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For the Monthly Magazine.
and even in Switzerland, many years beOn Reform in the rePRESENTATION of previously to that event, in use in Ger
fore bis death, if it had been so long the Commons in PARLIAMENT.
many. No. IV.
CLAVI-CYLINDER. as imperfect recollection will enable This instrument, by its description, me to give, of a plan of reform proposed by seems a variation, and probably an ima Mr. Horne Tooke, about the year 1783. provement, on the aieuton of Mr. Clag.
I bave made what enquiry I could gett. I judge this from the account of after two tracts of his, about that time, its mode of action, and the circumstance with a view, if possible, to state it in his stated of its being never out of tune. own words. I have been hitherto un, A friend, who is a great inusical theosuccessful. They are his Letter to Mr. rist, and a very respectable both comDunning; and his Pair of Portraits. poser and perforiner, had an exceed
I shall be much obliged to any of your ingly large opinion of the merit of the correspondents, who will supply a more instrument of Mr. Claggett. It had in full and accurate statement. Perhaps power, dignity, and solemnity of tone, Mr. Horne Tooke himself will, if this a great resemblance to the organ, free, should fall under his eye.
by its construction, from the only chaMy recollection of it, is that it consi- racteristic imperfection of that dederably indeed increased the qualifica. lightful and sublime instrument. The tion required by 8 H. VI. (lam fearful of inventor gave it the name which has been saying from memory, how considerably) mentioned, from its being aleb Evlovov, * and proposed on the plan of the votes of always in good tune. The Celestina meproprietors of East India stock, accu. chanism of the instrument, acted by mulative votes according to the property; pressure on a system of metallic bars, so that the holder of double the property, (or pitch-forks). It is evident, that the entitled to one vote, should have two: mass of metal exempted these from any and thus on progressively.
sensible change of ione, such as the changes of the atmosphere must always
produce in wires, or strings. At the INTRODUCTION of the PIANO-FORTE.
same time, the very nature of the conI am much obliged to your correspon. Struction would cause the instrument dent, R. K, D.
to have a somewhat hard tone, and to I think the result very nearly esta. speak slowly; but for andante, adagio, blishes the introduction of this elegant and largo, movements, such as are geand expressive instrument, which seems nerally the sublimest and inost pathetic to me, and to many, to have so much in the serious opera, and the most ad. improved on the harpsichord, to have mirable in oratorio music, (the two
taken place in this country probably, highest departments of this divine art); ! and almost certainly, in 1766, and to it seems probable that this instrument
have been completed in 1768. Its im- would have had the advantage over every provement in two years, seems to make other. The clearness, purity, and it probable that it was even invented sullness of tone, the beauty of swell here. And this appears the more pro- and diminution, which distinguish it, bable, as I find no indication that Rous. were inconceivable. The invention of seau was acquainted with it. If he had, Mr. Claggett may have been unknown I presume he would bave been too to Mr. Chladni, from whom I am sure greatly interested in it to have passed it I have no disposition to detract. On the in silence. During his stay in England, contrary, I learn with great pleasure the he spent so much of his time at a disa introduction of an instrument from tance from the metropolis, and I believe which so much may be expected, in society not particularly musical, that At the same time, I wish to do justice it was very likely that he should not hear to a man of very interesting manners, of it. But if it had been introduced first and respectable character, who disina in Germany, and before 1766, it is al- terestedly devoted many years of his life irost impris.ible that Rousseau, who died to the improveinent both of keyed and July 4, 1778, should not have heard of wind instruments; whose merit in it. It could hardly have failed to have been known in Paris, through France,
MONTHLY Mag. No. 205,
Son Originals of the Scriptures-French Term “Massacrés.” [Nov.), both was acknowledged by unquestion For the Alonthly Magazine. able judges; whose science, and taste, On a peculiar MILITARY ACCEPTATION and judgment, accompanied him to the of the word “ Massacrés,” in FRENCII. grave, with little earthly reward. Some
EVERAL vears past, I noted in the memoir of Nir. Claggett from some of your musical correspondents, could not Newspapers, eagerly catching hold of fail to be useful and instructing,
every object of reproach and contumely And I should think it would be gra- against their enemies, the French, accused tifying, if any one would lay before the them frequently of massacres, when a public some account of Zumpe. body of men had been by the French put These notices,
to the sword in battle, merely because the
French writers themselves made use of · qui solus honor tellure sub ima,
the term, massacrés. To this our newsare not useless to the living.
writers were accustomed to add, by way Troslon-hall.
of giving force to their insinuation, notes
of admiration-Massacred!!! A curre. For the Monthly Magazine.
