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Colonies are well known to be esta- colovies as have formed no engagements, blishments remote from the seat of em the arrangement depends on the option pire, that have been originally founded of the conquerors, regulated however by the nation to which they are attached, by the eternal principles of justice. In as by some others, from which the pos. those that have capitulated on the exsession has been obtained by conquest or press condition of enjoying the priviliges by cession.
of their conquerors, the case Becomes The colonies, owing their existence to one of right, not of choice: those who the possessing power, must be consider- surrender on such terms are entitled to ed integral parts of the empire; for in all the advantages and inniunities of quitting their native shores, neither the their fellow colonists. first adventurers nor their successors re The analogical arguments in favour of linquished their birth-right: 'they merely this side of the question, may be found transferred their habitations; being still in the history of every state in Europe. subject to the laws of that country which Our own country furnishes some striking gave them birth: they could not have examples. The very essence of every sacrificed any privileges, because no political compact, is the reciprocity of crime was imputed by law; they suffer- advantage conferred and received by each ed the penaltics of every crime commit- part of the united body. It is therefore ted abroad, and succeeded to estates and required only under ordinary circum. honours in the same way as if at home. stances, that each should govern and In short, they remained within the pale detend itself; when critical emergencies of their country's laws, except in those arise, all must concur in-contributing instances in which local ciicumstances succour, and each must contribute in rendered it impossible. The regulations the best and most efficient manner that of each province of a state are adapted its means permit. In Great Britain and to some peculiarities which do not exist Ireland, the inanufacturing tonns are el-ewhere: yet the aggregate of these the fruitful resources of the recruiting provinces constitute the empire.
service; the sea-ports man our nary: It cannot be urged that a temporary yet it cannot be contended that these relinquishinent of privilege may take places alone defend the empire: The place'; for it involves the gross absurdity oiber parts do their duty by paying, of suriendering a power to be resumed taxes, and promoting other objects of at pleasure, while no specific contract to national importance, which indirectly that effect was ever inade. The very conduce to the same point. The appliact of surrendering the advantages of cation of this position is sufficiently ube any society, disqualifies a man for the vious. functions of a citizen. His political ex It is worthy of recollection, that there istence having ceased, he caimot per- is no political compact in which the difo forin pulirical acts. The whole cominu ferent members contribute in the same nity alone can enable hiin to resume his way, or in the same proportion. This is rank among them : the noral difficulty very remarkable in the well-known inin this case is very' analogous to the phy. stance of the States of Holland, where sical iinpossibility of a dead man's re Guelderland, the first the provinces in turning to life by his own act.
point of rank, paid 5 per cent. of the No laws, however, have ever been en whole taxes, and Huliand, the second, acted to distiranchise the British colonists 58 per cent. This is certainly anomiiof their birth-riglits: they are in the same lous; but it confirms the general position, situation with their countrymen on the that each part of the empire furnishes high seas; alike removed from the in- the state with means, in proportion to meiliate superintendance of the govern- its ability. It will hereafter be shewn nient, but equally cntitled to protec- that the West Indies do more than their tion.
duty in this respect; which authorises The application of this doctrine to the thein to expect and to enjoy protection original colonies, or those which owe in ordinary cases, and favour, when their their existence to the state in actual interests are opposed to those of foreignpossession, is unquestionable. It is worthy of enquiry, how far they extend The pólitical considerations which to captured colonies. This may be also have been alluded to are so numerous, determined on broad principles, depen- that it will be sufficient to mention a few dent on liose already set forth. In such of the most striking. The West India
colonies defray the whole of their civil valuable work on Colonial Policy,* esti. establishments; and in most, if not all of mates the revenue of West India prothem, a considerable surplus remains in prietors subject to taxation in this country the public fund for imperial uses. at several millions. It may be difficult
The sole expences, then, which Great to ascertain the precise ainount, but it Britain incurs for her colonies, is con. may be fairly estimated from the net fined to small salaries of some of the average of tour years, t at about two public officers, (who are moreover ainpily millions, which contributes in the same paid by the colonies themselves) and 10 way as any other revenue in this country. ihat of their military and naval establish. If this be the case, under the present ments.
