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bounded on the nortli by Georgia, on the form certain parts; and I think that this south by Curdistan, the ancient Assyria, opinion is not only extremely probable, and on the west by Natolia, or the Les- but corroborated by biblical listory. In ser Asia. This prosince includes the considering the geography of Eden and sources of the Tigris and Euphrates, of Paradise, captain Wiltord observes, that the Araxis and Phasis. 2. Shinar was a according to a uniform vadition of a considerable extent of level country, and very long standing, as it is countenanced included Babylon, and probably a tract by the Hindu sacred books anei Persian of land farther south. Moses expressly authors, the progenitors of mankind lived says, that Babel (Babylon) and Erech in that mountainous tract whicii extends were situated in the land of Shinar. froin Balkh and Candábár to the llence it would scem, that Babylonia Ganges.*” llence it would appear, that formed a part of the land of Shinar, in the same country as the first father of rather than the land of Shinar a part of mankind inhabited in the early days of Babylonia; and this would lead us to the world, the second father of inaukinit consider the land of Shinar as that tract quitted that floating residence which of country which was situated between had been the ineans of his deliverance; the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and and that from the same country, the des which was af erwards called Mesopota- scendants of Noal and his sons migrated, mia. With this agrees the opinion of and as the Scripture says, journeyer Michaclis, who extends Shinar so far westward, and settled in the land of north as to include Nisibis and Edessa. Shinar.t Is therefore appears, that Armenia is not The learned prelate says, that the only not east, but that it is very much to whole race of nien moved from their the north, and considerably to the west original habitations in Armenia, and of Slinar. This difficulty has been ob- settled in the plains of Shinar. In a served by commentators, and different note he says, “In the first two editions of solutions have been offered. Bochart this work, I stated that a part only of the says, that Assyria being divided into two inhabitants of the carile journeyed froin parts, one on this, and the other on the the east' and settled in the plains of further side of the Tigris, they denomi- Shinar; but troin a more aticntive cone nated that part beyond the Tigris the sideration of the subject, to which I have east country, though a great part of ic been led by the learned and ingenious was really north of Armenia. It would, Remarks on the Easteru Origination of however, have been more to the purpose, Mankind, by Mr. Granville Penn, pub. had it been supposed that inankind jour: listed in the second volume of the neyed from some other place than Ar. Eastern Collections, I hare been induced menia, and that as they travelled from to change my opinion.” However, conthe east, they must have come to Shinar siderable doubts may arise whether the from a tract of land east of that country. whole race of mankind moved in a nes. Captain Wiltord says, that "according tern direction. It seems, indecii, cnto the Pauranics, and the followers of tirely unaccountable and incredibie, tisat Buddha, the ark rested on the mountain all mankind should have journeyed west, of Aryavarta, Aryanart, or India, an from any supposeable point where they appellation which has no small athinity were originally settled, and that none ot wiide the Araraut of Scripture. These them stwuld have journeyed in aily

other mountains were a great way to the easta direction. The eastern parts ward of the plains of Shinar or Mesopo- equally inviting to colonies, and at this tamia, for it is said in Genesis, that some day are at least equally populous as the time after the flood they journered west. If we suppose that all mankind from the east till they found a plain in journeyed west, we must suppose thit the land of Shinar, in which they settled. ihe east was lett with ut people; and This surely implies that they came from this is an absurulity which few, 'I apprea very distant country eastward of Shi. hent, will attempt to detenid. The rexe nar." We are therefore led to suppose, son of our attributing so much to the that mankind, after the flood, migrated west is, because we are seated in the from the vicinage of Caucasus, a series west, and derive our inforination from of mountains of which Ararat and Taurus

Asiatic Researches.
Asiatic Researches.

+ Taylor's Sacred Geography,

writers

were

tion. *

west

writers whose works may be easily pro. kind did not migrate in a western direccured, and who live nearer to our situ- tion after the food. If we adopt that ation. If we liad possessed equal access situation of Paradise, and of the first u eastern writers, or had sufficiently settlement of Noah after the flood, which esteemed them, we sbould bave been led appears in the Indian accounts, and to think that some early tribes settled far which is placed much farther east than east in Asia. It is not improbable that has been hitherto supposed, in the same certain names of fathers of nations re- proportion we facilitate the population corded in Scripture, are preserved to this of the east of Asia. We must suppose very time, in places of which we have that in ancient times, migratory colonies some, though by reason of their remote were influenced by natural causes, as situation, perhaps iinperfect, informa- they are at present; and we cannot but

