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as it contains particu ar references to the words, a!! afferences of auctors izpresiog dueshed's, pin which my priss ciaims se renovee teen 11.0305 z ic ze : piso will be 1990 totuse parts of the doc- Slado Culpai 31."

Toe 2 cle 250 trii.cs fibe“ Giarnar of Emz1. Pro

canas a very part cor es:puica of tae nonciation," for which I. S. could sess, by aihe's coming of 2992 baie rio authority in the authors to wbuin rently separate for's, is to be execej;

iliestra.juss the post ero" i 20 sie But refers.

vocal. Use the crie "

E.," in P.S. Tha: I mas pre be suspected or shel. the second clasa of be secos e of the -1.63 msseif under the vague pretence of

same siune, sal e ious: an ezz'cis ale. Ele esces to work, througo tte whole of

mest of my pracple, relati < to idc treate bin few pesos.s cas be expected to wace

Deat of Tepee 2.5, ty app 1:23 e sains merev for $3 is activa

Such poin' 5,

of musical procrt sa to tie 12:27ce of "sekiag (according !, the «ld proverb) for


And in that article, wisi a. so be a neetie in a botie of hey

it may not be found, sne saten:nt of the phys..onca! aniss to particularize the funds of my

bases, opca which the prise it is in ted. clairas by tiile, date, and page. In the

The reader who wi tura to the orthly printed prospectus, <1 outlines, which, tor Magazine for var, 18.'!, several jears, I nase teen in the habit of p. 406, col. 1. sol. xix, p. 3:3, and sol. & up * ch my bucks of seleco

XX%, p. 204, col. 1, or to the colecusa tua, ar. C:! * se ampiy ditributing, p.

oi miscelaneous aricles on this su jact, 99 to 31, una part est:r!at the bottom of reprinted in the Apne. lie to my batteria 2 52, wie se tocad suric.enter.dence of the Mr. Cline; Ort the Into 13 ve.ury Doc use Sress iad en weg-antity of the consonant printed in 186, (. 6 an: 7) that has accutoelets. ia “L!. Rees's Nen Cyco- paniei all my volumes of seiect:nes and ex12:12," sol xii. past ii. title ". Element in ercises, &c.; or p. 1.-, of a more receat esiLe Science of lotion,” will be found tion of the same, a ć "the Vese sve spre bc references to this document, tibude of E.oquence,” walind, tat sis years with quo'a'1996, &c., a onedly toon my per. ago Mr. S. might have ajo ed that idea frum Jo te Prospectus (sorbe copies of which,

mne, woich ne tells us, came into his head; pristed as early as in the month of March, and that since that time, he has had a uno 16:3, are se i in my posses.iun) and which dent opportun ties of having bis memory reDias been multipied through several editions, freschied upon the suejeci, without even the esch consisting of some thousand copies, necessity of one actual at:endance in my lecthe " implication, or vocal combination of

in vol. 23, p. 581, of the same words,” and the principle of " continuous M. JI will be found a general, and ia vol. kart.ony" (or uninterrupted flow of the

91, p. 41, a more particular, account of a stream of voice through the respective mem- public exhibition of the pupils of my insti. bers of a sente.ce), as removing the hypercritution, on the 19th of June, 1807; in which, tical “prejucives about monosyllables,” &c.

Lot only this principie was exp.ained, but its are laid down as subjects to be deo practically demonstrated. And scanted upun in my lectures : and in 1807, a

perhaps some persons there may be, who, copy of this announcement was circulated to

while they are perusing the last of these are every known seminary, and almost every ticles, may be u.sposed to think it not very public and private teacher in and around the extraordinary, it I shou d have suspected that metropolis. In the lectures so announced, this the account of this exiuintion was among the principle was not only fully explained, but

circumstances present in the imagiation of it was frequen!ly and ardently contended, Mr. S. when he talked of " the pian having that in point of monosyllabic er gulys; l'avic been found to answer.” In the said M. M. structure, the English languate and the

vol. xxii. p. 29, col. 2, will be also found, Greck, (when the former is righily under

whence might have been derived the dist.nce sloud, and weil delivered) cistus only co the

