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to aid his enterprise. The next morning the van coming to close action with a fleet the two boats prepared to return to the belonging to the island. vessel, but were cut off by Bullandam's The attack was made with arrows at a fleet of canoes, 140 in number, orderly distance; and as the canoes of Taffere advancing in a senucircle; and finding it maintained their position, they soon impossible to to pass them, it was consi- closed, when a desperate and stubborn dered as advisable to bear up to the fleet, conflict with spears commenced. The hoping by such display of confidence to islanders, however, at length gave way preserve the lives of the crews. , When to numbers very far superior, and to within hail they were ordered to escape an otherwise certain destiny all advance; but the wbale boat was pre- leaped into the water, and swam towards vented by a large canoe bearing down the shore, from which a division of Bul. and running aboard, cuting her in iwo. landam's ficet was endeavouring to cut Mr. Lockerby and the crew were picked then off. The canoes were taken posup and made prisoners, and Ms. Smith session of, with only one captive, an and the long boat's people were made unfortunate boy, who being presented to prisoners likewise. The captors were the relentless chief, was ordered to be about to dispatch some of the people slaughtered, as it was his determination with their spears and clubs, but were that not a single life should be spared. prevented by the chief commanding the This ruthless sentence was immediately canoe, until the superior chief should be executed with a club, three blows from consulted. When presented to Bullan which the youthful sufferer endured, and dam, he proposed to employ them in his then expired: ihe body was afterwards intended assault against Taffere, in given into the charge of an attendant, which he proposed to himself much assis. to be roasted for the chief and his princitance from their muskets; and seemed pal associates. The horrors that immemuch disappointed when informed that diately succeeded the defeat, the most the powder was spoilt, and the guns sensible imagination can but faintly useless. He had no wish, however, to represent. A massacre was determined commit any personal injury on his pri- on; and as the men had escaped the soners; but on the contrary, shewed fury of their conquerors by flight, the some attention to Mr. Sm

whom he women and children became the chief respected as an officer, and generally object of search; on which mission a invited to accompany bim when he went canoe was dispatched, and unhappily on shore, always endeavouring to sooth the fatal discovery was very soon made. his apprehensions, and quiet his solici- On a signal from the shore numbers tude of returning with his companions landed, and a hut was set fire to, proba.. to the ship, by an assurance that as soon bly as a signal for the work of destruction as the island of Taffere was subjugated, to commence. Within a cluster of man. and its inhabitants destroyed, he would groves the devoted wretches had taken employ all his subjects in procuring wood sanctuary; many might undoubtedly for the vessel, 'to which they should be have secured themselves by accomreturned in safety.

panying the light of their vanquished On the 11th of October, the junction husbands and relatives, could they have of forces being thoroughly arranged, an consented to a separation from their immense fleet of canoes sailed from helpless children, who were no less Highlea for the expedition, and having devoted than themselves. A dreadful a fresh head-wind, the canoes were set yell was the forerunner of the assault; to windward by poles, at the rate of the ferocious monsters rushed upon them three knots an hour. At night this for- with their clubs, and without regard to midable armament came to, round the sex or infancy, promiscuously butchered north-east part of the island; and Bul- all. Some who still had life and motion Jandam took Mr. Smith on shore, to pass were treated as dead bodies, which were the night with hiin; his night guard con- mostly dragged to the beach by one of sisting of ten men armed with spears and their limbs, and through the water into

the canoes; their groans were disregard. Early in the morning of the 12th the ed, and their unheeded protracted whole of the army returned to their sufferings were still more hurtful to the canoes, which, on a signal from Bullan- feelings of humanity than even the dan), set forward in complete order; and general massacre

itself had been. in about three in the afternoon the fleet Among the slaughtered were some few anchored abreast of a village in Taflere, men whose age perhaps had prevented

arrows.