grevious system, how much greater would
In most of the colonies, a gratujious importance of which is unquestionable,
. Let us examine the test in its by any pursuit, and the real wealth proother bearings :-the West India colonists duced by it, form the best criterion of contribute to the public revenue in an its value. Mr. Bosangueig has well intinitely larger proportion than any shewn that the value of the imports from, other class of British subjects. In 1804-5, and export to, the West India colonies, the value of the imports from the far exceeds that of any trade se bave. British West Indies was above seventeen The monopoly Acts secure all the advanmillion of pounds sterling, which yielded tages to the mother country, by excluding ahore five millions of direct public every rival. The demand for British Tevenue. By various indirect means, Mr. produce, the want of which cannot be
computes that an equal sum íinds dispensed with, is so enormous as to call its way into the Treasury ; making a total fortis directly and indirectly the energies of ten millions of pounds of annual re. of every part of the empire. An immense venue to the state in general.
number of men are employed by the Besides the enormous revenue drawn manufacturers, who are thus supported: from the produce of the colonies, Britisi merchants, sinip-owner-, insurance large suns are puid by those West India brokers, and others, are actually maine psyprietors resident in Britain, who com tamed by the West India colonies. tribile in a three-fold form to the state:
The niaterials for some very important 1. By the colonial taxes; 2. By those manufactures are furnished by them, on produce; and, 3. By those on reve
above one-third of the whole of the Nie in Britain. Mr. Brougham, in his Young's West Ind.Com. Place Bock, p.86.
+ Young's W. Ind. † Lowe's Inquiry into State, &c. p. Ij.
ibid. § Leiter to W, Manning, esq. p. 41. &c. on the Colonies.
cotton imported into Great Britain being and all the taxes now paid by them, must derived from them.
be drawn from the parent state. Mr. Brougham* has shewn, that in the It is an awful and important truth, shipping employed between ihis country that Britain cannot exist with a smaller and the West India colonies, there are revenue than she at present possesses. more seamen in proportion to the tonnage Landholders, as well as the mercantile than in any other trade, being that of interest, should weigh well this fact, and one man to every fourteen tons.
act in such a manner as to promote their From the official reports made to the own interests no less than those of their House of Commons of the tonnage and fellow-subjects. seainen employed in that trade, during These circumstances apply perhaps in the year 1804, it appears that the former a greater degree to the sugar than to the amounted to 236,580 tons of shipping; cotton colonies: there is another peculiari. and that 17,680 seamen were engaged on ty connected with the latter. board of those vessels. The proportion, Raw cotton has become nearly with in this instance, exceeds the estiinate of wool, a staple of these kingdoms. The Mr. Brougham; there being one man to unrivalled excellence of our manufactures every ihirteen tons. But Mr. Lowet ensures us the market wherever we have estimates the number of men, including access. At present we derive the cottons those engaged in fisheries dependent on wool wbich is manufactured or exported the colonies, at 25,000 men, which would in its raw state, from our own colonies, reduce the proportion to one man to from the United States of America, the about each nine tons. The same gentle. Brazils, the Spanish colonies, the Levant, man has stated most decisive reasons for and the East Indies. Of the whole of the preference given to this trade by the this, above one-third is imported from the lower classes; and he has also shewn, that British colonies. On this we can always the inducements held out by it, are so great calculate, barring the risk of crops, and as to lead many to enter into the sea of capture; the last being much lessened service, who would otherwise have shun- by the expulsion of the French from the pied it. He has done this, and indeed western hemisphere. All obtained from every part of his subject, such ample foreigners is dependent on their caprice : justice, that the repetition of the facts of this America has afforded an admira, 111 this place would be a superfluous ble illustration. labour.