spondent of the Mayazine replied to me,
denying that the word in French had any Information requested on the originALS
other than the usual signification, for of the noLY SCRIPTURES of the new example, as applied to the revolutionary
I was, however, at no rate CAVING of late, from motives of convinced by that argument, since the HA
curiosity, for the first time in iny French themselves apply the term in the life looked into the opinions of learned offensive signification, to men cut down men as to the antiquity of the manu. in the defence of a military post? It was scripts of the Hebrew and Christian obvious they meant, put to the sword; Scriptures, I find, in respect to the latter, but in a very sharp conflict, none perhaps the late Dr. Ilarwood assured himself being saved, or as we should say in Eng. that Beza's manuscripts, and the Cler lish, a mere carnage was made of them mont manuscript, approach the nearest they were cut to pieces. In this way, of any manuscripts now known in the the French described several of their world, to the original text of the sacred conflicts with the Mamalukes in Egypt; records.
and what confirms me in my old opinion We also learn, from the best' autho as to this use of the word Massacrés, I rities, as lately collated by Mr. Dyer, have lately found it repeated in the same that there was scarcely such a thing to sense, in ile Moniteur. be found as manuscripts in the fourth
NORMA LOQUENDI. century; higher none at all: that the Coder Beze is of the fifth century, and For the Monthly Magazine. generally belicved to be the most an The case of Mr. GASCOIGNE'S DAUGHTER cient Greek manuscript in the world.
Information is requested of the learn. ed, as to the original text of those sacred learned in any other laws than records to which the Coder Beze is those of justice and common sense, supposed to approach so nearly: what I must crave permission to give my ground we have of assurance that such ori opinion on this case,
so very intera ginals really existed in the times, or within esting to humanity. J. W. Gascoigne's the memory, of contemporaries of Jesus unfortunate situation, indubitably caused and the Apostles: in what country, and to devolve upon the officers their legal in whose power, such originals were de- right of putting his daughter in a way to posited: or whether, since no earn her living, without being burdensome scripts were ever to he found of higher to the parish, and also a considerable antiquity than the fourth century, the discretion in the exercise of that right; first manuscripts were copied from oral but I apprehend not to the extent of detradition, delivered through a succession priving the parents of all vote, or choice, of generations, during between three and in the destination of their child at the four hundred years after the persons had early age of eleven years. I am not lived, and the reported facts had hapo aware that the law confers any such pened. Lastly, under what authority power, which however being granted, le-l. were the Codex Beza, and the Clermont gality and justice are by no means to be manuscript, written, or supposed to be taken for synonimes. Much has been written, INDOCTUS.
written and said, and with justice, against crossed a dreary uninviting tract of counthe common practice of transporting try, which continued for several miles, such numbers of infant paupers to the we descended a hill, and entered on cotton manufactories, where they have the rich and fertile vale that extends on been too generally doomed to a life of either sicie the little town of Bakewell, misery. Such a destination indeed for which contains a few good-looking their necessary maintenance would be houses, and a handsome church, with a unobjectionable, on the conditions of tolerable inn, and a pleasing appearance their parent's approbation, and the obli- altogether of peculiar neatness, cleanligations of those who have so great a pro- ness, and beauty. fit on the labour of the children, to take Passing by the ancient mansion be. due care of them, and to proviáe, in cer. longing to the Rutland family, called tain cases, for their return to their na Haddon Ilall, we pursued our route from tive home. As to the power of parish. Bakewell through a charming valley to officers to take childen against the con the villaye of Worksworth, when, enter. sent of their parents, and send them to a ing on the narrow glen where Matlock's distant part of the country, into an ein- picturesque romantic dwellings adorn ployment unfavourable to their health, the inountain's side, we shortły came in and probably for their lives, it too much sight of that enchanting spot so fresesembles the sale of young siaves in our quently described by tourists, und so colonies, and is a practice on which the universally admired by every one possesfriends of humanity should keep a watch- sing, or protessing to possess, a taste for ful eye. In J. W. G.'s case, indepen- the picturesque beauties of nature. dently of right, surely the indulgence Some years ago, I am assured, that would have been reasonable, of the friend Matlock ivas infinitely inore deserving of who offered, being permitted to take and admiration, than since the increase of its provide for the girl.