their flight; but, in fact, 90 sudden and so long boat, in order to return them to dreajiul was the consternation that suc- their ship, declaring his intention tu deceeded the defeat of the unbappy natives mand three whale' teeth and (welve of Taffere, as no doubt to paralyse the hatchets for their rausoin; but this prominds of the wretched creatures, when posal was not then attended to. Twenty prenpt consideration could alone be ser- or thirty men then arrived at the place riceable to their deplorable condition. of rendezvous, each bringing a basket of The conquerors appeared to anticipate human flesh half roasted; which mode, with inordmate delight, the festival with Mr. Smith learnt, they took to preserve which this sad event had gratified their it. The day of deliverance at length burrible expectation. Forty-two bodies approached from a captivity the most were extended on one platform in Bul- afficting, from a diversity of causes that landam's canoe; and one of these, a man could be exposed to; and after enyoung female, appearing most to attract during it nine days, and totally fasting, his attention, he desired that his second he was at length turned over to the in coinmand would have it laid by for charge of the chief of Niri, with orders themselves.

to demand the ransoin for himself, and The Tatferians being wholly defeated six of his companions. But previous to and dispersed, the island was taken pos- quitting the voracious party, a new insession of by Bullandam's forces, which cident of cruelty occurred. One of the were very numerous. This principal unfortunate inhabitants of Taffere had chief invited Mr. Smith on shore, as he swain froin his distressed island to the seemed inclined to shew him favour; and main, but was perceived as soon as he Mr. Smith declares it to be one of the gained the shore, and was in consequence most beautiful places he had ever seen: pursued by a multitude, armed with bows the houses, in number about a hundred, and arrows, spears and clubs: the pure ranged on the declivity of a hill, inter suit terminated with the life of the spersed with cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, and wretched fugitive, whose body presented other trees, and each house defended a new source of exultation and cannibal with a wall of piled stone. The buildings festivity. were however ail set fire to by Bullan On the 16th, Mr. Smith was restored to dam's order; and Mr. Smith becoming his overjoyed shipınates, with all his solicitous for bis release, was inforined companions except two, one of whom by the chief, that as soon as all the vic. was Mr. Lockerby, wbv were afterwards tims were devoured, he should be set at indebted for their rescue to a deterliberty with his companions. The dead mined perseverance in the captain, his bodies were got into the cannes, and the officers, and people, which was highly whole fleet left Taffere on their return to creditable and meritorious. Mr. Smith, the main island, where many others Mr. Lockerby, and all the others, had joined in the horrible festivity, which was been repeatedly on the very point of asconducted with rude peals of acclama- sassination, to which these people seem tion. Mr. Smith was on this occasion to possess no kind of repugnance whate also taken on shore by the great chiel, Suever, but on the contrary, it appears and here had again to experience a detes, their chief object of delight. Their detable spectacle. The bodies had been termined obstinacy in effecting every dismembered of their limbs, which were thing they attempt, can alone be equalled suspended on the bouglis of trees in rea. by the extraordinary precision of their diness for cookery; and afterwards part arrangements, which are planned methoof a human leg was offered to Mr. Smith, dically, and executed with an energy and who had never broke his fast for five calinness that surprise. even an Eurodays. The offer he rejected with ab- pean; with strength of body they possess horrence; and upon his captors appear- a thorough contempt of danger, and a ing astonished at the refusal, he gave heerilessness of pain.

Their prese.. them to understand, that if he ate of conqueror, Bullandam, has already behuman flesh lie would instantly die. They come terrible, and bids fair to possess were satisfied with this excuse, and con- hinself of the sole sovereignty of the tinued their abominable festivity the islands. But though implacable and sanwhole night.

guinary in his resentiments, yet we are On the 15th, the chief in the canne assured that in his disposition, strong that captured Mr. Smith's boat, applied traces of kindness were perceivable toto Bullaudam for the prisoners, and the wards all except the eneinies of his arms.