In 1808, the quantity of cotton ime There is another consideration which ported from North America was only 10 has been too generally overlooked: that millions of lbs. being thus reduced to the intercourse between Britain and her little more than one-third of what it had colonies, replaces two British capitals, been for the three preceding years, and while all others replaces only one,
to one-fifth of what it has since been. Such are a few of the advantages en. The other independent states may be joyed by the parent state: the next object equally whimsical, or their interests may of attention is the disadvantages under be different from what they now are. which the colonists labour. They are too There are also physical objections to some goading to be overlooked. To a large class of the cotton-wool obtained froin foreign of theni the legislature has of late sources: that from the Levant being afforded some relief, which has however only fit for the coarsest manufactures, been imperfect. To another (the cottonthat from India is either coarse or five planters) there appears to be no intention in the extreme, and cannot be generally of affording any aid ; for every petition used. The expence, too, of freight is four that bas been forwarded to the Board of times that from the West Indies. Trade, has been dismissed without the Unless the colonists obtain relief, they relief svught.
must and they will seek it for themselves. Every man in this empire is deeply It is true that they are without the means affected by the prosperity or adversity of of revolt; their peculiar situation, their the colonies; for should the evil become inclinations, all concur to oppose such a too great to be borne, ruin must ensue to design. This furnishes an additional those iminediately dependent on them: claim on generosity.
There is a pitch, however, to'which only * Colonial Policy, vol. 1. p. 17,
the chords of attachment can be tuned; if + Inquiry, &c. p. 11.
wound farther, discord is produced, and at last they are broken for ever. Men
who are then rendered active from ne occurred, the North Americans hase cessity, will devise means of reliet; those jotroduced enormous and increasing of active redress are not in their power, quantities of colton-wool. The produce but they may share their wrongs with of the Brazils was inonopolized by Porthose who now inflict them, by withdraw- tuyal previous to the occupation of the ing themselves and their slaves to some latter country by the French; it has country, where they will receive that pro- since found a vent in Great Britain, tection which is denied at home. Andeven Uminportant as the quantities undoubtshould this dread alternative not be edly are that are derived from other adopred, the dissatisfaction excited by sources, they also increase. Foreigners, such real causes will not be confined to as well as our fellow-citizens, are thus the breasts of the inmediate sufferers. protected, in a way that does not seema It will spread rapidly, and may ultinately quite congenial to the common notions excite efforts which are much to be dé- of justice. precated. Men will not be oppressed, The following statement will enable diay absolutely defrauded, without a mure the reader to appreciate fairly the real muur or complaint.
miseries of the British cotton planter, These evils will result from the cala- who suffers for the benefit of foreigners. mities of the whole of the West Indiaco. In the British cotton-colonies immense Jowies; if a part only suffers, the mischief, capitals bave been vested, and large though less general, will be proportionably tracts of country have been devoted to destructive to all connected with them. the cultivation of this article. In point The cotton colonies are therefore entitled of national importance, these colonies to their due share of attention from the have been rapidly increasing, as will be legislature. A statement of their former seen by reference to table C. (in our and present situation in all respects, will next.) next be given; it is fatally correct, and The original expence of forming planneeds no embellishments to heighten the tations, and of rendering them fit for the miseries it contains.
purposes for which they are now used, Ever since the British have engaged in was very considerable, as will be more colomal speculations in the West Indies, evident when it is recollected that the tbey have inade the culture of the cotton barren uncultivated tracis which have tree in some degree an object of atten- been rendered productive and fruitful, tion. For a long time it was partial, were remote from all those facilities and confined to very few situations: the which we possess so amply at home; increasing enterprise of the mother that the whole labour of clearing away country did not, bowever, allow West immense forests, and of draining swamps Indian industry to be exclusively con or unhealthy lands, was performed by fined to sugar; but, by improving the negroes brought from Africa at a heavy manufactures at home, it gave a new expence, who for a time were entirely impulse to the western world, and cotton dependent on foreign supplies for suplias gradually become an object of more port. A calculation might be instigeneral atiention.
iuted; but the facts are so strong, that The West Indies, for a considerable the general position may be assumed period, supplied nearly the whole of the without fear of being questioned. British demand. About thirty years From the very nature of our West ago, the Dutch settlements on the coast India colonies, they must even now, and of Guyana frst attracted the attention at all periods, be in a great measure of the cotton-planters; and about the dependent on other countries for some same time North America engaged in of ihe inost important necessaries of life. similar pursuits in her southern states. The constitution of the society precludes
During the progress of this cultivation, manufacturing the most common articles, the extension of manufactories at home, and they do not possess all the means of produced a corresponding demand for support. ihe raw material; which was principally The monopoly secured by Britain to supplied by the British colonies, including herself, enhances the price of whatever those on the coast of Guyana, and which is derived from her, as provisions can were captured in 1796 by the British. always be obtained inuch cheaper from A lew years ago, the foreign planter dis- North America—but this is inconsistent covered that Britain was the best mar- with the notions of those who have the ket for blus produce; and since that power of remedying the mischief.