Captain Wilford, in an Essay on observe that the courses of rivers must Egypt and ihe Nile, has given, from the bave been at that time as they are nowIndian Puranas, some account of the first the guides of settlers, and of inhabitants settlement of nations after the food. in a state of progress. If we inspect the " It is related in the Padınan-Purana, map of Asia, we shall perceive that most that Satyavrata,t whose iniraculous prea of the considerable streams issue from servation from a general deluge is told at Caucasus; and that froin this mountain, length in the Matsya, had three sons, the largely taken, the

course of these eldest of whom was named Jyapeti, or streams may be considered as marking “ Lord of the Earth;" the others were the course of mankind to remote parts Charma and Sharina, which last words of this continent. In fact, they diverge are, in the vulgar dialects, usually pro

on all sides; south to India, east to nounced Cham and Shain, as we 'fre- China, north to Siberia, and quently hear kislın for Krishwa. The towards the Caspian Sca. * If it should royal patriarch, for such is his character be thought, as some have supposed, that in the Puran, was particularly fond of Shem took no part in the building of Iyapeti, to whom he gave all the regions Babel, this will afford an additional arguto the north of Viamalaya or the Snowy ment in favour of the opinion that the Mountains, which extend from sea to

whole race of mankind did not iniyrate in sea, and of which Caucasus is a part; to a western direction. Sharina be allotted the countries to the Ravenslonedale, J. ROBINSON. s juth of those mountains : but he cursed June 11, 1810. Charma; because, when the old monarch was accidentally inebriated with a strong To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. liquor inade of fermented rice, Charma Jariged, and it was in consequence of

SIR, father's imprecation that he liecame AVING been lately a “ The children of Charma travelled a and frequent disappointment, attendant long time, until they arrived at the bank on the making of Galvanic troughs in the of the river Nila, or Cali, in Egypt; and common way, with wood, and the joints a Brahmin informs me, that their journey covered with cement, I am induced to began after the building of the Padına. propose, through the medium of your Mandira, which appears to be the tower most respectable and widely-circulated of Babel, on the banks of the river Cuc Journal, an idea that struck me of submudvali, which can be no other than the stituting troughs made of earthenware, Euphrates."| These extracts are cor- for the above-mentioned purpuse. roboraiive of the geography of Moses, They could be constructed with only and prove that the geographical docu- one or two) cells in each piece, by which ments preserved to us in Holy Writ, are means they might be afforded very cheap; in perfect unison with the most ancient and by placing any number of loose histories of the people who, after the ine pieces in continuation in a simple box spired writers, possessed the most au- or trough, made for the purpose, the thentic sources of information. They power could be increased to any degree also shew, that the whole race of man. required.

Cionmell,

RUBERT Davis. * Taylor's Sacred Geography,

June 24, 1810. + Noah. I Asiatic Researches.

Sacred Geography

To

JOHX

FALSTAFF.

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For the Monthly Magazine. Bardolph, * "wbose zeal burned in his On the CIIARACTER of SIR

nose;" and who, as his master remarks,

" but for the light in his face, would be LETTER II.

the son of utter darkness:" and to close in which we cone

the catalogue, mine hostess of the Boar's are the iwo Parts of Henry IV. We see Quickly; Franeis, with his everlasting him again indeed in the Merry Wives cry of Anon, anon, sir !" ihe “genius of of Windsor," and with greacsatisfaction; famine, master Robert Shallow; und but he is in fetters. He might say of Justice Silence, whom, as sir Julin told himself, as after the exploit at Gadshill, bim, ". it well befitted to be of the Am not I fallen away? do not I bates peace;" with the ever-memorable list of do not I dwindle? Why my skin hangs

Gloucestershire recruits. Amongst all about ine like an old lady's loose gown!" these interesting personages, however, His meanderings are reduced to

he who most attracts our notice, and best straight course, and we scarcely recog.

repays our attention, sir Juhn nise the beauty o he stream.

Our

Falstaff: memorable queen, when she requested

ανηρ ούς τε, μεγας τε, to see Falstaff in love, appears to ime (to Aργεια μιν εγαγε έίσκω πηγεσιαλλω. use a vulgar but pertinent expression)

11. iii. 197. to have "mistaken her man." Eccen. Nor do those persons do him justice, tricity of affection was expected; and, who regard him as a character whose as might have been forescen, we are sole constituents are vice and low bufo presented only with his avarice.