tion between loudness and force, in all the ani. eye, and not to the ear; my regular cefinition piitude of its erpiunation. When Mr. 5. shall oi the çerection of elocu ionary utiralice

a particularly point out any passages in any of beiry, inci it consisted in 6. of speak the authurs le bas quoted, or in any other auing or ut leaving, I at combined the utost

thors, from which he can pretend to have decun radi tirctress or element, with the most

rived any of the doctrines to which I lay claim urinterrupted Auw if voca, suund." Under (n the letter this P.S. refersto); then, and not the title - Enuncia!102," in the boie quo. till then, I shall think him worthy of turiher tid Cycopa. 12, volxii. pirt i. will be reply. I may, however, think it necessary, if found (with the formal avo'4 21 of my name, time will permit, (in order to warn the public and seierere to my lectures) a soil. mire

against the suischievous consequences that ar. ple and explivit eluvidct:on of this princi- might result from the misapplication of what ple' of " ina plicatius, or the combination of appears to me an important doctrine) tu trouwords in oral utterance, which are graphically bie either you, or my publishers, with a more separated; and by which, wi.hout inju y to particu:ar outline of that system of musical ke vitelligible distinctasis of the respective es cadential proportion, which I bave found



to be applicable to the treatment of impedi- abore the level of the deck; and, if spė. Dents. In the mean time, I am yet free to cifically lighter than water, should be acá nowledge, that, on the subject of what fastened to the sides, in, or under the the compiler has called the “ortboepical junction of words," the Grammar of Enge their bodies to their chins, and nothing

water. The very crew should immerse lish Pronunciation, (though not free from should be allowed to reinain above the mistakes and fallacies) may be consulted with surface that can be conveniently imsome advantage. If the last coapter bad been done as well, I might have passed over mersed. Of course, as much iron-work, the plagiary in silence : for the interests of and other bodies specifically heavier science would not then bave bean essentially than water, as possible, stuuld be deinjured; and me, most assuredly, it is not tached and thrown over-board. By due in the power of Mr. S. to injure.

attention to this principle, I should preOctober 22, 1810. J. THELWALL. sume, a priori, that no ship could foun

der simply from a leak, or truun filling To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. with water. SIR,

2. With respect to a boat, the prin. neral reason closely, by asking them, leak, or from any other cause fills with If hy a boat sinks when a hole is mude in water, the passengers should instantly lie the tottom

down, and keep nothing but their faces Many of your readers, from habitually above the water. Every thing heavier considering this cause and effect as insé- than water should be thrown overboard, parable, will be disposed to smile at the and nothing be allowed to stand above question. I will, however, prove its claim the level of the water, or on the pop of to c nsideration, by reminding them, that the boat. the boat, which sinks when there is a 3. By attending to the same prin. hole in the bottom, is specifically lighter ciple, persons may often avoid being than water: thai is, we have in ibis fact, drowned. The total of the human body, the philosophical paradox of a body sink in vital action, is specifically lighter than ing in a fluid oi g'eater specific gravity! water; a living human body therefore

The cause is worthy of consideration, will swim in water, provided it is not because, as boats and marine vessels in sunk by parts of it being protruded above general are of great importance to man, the water, which ununmersed parts force deductions and inferences may arise from down the parts under the water, till the its explication, of considerable practical internal cavities fill. If a person who utility. The ship builder and the na- falls into water, holds his breath, till, by vigator may avail themselves of it in a the laws of specific gravity, he rises again way which I ca:not bastily anticipate; to the surface, and then protrudes no part and the principle may, in various re- of bis hody above the surface besides his spects, prose of consequence to mankind. face, he cannot sink again. But the

In brief then: a boat, or ship, the ma. weight of his armis alone, if protruded teriuls of which are specifically lighter out of the wazer, or even the entire of than water, sinks when a hole is made in bis head, without appropriate action, it below the water, by the pressure oj the will be suficient to sink him. Ven are parts of the vessel which ure out of or drowned, and all animals swim, when above the water, upon the purts which are thrown into water; simply because men imonersed.