buildings, and its having become the With respect to a remedy, perhaps, on resort of gay and fashionable visitors. application, the magistracy would inter. Be that as it may, it still possesses a fere; or a court of justice could gire re. thousand charms, of which it is scarcely lief; as the judge would, in a late in. possible for the pen or pencil to convey stance, have compelled the restoration a just representation. The waters are of the young Jew convert to his father, etñcacious in cases
o? rheuinatism, but for the boy's own discretion, he scurvy, and bile. The baths are convehaving attained lis fourteenth year. But niently situated, and well atiended; and the best advice in niy power to give, is the water at the spring, has neither a an application of the father to sir Francis smeli nor taste that is disagreeable. At Burdett, the friend and patron of the Buxton, there are hotels and private poor, who would, should it appear to him lódying.houses, good public tables, and eligible, undoubtedly move the House accomodations for persons of different of Commons on the subject, and yet classes and inclinations. reliet, if relief be attainable, froin the Haring partaken of a slight repast, we fountain-head; a mode which, beside, ordered supper at a late hour in the evenmight have the fariber and genersi ing, and commenced our ramble, round use of settling the point of legality, and the environs of ihis so justly celebrated of checking those oppres-ions which place, in which there is as singular a must almost unavoidably take place, of combination of grandeur and simplicity the poor and beipless. It is one of our as it is possible to conceive. The vale, common-place boasts, that the law of on one side of whose boundary the houses England is equally just to the rich and are entirely placed, is about three miles the poor; at any rate, it ought to be our in length, in geiieral marrow, and divers perpetual endeavour to realize in prac. sified by wonds of finest versture, rocks, tice, as far as possible, so just and excel- wild and jutting precipices, and small lent a maxim.
LIBER Hono. encosures fringed with trees of various
kinds; while, in the centre of the narrow For the Monthly Magazine. plain, the Derwent smoothly flows alon',
overing by a profusion of luxuriant LETTER III.-T. a Friend.
beech, and other drooping trees; or bere SAVING formed a Party to visit and there, with hasce in peiun, dishes
Matlock, we proceeded at an over falien fragments of the adjacent preearly hour one charming morning, to- cipices, forming miniature carcarles, and wards that delightful spot, and having contributing, by the whiteness of its foam,
LETTERS OF A WANDERER.
to increase the general beauty of the ties of the vale of Matlock, we proceeded
onward, and shortly came in view of the Crossing the river, by a boat kept for spacious mansion of Sir Richard, and the the purpose of conveying visitors to the numerous dwellings of the persons he opposite shore, a little way above the employs daily, to the number of several town, we ascended by a winding path, hundreds, in his extensive cotton manuand gained the summit of the height we factories. This is indeed a different Jaboured to attain : we stood upon a scene from the calm sequestered envihigh projecting point of rock, some hun- rons of Matlock; but it is by no means dred yards above the lerel of the stream, an unpleasing one; for industry and and looked upon the vale in all its glory, neatness are combined to give an air of diversified by woods of various hues and confort and animation to the whole surspecies; the windings of the Derwent, rounding district; and cold and unfeelthe greyish-coloured rocks, and whitener ing must be the heart which does not houses embosomed amidst groves of experience gratification at the sight of trees, which, sprouting from every crevice “happy human faces,” or know a sentia in the precipices, give variety and anima- ment of delight at hearing the sounds of tion to a scene of wonderful beauty. merriment and cheerfulness amongst the
Proceeding along the edge of the poorest of their fellow mortals. woody height, the views_continually Of the interior of Cromfit House I varied as we advanced. Beneath our cannot give you a description, for we did feet, a steep and thickly-wooded bank not ask to view its apartments. We were stretched close along the margin of the assured it was elegant, and laid out for stream, while the opposite shore rose the convenience of the owner's family boldly from the water, and appeared and guests; but, as by far the greater almost wholly covered over with roman number of the houses of the affluent tic huinan habitations, huge masses of bear a striking similarity to each other, impending rocks, and a bare and lofty it is little worth while to explore the intehill broken by craggy precipices, and rior of each, or seek to fatigue others by forming a charming contrast to the softer descriptions of what can tend but features of the landscape.
slightly to the gratification of curiosity, Advancing still a little farther onward, nor in any manner interest the admirers the eye takes in a reach of the river, of Nature's unadorned scenery. şınooth and unruflled, and overhung The grounds we however sought and by dark and thickly-spreading wood, obtained permission to walk over, and some whitened houses at a little distance were amply'epaid for our trouble, by the from the baths, with a rich variety of view of a part of the sweet vale of Matpointed rocks, tufted with trees, and lock, and an extensive tract of the adjaadding to the beauty of a view at once cent country. The walks are tastefully interesting and romantic as imagination, formed; and, though not extensive, are can conceive. From thence a path leads extremely pretty, and deserving of a to the bottom of the hill, by which the visit. views are reversed; and every object seen From Cromfit we crossed the country in a different point, forms new and in- to Ashburn, a sweetly situated, clean, teresting pictures of peculiar loveliness pretty town, on the road between Derby and diversity.