Toonery. This was not ibe intention of But to return: the two Parts of Shakespeare. Those who are possessed Henry IV. are, beyond a doubt, the of a natural vein of humour, no less most diversified, in paint of character and than those who constantly affect it, will language, of any of the historical plays sometimes detect themselves in a strain of our great dramatist. Who does not of 'quips and cranks', whose object is marshal in his mind the spirits of “that to set on soine quantity of barreu specsame mad fellow of the north, Percy;" tators to laugh.” Falstaff's wit is often, " of him of Wales, that gave Amaimon it must be confessed, of an illegitimate the bastinado, Owen Glendower;" and kind; yet the general character of his “his son-in-law, Mortimer; and old Nor- pleasantry, and the good sense so fre. thumberland; and the sprightly Scot of quently sparkling from under lis singular Scots, Douglas ?" Who cannot paint quaintness, prove that the poet intended to bimself " that goodly portly man, sir him to have the credit of considerable John;" the chief justice, (sir William abilities, however uniisual or misersGascoigne); and that whoreson mad

ployed. To cancel the imputation of compound of majesty, Prince Henry, perpetual buffionery, an idea originating who, as he himseif observes, had in ühe inisconception of those who per" sounded ibe very base-string of humi- sonare bim ou the stage, or would paint lity?" Or, who cannot conjure up the him like Benhury, we must recollect manes of the knight's myrmidons, swag- that, although he possessed none of those gering Pistol," Poins, Peto, and honest recommendations which are implied in

Pistol is a very remarkable character. * The character of Barco'ph is one of He seems to be a ranting spouter of sentences those bod dasles of the pencil, which our and hard words, unconnected and unintelli- great painter from nature so frequently exhi. gible; and was introduced by Shakespeare for bits. His great attachment to Faistair is the purpose of ridiculing the bombast absur. admirably described. Wren he is cold of the dities of his cotemporary dramatic writers. knighe's dears, he exclaims, " Would I were If this was really the object of the character, with him wheresome'er he is, either in heait must have had a wonderful effect at its ven or in hell! The same insight into his first performance, wheu the plays of Cophe character is given by another single expression. tua, Battle of Alcazer, Tamborlain's Con- When the prince tells Falstafi of his favour quests, &c. from all which Pistol makes quo. with his father, Falstaff recommends the tacions, were before the public. It strikes robbery of the exchequer; “ Kuo me thie me likewise as a very ingenious method of exchequer, Hal, and do it with unwasized silenciog the whole train of envious scribblers hands too ?" Bardolph, pleased with the which his genius would otherwise have proposal, instantly seconda it with," Do, my brought upon his own back.

lora!” MONTHLY Mag, No. 20%.

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the If we

66

the term ' gentleman' as the word was Indeed, we must ibink more humbly received in its better days, yet he had of the prince's judgment and good many which were not consistent with sense than we are justitied in doing from mere ribaldry and buffoonery. his known characier, if we suppose that have an eye merely to his imperfections, he did not observe soine amiable fenwhich are no criterion of rank in society, tures in the man with whoin the poet our opinion of him will be mean and makes himn spend the greater part of his inadequate. He is represented as a tinre, and for whom he procured a captain of foot," intimate with men of “charge of fúot" Similarity, in some the first title and authority, and, as may degree, of dispositions might be thought he inferred from the scenes into which

a suficient cause; but where there was he is introduced, as likewise from his be not a single praise worthy object of haviour to the lord chief justice, could mutual affection, the poet would not so value himself as higlily as any of bis have erred against hunian nature as to friends. In the character of companion have represented a friendship.

The to the prince, bowerer unworthy, he inconsistency of the prince's future conmust in the eyes of the world have been duct to him, while it reflects somewhat thought deserving of some attention, of ingratitude on his poetical memory, I will not say respect; for it is in vain was certainly necessary, and tended to that we look for any virtues in him, cal- the retrieving of his character in the culated to inspire us with any thing like public mind. Teverence. Those who might despise But to solve all difficulties on this them both for their rices, nust remem- head, it will be requisite only to select a ber that llal was heir to the crown, and single trait in this motley personage, that Falstatt was made ennpanion to the which will ever awaken a partiality for future hero of Agincourt. The polite bin in every audience. The poet, to attentions of master Shallow to his old counterbalance his thirst of gold, anel acquaintance, sir Juhn, which may be his more serious vices, has given him an accounted for without any uncommon iusinuating air of frankness and simpli. sagacity, were returned in a manner con- city of mannery.

It may be observed sistent with the avarice of the latter, that that in the first scene of his appearance, would now be denominated by the rude you see a man from whom every subsc. name of swindlinig.' Yet the shadow quent part of his history might be ex. of worthy affection existed in sir Johi, pected. The nature displayed in this as we see throughout his conduct. He is too much for the merres of the audiascribes his fondness for Puins to a singu- ence. They are delighted to see what Jar cause : “I am bewitched with the they seem io themselves to have known rogue's company. If the rascal bas not in coninon lite, and to find their given me medicines to make me love acquaintance precisely what they imaliim, I'll be hanged; it could not be gined himn in be. Falstaff's character is else.*" But the affection of the prince seen at once; hic conceals no darker feafor sir John Palstaff is more easily tures than those exhibited on his firsc explained, and though manifest in the introduction; and however reprehensible whole intercourse between thein, is more in bis vices, he seems willing to trust telivgiv described by the poet in the then to the mercy of his frail audience. prince's lainentation for his loss, whien This is natural, but it is no extenuation fic views himn extended for dead in the cf criinc. The prepossession in favor firket of battle: "What! old acquaint- of such men arises from the love of truth auce, could not all this flesh keep in a and sincerity implanted in us by nature, Jittle life? Poor Jack! Farewell! I could (not to mention the secret tribute priet have better spared a betier man! On! to our vanity and self-love on such occaI should have a heavy miss of idee, if I sions), and every one, ai some period or were wuch in love with vanity.” other of his life, nust have felt it extorta