are able to raise their fore-limbis above This principle being understood, nu. their heads, and aniinals are not able to merous practical inferences flash on the do so. The animal sinks to the level mind; and I shall brit fiy state those ascertained by his own specific gravity, which at this moment occur to me.

and that of the luni, which leaves per1. When a ship springs a dangerous haps nothing but his nose above the leak, the true way to prevent her sinke water; and then, to regain the shore, he ing is to diminish her height, and so exerts the same action with his linbs as luntarily sink all that is possible of her be does in walking. ll men were to see bulk in the water. Whatever belongs main passive, keep down their hands, to her which is specifically lighter than trust to the laws of pecific gravity, and water, should be cast over-board, withe put the inselves in the attitude of walle out being detached from the ship's body, ing, the same résulis, and ihe same se'The tasts should be cut a say and tas. curity, wouid, in general, be the contened along-side, on or under the water. sequence. 'Savaves swim trein their ino Every time should be removed which is fancy on the same principle; and civio

lized man may, in this respect, conde, worms are never likely to be bred with scend to take a lesson from savage and profit in this country. Not on account animal life-or, in other words, from of the climate, which is even more fapure nature.

vourable to thein than that of Italy or For the present, I am content with India, but from the impossibility of supplyhaviny, through your Magazine, submit- ing them with suitable fond except at an ted these ideas to the world, and I leave enormous expence. Other trials conit to the leisure, opportunity, patriotism, firm his experience, that the mulberry is or benevolence, of others, to apply them the only plant upon whose leaves they to all their beneficial purposes.


At present so few of these trees COMMON SENSE, are in existence in Britain, that perhaps

no district of twenty miles in circumfe. N. B. It concerns me to observe, by the rence could furnish leaves for the worms records of mortality in your Magazine, that necessary to spin five pounds of silk. numerous females were burnt to death during “But more might be grown?" True, the last winter, not withstanding I pointed but not profitably, as a very short catout an infallible means of avoiding such ac culation will shew. The silk spun by a cidents in a former paper. As those means single silk-worm weighis on the average cannot too often be published, I shall remind less then three grains. A thousand your readers that they consist simply in the party lying down, as soon as the clothes are

worms therefore are necessary to furnish discovered to be on fire. A lady's muslin a pound of silk, worth, we will say, thirtydress, which might take fire at the skirt, five shillings. But a mulberry-tree capa would burn from top to bottom, and produce ble of supplying food for so many must a fatal density of 'flame in half a minute, be of at least seven or eight years' growth. while she is standing upright; but if she When, therefore, we take into account were instantly to lie down, even though she that these trees require a good soil; that took 110 pains leisurely to extinguish the the cost of planting them would be confames, ten minutes would elapse before her siderable, while little or no return would dress could be consumed, and the flame would be received during the above period, be such as might, at any instant, be extin- and that the expence of attending the guished by the thumb and fingers. Is it not then most afflicting, that fatal accidents

worms, preparing the silk, &c., would should arise from a cause so easily averted ?

not be trifling, it is clear that no profit

could attend the speculation. This is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

not at all to be lamented. He is quite

right in condemning that rage which na. NE of your correspondents in your home; which, if it could be realized,

tions have for producing every thing at O last Number, states the great ob

would stacle in the way of rearing silk-worms

prove the destruction of comin this country, to be the difiiculty of merce, and put a stop to the progress of

civilization. retarding the hatching of the eggs until

In this view many of the the late period at which nulberry leaves premiums of the Society of Arts have al. appear. It may be useful to him, and ways seemed to me injudiciously directed. to such of your readers as are inclined Why should we be desirous of growing to amuse themselves with breeding these madder, producing silk, &c. &c. when insects, to be informed that the exclusion

we can procure those articles so cheap of the eggs entirely depends upon the de- froin our neighbours, and get them in gree of temperature to which they are ex

exchange for our own manufactures? If posed, and may be regulated at pleasure.

we could succeed in our wishes, we In the East Indies they hatch in a week should find, like those notable housewives or twn; here not for some months, com

who boast of having “every thing within monly six or seven. By inclosing them themselves,” that our madders and our in a dry pliial, tightly corked, and kept chased in the markets of Holland and

silk would cost us twice as inuch as if purin a cellar, they may be preserved in a dorinant state for a much longer period;

Italy. Happily nature has put a check and may be hatched at any time in a

to these vagarics, in rendering different few days by exposure to the sun. There countries dependant on each other; and is no reason to doubt that if placed in whatever may be the beasts of the Mo.

niteur, we an ice-house, their exclusion inight be re

may salcly predict that tarded for upwards of a year.