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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. tion. The more clearly we the SIR,

means, the sooner we shall obtain the VIIE age of chivalry is gone," but the end, of acquiring all the happiness which is not. Surely if we must have sports, we have natural evils sufficieni to combat the sports of chivalry are preferable, far with, without making for' ourselves artipreferable, to those.

I did not expect to see an advocate I am happy to say for this county, for “ back-sword or single-stick playing,” (Somerset) that the sports above-menin your Magazine for June last, page tioned are by no means so common as 416. Whatever may be I. B.'s opinion they used to be: the mists and fogs of of the game in question, it is looked ignorance must vanish before the sun of upon here, by the sober and rational part a bright and better day. of the county at least, as altogether be Huntspill, JAMES JENNINGS. neath the employment of rational beings, July 10, 1810. and fit only for American savages, to whose sports it may, in all probability, P.S. I am much obliged to Mr. Glazebronk bear a strong resemblance. Sir, I con for an explanation of the term Canards tigrés : ceive there is, in these times, already too had I supposed it necessary, I might have much disposition in the human inind to

mentioned Siberia as the country in which foster a martial spirit in Europe; and, they were said to be found. I, liowever, doubt whilst so able a wielder of the sceptre of whether the Anas Jamaicensis be the same. blood rules the Continent, it is likely to continue; but the true interests of man To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. lie not in the mutual destruction of his SIR, species.

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you have frequently declared How back-sword may even be made yourself desirous of information subservient to the cause of war, must be respecting the topography of distant left to abler hands to determine.' I have countries, I send you some remarks on a however heard it wbispered, that our part of our western scenery,which always notorious boxers are not often courageous excites the admiration of travellers. in the field of battle. Perhaps the dif Little-falls is a village situated about ficulty of accounting for this will not be eighty miles westward of Albany; the great: in boxing, they fight merely for road by which you approach it on the themselves; in the field of battle, for their eastern side, is made at a great expence, country: and, as they are not in the on the north part of the Mohawk. On same predicament, feel not the same the right of it are stupendous highlands, ardour. May we not therefore apply which seem almost wholly con posed of the same argument to the back-sword- rocky strata. In two or three places plaver.

they are piled almost perpendicularly, Back-sword is, I am afraid, too nearly and their suminits are crowned with allied to bull-baiting, cock-fighting, and trees of considerable size. A traveller, boxing. So far froin encouraging these who like me is given to romancing, may sports, it is certainly the duty of every easily imagine them to be the massive Jover of scace and good order, lo dis. walls of some Udolpbian castle. The countenance them as much as possible.; opposite shore is in every respect 'siininot perlaps by legislative enactments, 'ar to this, and the river is compressed but by turning the minds of the rising between them to less than half its usual

generation into more useful channels; breadth. ; by diffusing more extensively the means A remarkable phenomenon has given

of acquiring a sense of religious and this passage some adventitious sublimity. moral obligation; hy schools; and, last The rocks have been ohserved to be and best of all, by our own examples. worn away like those under a cataract:

Ultimately, I think there can be no some of theni which are excavated, doubt, but that single-stick playing, bull- evidently from aqueous attrition, may baiting, cock-fighting, and the numerous be seen from the stage on the borders of et ceteru of American savage sport, in- the road. From this circumstance a cluding even hunting, will give way to a belief has arisen, that the waters of the closer application to the improvement of Mohawk were formerly arrested by these the human mind, and to a more extended everlasting hills, forming a lake, which hunanity, not only to our fellow men, extended many miles westward, and that but to every species of the brute crea. at length, they burst their barrier, and