and Buxton, and twenty miles from the Tillevening closed, and hid the charm- latter. ing landscape from our sight, we conti I had been there years before : but two nued to wander round the environs of of my companions never having been in Matlock; and it was with reluctance we that part of the county, I made no objec, retired to our auberge, where we had an tions to extending our tour thither. As excellent supper, and good beds. The we arrived at an early hour in the even. day had been delightfully fine, and we ing, we had a long stroll ere supper was were all charmed with our ramble, and announced to be upon the table; and eager for the ensuing morn to extend it found much to admire in the various still further, to the eleyant seat of Sir views upon the banks of the Dove, and Richard Arkwright, at Cromfit, about in the vicinity of the town, where the two miles on the oi her side of Matlock. country is beautifully diversified, fertile, We accordingly prepared at an early and finely cukivated, and the air of neat. hour, to pilt our former evening's plan in ness so conspicuous even in the buinblest execution; and having again taken a par of the habitations, peculiarly pleasing. tial survey of the more immediate beau. The church is a tasteful structure, but
unfinished. It had been meant to form intermixture of woods and rocks, and a cross, but has never been completed; patches of softest verdure, the picture was and the tower stands on the north side, one which could not fail to inspire the which was purposed to be elevated froin most pleasing sensations, and wild, the middle of the building. The inns, of silent, and solemn as the scene appeared, which there are several in Ashburn, are we were inexpressibly delighted with it. good; and there is a cunsiderable lace No trace of human habitation was seen; manufactory carried on in the town and no sound was heard, save that of the neighbourhood. Sir Brook Bootheby rushing water, as it played amongst the has a beautiful seat adjoining the towai, broken pieces of the rocks; we seemed which strangers often visit.
as if shut out from human intercourse; On the succeeding morning, having and a fertile, romantic imagination, inight breakfasted, we began our journey back have formed a variety of pictures, to to Buxton; and whien about a mile from charm the senses, and create ideal strucAshburn, we quitted the turnpike-road, tures of felicity. and sending on the carriages to meet us At the extremity of the dale, we found at a particular spot some miles distant, the carriages in waiting; when, seating we proceeded on foot to the entrance of ourselves again in them, we were shortly the celebrated Dove-dale, a
conveyed over the excellent lime-stone widding valley, to which a guide con- roads, for which that part of the country ducted us, and where we found ourselves is remarkable, and reached our quarters enclosed betwixt two rocky ridges varied at the hotel early in the evening, when in heigbt, and diversified by an asseme
we concluded the day's ainusement by a blage of broken craggs and jutting precio visit to the theatre, and laughed away a pices, partly shaded over by groupes of couple of hours at the representation of trees shooting from their crevices, and a popular comedy, and the buikooneries hanging from the summits of the frowning of a no less fashionable tarce. cliffs, or wholly bid from sight by thick My stay at Buxton being now comembowering woods; wbile, at the bottom pleted, and my anxiety to pursue my meof the dell, the Dove winds amidst an ditated wanderinys returning as the peinfinity of shrubs, and broken pieces of riod of departure drew nearer, I deterrocks, sonietimes assuming a more bold mined to begin my journey to the northappearance as it dashes over stones and ward; and, two days after my return from fragments that impede the progress of its Matlock, bidding adieu to the friends in waters; at others, smoothly Rowing over whose society I had passed some very its narrow channel with gentle murmur, pleasurable moments, and the newlya reflecting the varied colours of the pen- formed acquaintances whom I had found dant boughs that droop and dip their agreeable during my stay at Buxton, I beautiful luxuriant foliage in the lucid proceeded across the mountainous and streani. On the rocky boundaries of the dreary tract that intervenes between that dale, some wonderfully picturesque pre. place and the populous smoky town of cipices rise in wild confusion, and give Sheffield; a tract so bleak and uninteradded beauty to the scene: in these, esting as any you can forin an idea of, there are several arches formed as it were excepting for a little space in the vale hy the band of art, but which, upon where stands the village of Middleton, ascending the steeps to examine, we the approach to which upon the Buxton were satisfied were wholly the work of side, is singularly wild and romantic, the nature, and only serving to render the road passing through a very narrow dell scenery around more beautifully pictue of nearly a mile in length, the boundaries resque.
of which are principally composed of The walk we here enjoyed was indeed rocky precipices of a greyish colour, Jelightful; and we were all enchanted formed into a variety of fantastic shapes, with the whole of our excursion. The and in many places resembiing the anweather was charming, the air was clear, cient turrets of a castellated mansion, or and the softened light thrown on the dif- a ruined fortress; while.broken fragments ferent objects from the sky, contributed scattered on the ground, give added with the mildness of the air, to “ send for
to the idea of their harmg once into the heart a summer feeling." The belonged to the dilapidated monuments sun occasionally only peeped through of grandeur that imagina ion Icads the white and slowly-sailing clouds fioating observer to fancy base at some far disa upon the azure borizon, and from the tant period surmounted the crne partial gleams it cast upon the beautiful boundaries of the way. Thou_b lesi