D'enters the money and negociable
The effects of this monopoly are deci- to year, and from generation to genedediy boslile to the British cotton- ration, rich in the use of their customers' planter, for it increases the real cost of money, and living in great style on the his property, while it depresses the principle of never settling accounts. ralne of his produce. Of this, however, Were bankers in general called upon more will be said berearier: at present, to pay back to every one bis own), and the allusion is sufficient to confirm the balance with the world, is it not to be estimate of the value of such property. feared that not one in ten would prove It may be here remarked that clothing of solvent, nor one in four be able to pay every kind, as well as provisions, is ex len shillings in the pound? Ilow often ported froin this country.
has it happened, on the failure of a large It appears from a careful comparison banking-house, which has for years mainof these circumstances of the real value tamed in insolent splendiour the families of cotton estares, (iaking crery source of of five or six partners, that a tardy divi. expence into consideration), that the dend has been obtained of half-a-crown, average value of each acre of land or five shillings, in the pound! inay he stated at between 1401. and 1501. At the beginning of the French revo. sterling
lution, the bankers of France lost the Each acre (as proved by an average public confietence, and ruined thousands of ten years) produces about 200lbs. net of families, paying in general but trilling of cotton wool.
dividends; and the consequent exaspera(To be corc'uded in our next.) tion of the public mind, led to many of
the horrors of the revolution. The same To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. effects would probably arise in England SIR,
on an invasion, or on any public event URING the current month, various that iniglit crcare general alarm.
It is my advice then, that the banking paper, commonly called Bankers, bave
system be placed under legislative restopt payment in town and country, and gulation; that bankers be compelled to ruined many honest people.
give security to public functionaries for As lovcier it is the prosesser olijcct amounts proportioned to the extent of of ibis description of traders to become their credits, and especially to their the depositories of other persons' spare issues of notes—a regulation adopted in cash, and as they seldom or never lend the United States. At present they are money for any useful or benevolent dangerous, because delusive, establishpurpose, it appears to me that no banker ments; they encourage and sustain mo. can honestly become a bankrupe; and nopolists and monopolies, and they play therefore, that when he dwes, he ought tricks with the circulating medium, to be rendered the object of some espe- which ought not itself to be an object of cial punishment.
traffic! Nen whose solc business is that of
COMMON SENSE. receiving other peoples' money, of which they are bound to be the gu...dians, do. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. not live in the same relation to society
SIR, as traders in merchandize. These latter TE bishop of Lincoln, in bis Ele
T'. are liable to bad debts, uusiiccessful ments of Theology, says, that speculations, fluctuations in markets, and “after a certain time, the whole race of even in money matters are suliject to men moved from their original habilathe tricks, mali uvres, and liberal tions in Armenia, and settled in the practices of bankers themselves. - Bank- plains of Shinar, near the Euplirates, in ers, however, who obtain the lise of Assyria or Chaldæa." The Scripture large sums without interest, are moraliy says, “ It came to pass, as they journeyed bound tu enter into no speculations from the east, that they found a plain in which place at hazard the money con the land of Shinar; and they dwelt fided tu them; and ought every night to there." If we consider the position of Compare their obligations with their re Armenia and of Shinar, we shall find sources, and be able, if needful, at a few that the journey here mentioned could hours notice, to restore to every man not have been from the direction of Arthar which has been confided to them. menia. 1. Armenia is a province of Yer so little is this the practice, that Asia, and consists of the modero Turbankers proceed in business froix year comania, and part of Persia. It is