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fushed medbors. The country west- supposed lost stations both in Antonine ward of them seems to favour the suppo- and Richard; and that Woodbury Hill sitain. For several miles in that direce was the Æstiva to the town: but Bere is tion, the river is bounded on each side eleven or twelve miles from Dorchester, by a broad and beautiful intervale, * instead of nine, as in the Itinerary. In which was probably the bottom of the like manner in placing Vindocladia at ancient lake. Gentlemen of intelligence Boroston, the doctor's distance was too and veracity have assured, that the face great from Sorbiodunum. Gale, and of the surrounding country is perfectly other writers, have fixed this station at consistent with the supposition which Winborn Minster, which is twenty-two may be naturally deduced from the miles from Oid Sarum; Horseley, near plienomena l have above described. Cranborn, wbich is not in the same

Let those who cross the wide Atlan- road; and the commentator on Richard, tic en behold and admire the sublime at Gassage Cow Dowil, which is sixteen scenery of my native land, as they wan. miles from Sorbiodunum : not in the ana der through ihe vale of Lebanon, or on cient track, nor is the name a translation the rocky shores of the Hudson, towards of Vindocladia. the awful cataract of Niagara, pausing Dr. Stukeley derives Vindocladia from on this romantic spoi, retrospectively Vint, white, and Gladh, a river. Aberduge behold a scene which no one that wit lediau, or [Aberdugledau] Milford Hanessed could have survived.

ven, has been rendered the Mouth of . Schenectady,

E. H. the two Swords. Vindocladia is also New York, March 29th, 1810.

thus derived by authors, from the situa.

tion of Winborn Minster between two To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. rivers, the Stour and the Allen.

" For SIR,

Windugledy, they say, in British signifies V my lasi I corrected some mistakes two Swords; and that the Britons called

of the Coinmentator of Richard, in their rivers peculiarly by the name of the road from Dornovaria to Cenia; I Swords, is plain, they continue, from beg now to proceed with my corrections Aberduglediau, the British name of Mil. through the remainder of this Iter; and ford Haven; that is, the Mouth of the must observe, in addition to my last, two Swords, because two rivers called (which was at one place either very in- Glediau, that is Swords, ran into it." correctly expressed, or printed, I know It was a maxim of an old philosopher, not which, that the road froin Dorno- that a plain agreement should be exa varia o Moridunum ran not by the pected between the name and the thing, way generally used from Dorchester, but and where there was a disagreement, by the way of the old Roman road at that we should not admit of a conjecEggardon-hill, through Dorset and So- ture. Now what agreement is there bemerset to Hembury-fort, or Moridunum, tween two Swords, and the two largest on Black-Down, Devon.

streams which run into Milford Haven ? Durnovaria, or Dorchester, answers to Give me leave to ask, whether, hand to thirty-six miles from Moridunun; but is hand, you can cut or thrust with these supposed in its site to be uncertain, from streams? Do you wish to compare thein the number of other camps in its neigh- with great or little, broad or narrow, long bourhood. The name of the chief town or short, swords? Are they like swords of the Durotriges, was by Richard named of vengeance, or of justice, or of authoDurinum : Piulomy calls it Dunium, rity? I fear, Sir, that they are not to be and Dornium. Durn, in Durpovaria, is compared with any swords, and therefore a contraction of Durin, or Water-land. are not derived

from them. The syllable um or am, is often rendered The word Cluid, from whence the ham, and implies border; and as varia is Cluyde in Scotland, and the Gled or head or border, and may imply camp, Cled, in Wales, are derived, implies a from camps of old henny formed on such wok, and Amh or Ao, varied in Au, and beats, Durnmaria was, doubtless, Dora here to lau, Neans the sea or water. chester.

