among other extraordinary bare to begin again upon a new series of lights thrown upon their theory, “ that intradosses for their walls.

the voussoirs of sucla arches must be cut The defenders of the Emerson theory, to different oblique angles.". lle then it may be apprehended, are unacquainta ejaculates: “ Lit even this is not all! ed that the word extrados, as applied to architects contrive to have the butting arches, has but one meaning: it is proba- side of their wedges (voussoirs) so rougli, ble their errors may have arisen originally as to occasion a great deal of friction from a misconception which they now betiveen thein." These architects must think proper to maintain. If Philo- have been the workmen who told Philo. veritas will condescend to clear up any veritas that arches sink their of the inconsistencies of the true theory, haunches, or it must be a new precept

established oa purpose for the Emmerson See the diegrams, and explanation, in theory.* Lapicida cannot but suspect, Emerson's Mechanics.

when he observes the industry which has + And if or any th ckness, whether equally been displayed in the historical part of the Emerson wall is the extrados of an arch this article, and the number of bridges of equilibration, to be guessed by the masou which are brought into view, that the

1 How is it that the wonder of this former part was intended as a body of theory, viz. the curve for a horizontal extra. practical evidence lo confute the Emerdos, approaches so near to a semi cisce, and son theory, and that the theoretical difiers so materially from an ellipse; and the account was intended, ironically, to fure properties approach so nearly to those of an tber that object,

LAPICIDA. ell pie, and differ so materially from those of

semi-circle? Are not the details as curious * The authorities in favour of the Emer. as the results in the 5th Prop. Principles of son theory, wiiliemind many of


readers Bridges?

of the story of Elizabeth, Betsey, and Bess.


For the Monthly Magazine.

inbabitants from the miseries of poverty WALES in BERKSHIRE. By MR. JAMES and degradation. If so, a propitiatory

SORRIS BREWER. No. IV.-Contain- offering has seldom been inade with less ing a Visit to the untient l'indonum success. et lhe Romans.

While the Roman empire continued (Concluded from vol. 29, page 527.) to derive strength from a simplicity and I

T would be trite to expatiate on the purity of internal arrangement, Vinda approaches the desolate sire, and moul was deemed one of the chief provincial dering outlines, of a once populous, gay, cities constructed and inhabited by the and formidable city. On this occasion, masters of the world. But the Romans, perhaps, most men are subject to the though so enterprising and military a same course of ideas, and are agiiated by people, were unable to exist in their Bria similar feelings of regret, despondency, tish provinces without the support of the and wonder. Through labyrinths of parent country. They made a faint wgland and ill-benten roads, now fa- effort to establish in Vindon um miliar only to the hind, though once tra. independent authority, but the endea. versed by throngs of the polished con your was futile, and the “ barbaross querors of England, and their depend. Britons" took a triumphant possession ants, I trod, with increasing ardor, and of the city, so strongly fortified and so believed the object of our expedition yet long tenanted by their invaders. The distant, when iny companion suddenly Bricons termed their new acquisition arrested my progress, by exclaiming, Caer Segnnt (the city of the Segontians) "We are there !" It was even so. On and this was the spot selected for the this rough real, where scarce a dozen inauguration of the chivalrous and feet tread tluring the whole of a sum. mighty king Arthur. But the prosperity mer's day, and amid these wild and of the city while uuder British dominioa tangled branches, which almost forbid was short-lived. A fresh horde of santhe trasellei's approach, we were close grinary visitors, under the banners of beside the potent, the angust city, from Saxony, poured on the afflicted islanders, wbich Constantius issued his edicts to a and Crer Seyont was one of the first trembling and subdued people.

strong-holds against which they directed Silchester (which is really in the their arins. While defended by those couniy of Houts, though immediately who laid the foundation, the walls of on the confines of Berk stise) is supposed Vindonum proved impregnable. But to have been the Vindonum vf the the aboriginal Britons (fond as are their Konians. The occurrence of a suppo. descendants of the boase of freedom) sition on this subject must appear sur

lo hare been born for slarery. prising when we consider the former Useless were the miglity towers and extent of the city, but such is the effect embattled gateways of the Romans. of ages on a merc record of stone and The Saxons prevailed; and, as a token moriar, that the original appellation is, of their victory, they razed the city to in facs, conjectural, though the most in the ground, dismantled its fortifications, genious and indlustrious antiquaries con- and tried in level entirely the massive cur in believing the Roman Vindon walis formeri by Constantius; but even to have occupied this site.