ed froin hin. Such a man is Falstaff. * This, and a number of other characteristic Superlatively vicious and reprobate, and unobjectionable passages, are injudici- he pieveir appears without exposing some ously omitted in the play as repr?sented on

darling excess or evil propensity. Yet, our theatres. I fancy these omissions were

in spite of all this, his habits savour 50 made by Colley Cibber; if so, they do hin as much of erery day profigacy, and his much credit for poetical sceling as his own promises of reformi and repentance are tragedies.

so frequent, that we cannot help feeling

use.

SIR,

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against our better judgment, something merely by illiterate persons. But as tn like partiality. But more of his vices, any mistake naturally arising from the and some remarks on his wit, in my next.

difference between notes for thirty shil. A, B, E.

lings and other suins, legibly printed

thereon, it certainly cannot be more l'o the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. likely to happen, than between the one SIR,

and two pound notes, or the five and

len pound ones, aiready in cominou I , extended miscellang, to suggest a

M. remedy for the very great inconvenience arising from the want of small change, or

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of a greater quantity of good silver in circulation, which has induced many 10

SALING been lately made acwish that bank.notes of 106, value might quainted with a singular misreprı be issued. But this, as I cannot but sentation, which has gone forth respectthink, would be remedying one evil at

ing the Entomological Society, I entreat the expence of another, as we have cer- you to insert in your Magazine a short tainly paper enough in circulacion. explanation of the principles upon whiclı What therefore I here incan to pro

this yet infant society is tounded. pose, as a malier that would answer The origin of the society, first estaexactly the same end as 10s. notes,

blished inder the denomination of the (except in payinents under 20s.) is to

Aurelian Society, bas been faithfully call in the 21. notes now in circulation,

set forth, together with its designs and in their room to issue thirtv shilling and objects, in Mr. Hawortii's two notes, one of which notes, in addition to publications, Lepidoptera Britannica, those now in use, wouldi, in all payments

and the Prodromus which preceder! to any aniount in which there were from

that work. Of late, however, a fancied 7 to 14 odd shillings, reduce the change discovery has been made that it was prin required to a mere trifle. For instance, jected in a schismatic mood in opposition were a payment of 131. 12s. to be made,

to the Limnan Society, and also with a a ten pound and two one pound notes, design to attack, in unjustitiable critiwith one of sos. would reduce the cism, the works of Mr. Donovan. All change to ?s. Or, were ten guineas to this appears to me ton absurd to be be paid, a five pound and four one pound received by, any reflecting person), and notes, with one of 30s. would exactly had I not the best founded information raise the sum in paper,

that Mr. Donovan has entertained to Perliaps a 50s. (or hall 5!. note) inay

the pinost extent of credulicy the above Ly some be preferred; but as these will ideas, and that liis partizans are actively he of no immediate use in pavments endeavouring to stop the increase of the under 40s, which perhaps form the society, and undermine its fabric, I majority of retail shop payments, the should not have considered it necessary 80s. note would certainly be of much

to give an additional explanation of the more general use. And I cannot help purposes, intentions, and ends, for trinking but that even pavinents under

which the Entomological Society has 20s. will be facilitated hy the introcluc. been established. tion of the antes here proposed, for as

Far from its beirig an opponent to the the quantity of silver and small goli used Lingean Society, I deem it an introin larger payments wili, tov this means, ductory seminary to raise future candia he mucb lessened, there will of course

dates for admission into that ever by me remain a larger quantity in circulation

revered society. This, a short stateinent, for coinmon retail payments.

I trust, will convince every one to be Having nentioned this propnsal late's to a banker in the country, lie observert,

At the head of the Entomological then an objection would probably be suciety, and amongst its original proimade to the introduction of any new

moters,

found several fellows lind of note form the mistakes it might of the Linnean Society.

These ale ocasion, amongst illiterale persons in gentieren, wie united to their stue particular, as was frequenily the case in dies in natural history the personal respect to bank pusst bills. As however, labour of collecting the insects of Eng. in these last, oud shillings are often ina lund. Their pursuits and babits threw spried with a pen, and not printed on the them into accidental meeting, and connote, there can be no wonder at thene sequently a temporary acquaintance with being cometimes overlooked, and not other practical collectors, who were as

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true.

are

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