Aber is mouth, and Du land; or Do, here Dr. Stukeley supposes Bere to be the Du, may be a sign of the dative case : Ibernude of the Ravennas, and the next hence Aberduglediau will inean, the

Mouth of the Sea Nook-Land, or the Used in America to denote the plain mouth to the Sea Nook. Glediau will betweeu the river and the adjacent bigh- be the Nook, or Haven Water. Lands

Four things are necessary to the as. MONTHLY Mag. No. 202,

D

ccrtaining

certaining of stations. First : the roads cladia, cannot in our maps be found by its on which they lie, which are sometimes old name; but at the exact distance of mistaken. Secondly: the miles between twelve Roman miles from Sorbjodunun, them, which were, I suppose, formerly as we have Pentridge. V, B, and P, are noa, eiher measured or customary; in old names commonly written for each and which, for want of ascertaining old other; and Vindo, Vento, and Ventu, may tracks, are often uncertain. To fix these be contracted to Vent and Bent, frons miles we must first proceed with standard my observations on Venta, in a former measure: if we fail here, we may try letter; and this may be changed to Pent, what we may conceive customary, or ge as in Pentridge. Cladh implies a ridge, nerally received distance; and for want dyke, bank, burying-place, rampart, &c. of a certain line of road, we must have and as Dh and Th were also commonly * recourse to the nature of the country, changed to D and I', Clad in Vindoctaand the line of probable access from dia, means the same as Ridge in Penplace to place: If the first of these mea tridge. sures agree with remains, and the Itine Dr. Stukeley, in his Itinerarium Curi. rary name, you must look no further. osum, says, “When this road (the Ro. If you must have recourse to the second man) has passed through the woods of you may err a little, from your ignorance Cranborn Chase, and approaches Woodof ancient customary measure. If to yates, you see a great dyke and vallum the third, your judgment inust direct you; on the edges of the hilis (Black - Down) and in either of these you will find, ihat to the left by Pentridge, to which I upthe Romans did not often reckon lwelve pose it gave name: this crosses the Rowhere the distance was sixteen ; much man road, and then passes on the other less must you expect them to have recko side, upon the division between the oned twelve where it was twenty-two. - hundred. The large vallum is here southThirdly: the import of names ancient waid, and it runs upon the northern brink and modern. Where the old name is of the hills." Mr. Maton says, that lost in maps, you must seek its new one, about a mile and a half froin Woodyate's for it is always a translation thereof; and inn, we observe several tumuli, or barhere fancy must not lead you astray, as rows;" and "on the_declivity of the build many have been led, in selecting forms to the left, there are vestiges of extensive not connected with the features of entrenchments, which afford reason for Jature. You must always remember, believing, that this spot miglit once have that the old name peculiarly agreed been the scene of an important battle." with its situation; and the new one, if Mill supposed Vindocladia to be at Winrightly translated, will do the same; and burn Minster. both together will exhibit such a proof The great dyke near Pentridge is of local situation, as even folly will not called Grim's Dyke, wbich iinplies the be enabled to cavil at. Fourthly: you war or battle dyke, or entrenchment, will examine remains : but as these were The ground near this is strewed with a in many counties scattered over their vast number of barrows, some very large, surfaces in various directions, from ac. and four with circular trenches, of sixty cidental as well as from permanent causes, feet in diameter. Barrows are usual in these only may prove nothing, except the neighbourhood of stations and of in combination with the foregning.

battles. Venta may very properly im. Froni Sorbiodunum to Vindocladia, ply a passage, or town of accommodathe road is supposed to be well known, tion, as I have before stated: for near and the distance is easily estimated. this, the Roman road crossed Grim's The miles between these, in the copies Dyke. But I should rather give this its of Antoninus, are variously stated at original signification, by rendering it the twelve, thirteen, and fifteen. Of the two head or bill-land: and the name Vinfirst, both may agree; for as the Romans docludia will, in this case, imply the counted no odd ineasure, it may be reck- Head-land Dyke, Ridge, or Entrenchoned as near to one as to the other; and ment. these two numbers so nearly agreeing, Another reading of this name seems to shew that (welve or thirteen is to be have reference to what hath been said preferred to fifteen, on the authority of of the barrows: and as Cladh means a Antoninus alone. But to put this point out of all doubt, Richard's distance is * Penbury Hill is also said to be near this also in elve miles.

place. I should suppose shis place to have The station at Vindocladia, or Lindo. remains.

burying place,

3

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