the destruction of these was too severe a Following the lead of this probable task for their industry and patience, conjecure, find that the city was althrough the Romans were equally ex. built by Constantius, son of Constantine posed to danger and interruption when the Grear, and that the founder sowed bey heaped together the ponderous corn on the intended ground-plist of luis quarry of materials, nod embattled the city, with a view of shielching the future outlines of the city. Since the ravages What a strange propensity mankind have abandoned the devoted spot; and

of the Sisxons, all hints at population possess to enlarge on the particulars of a the shepherd and his day, or the ca: und story as it passes through their hands! Modern writers on the subject or this antient stranger, led either by curiosity and ciry, assert that the emperor Constantius scattered grain complerely round the traces

of corn on the ground whereon the city was of the walls, as an omen of their perpetuity. built.” Seldom have three grains of seed Pat Ninnius, on whose authority the anec. produced such an abundant crop as these, dute solely reses, says, in explicit language, when assisted by the manure of a nodera that Constantiu: mercly soned three grains

annota cor's ingenuity,




pity, possess uncontested power over the a deep ditch, or fosse, a great part of districts once defended with streams of which is now illed with the ruins of the Roman and of British blood.

walls. Beyond the ditch I have described the first view of the structed the external vallum, which may majestic fragments of Vindonam as still be easily traced, and which is, iir bursting on the traveller while he many places, fiftren or sixteen feet high. threads the mazes of obscure and em On the western side of the walls is an bowered lanes. The prospect is truly embankment, thrown up in a semi-circuimpressive and surprising.

We see, a

lar forin, with a ditch beyond it. This wall, in some places still nearly twenty bank is of a considerable height, anit feet high, and through the whole boun was evidently constructed for the defence dary of the city twenty-four feet in of the city. thickness, balf-veiled by towering oaks On the north-east, at some small diswhich have taken rout even in the firm tance from the city wall, are the remains cement of the ponderous wall itself. of an amphitheatre, which are now used The slow process of vegetation, which as a yard for the cattle of a neighbouring has tinted the stone with green, and farmer! created a little forest in the place once A street, thirty feet in width, extends occupied by battlements and coping, from each gate to the opposite entrance, is very nearly the whole alteration that and the traces of various subordinate has been effected since the hour in which passages are still to be observed towards the Saxons ravaged the city, and reduced the approach of harvest in dry seasons, the pride of its fortified barrier to a mere when the corn (probably from the monument of the instability of local circumstance of the pavement of the grandeur.

streets still remaining entire, on which The Romans were judiciously attached lie heaped the materials of the houses (as the situation of antient Rome might razed by the Saxons) tails, and the exasuffice to prove,) to an elevated site for miner may clearly ascertain the width and their most important cities. In atten- direction of each smaller avenue once tion to this habitual predilection, Vindo- trodden by the Roman inhabitants. num was placed on the apex of a cluster From the very retired character of of hills, whose sumınits appear to have the neiglıbourhood, the walls have been rendered artificially level for the escaped with singular good fortune accommodation of the military settlers. from all other dilapidations than such The city was built in the form of a slow hints at fragility as are the ineviiaparallelograin 2600 by 2000 feet, and ble consequences of a lengthened age. was entirely surrounded by a wall of the The whole of the remains appear now in thickness mentioned above, and of a the same state as when visited by very considerable heiglit, though its Camden. That most industrious anti. precise degree of elevation cannot now quary mentions an aperture or passage, be ascertained. Four gateways opened underneath the southern wall, through to the city, the situations of which are which he could scarcely pass, in consestill distinctly marked, and show that quence of the heaps of rubbish which the entrances were placed exactly at the incumbered the former private avenue four cardinal points. The foundation of of the garrison. This passage (called the walls consists of regular layers of Onion's hole) presents exactly the same large flat stones, and the walls are com aspect at the present day. Indeed, it posed of rubble-stone, flints, and pebbles, would almost appear that the various held together by a bed of strong cement. generations of the moderns have conThe stones and flints are not arranged curred in treating these ruins with tenwith any uniformity of method, but are derness and respect; for, between two variously placed in the cement, at differ- and three hundred years back, a church ent parts of the wall.

and farn-house (both : mentioned by Still, for an indeterminate distance, a Camden as recent erections) were consimilarity of arrangement appears to "structed near the 'eastern have been preserved, as if certain spe. These are both remaining, and I found cilied proportions of the structure had them to be composed of brick. Now, been allotted to the task of a particular as such immense quantities of useful band of artificers, and each band had materials were contained close at hand, its peculiar plan of workmanship. in the fragments of the Roman walls, it

T.e exient of the wall is nearly two seems difficult to discover any other moEnglish nailes, and round the whole was tive for the founder of these buildings 1



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