Buonaparte's grape-sugar and endiveThough your corresponde:it is mise root coffee will share the fate of tiken on tinis head, he is quite right the silk speculations of our Jaines I.

PAMPHILA. ile coming to the conclusion that sildio at Chelsea.




For the Monthly Magazine.

and even in Switzerland, many years beOn Refonu in the REPRESENTATION of previously to that event, in use in Ger

fore his death, if it had been so long the COMMONS in PARLIAMENT.

many. No. IV. I

as imperfect recollection will enable This instrument, by its description, me to give, of a plan of reform proposed by seems a variation, and probably an ima Mr. Horne Tooke, about the year 1783. provement, on the aieuton of Mr. Clag

I have made what enquiry I could gett. I judge this from the account of after two tracts of his, about that time, its mode of action, and the circumstance with a view, if possible, to state it in his stated of its being never out of tune. own words. I have been hitherto un. A friend, who is a great inusical theosuccessful. They are his Letter to Mr. rist, and a very respectable both comDunning; and his Pair of Portraits.' poser and performer, had an exceed

I shall be much obliged to any of your ingly large opinion of the merit the correspondenis, who will supply a more instrument of Mr. Claggett. It had in full and accurate statement. Perbaps power, dignity, and solemnity of tone, Mr. Horne Touke himself will, if this a great resemblance to the organ, free, should fall under his eye.

by its construction, from the only chaMy recollection of it, is that it consi- racteristic imperfection of that dederably indeed increased the qualifica- lightful and sublime instrument. The tion required by 8 H. VI. (I am fearful of inventor gave it the name which has been saying from memory, how considerably) mentioned, from its being diet eulovov, and proposed on the plan of the votes of always in good tune. The Celestina meproprietors of East India stock, accu. chanism of the instrument, acted by mulative votes according to the property; pressure on a system of metallic bars, so that the bolder of double the property, (or pitch-forks). It is evident, that the entitled to one vote, should have two: mass of metal exempted these from any and thus on progressively.

sensible change of tone, such as the changes of the atmosphere must always

produce in wires, or strings. At the INTRODUCTION of the PIANO-FORTE.

same time, the very nature of the conI am much obliged to your correspon. struction would cause the instrument dent, R. K. D.

to have a somewhat hard tone, and to I think the result very nearly esta. speak slowly; but for andante, adagio, blishes the introduction of this elegant and largo, movements, such as are geand expressive instrument, which seems nerally the sublimest and most pathetic to me, and to many, to have so much in the serious opera, and the most ad. improved on the harpsichord, to have mirable in oratorio music, (the two taken place in this country probably, bighest departments of this divine art); and almost certainly, in 1766, and to it seems probable that this instrument have been completed in 1768. Its im- would have had the advantage over every provement in two years, seems to make other. The clearness, purity, and it probable that it was even invented fullness of tone, the beauty of swell here. And this appears the more pro- and diminution, which distinguish it, bable, as I find no indication that Rous. were inconceivable. The invention of seau was acquainted with it. If he bad, Mr. Claggett may have been unknown I presume he would bave been too to Mr. Chladni, from whom I ain sura greatly interested in it to have passed it I have no disposition to detract. On the in silence. During his stay in England, contrary, I learn with great pleasure the he spent so much of his time at a diso introduction of an instrument from tance from the metropolis, and I believe which so much may be expected. in society not particularly musical, that Ar the same time, I wish to do justice it was very likely that he should not hear to a man of very interesting manners, of it. But if it had been introduced first and respectable character, who disina in Germany, and before 1766, it is al- terestedly devoted many years of his life inost impossible that Rousseau, who died to the improveinent both of keyed and July 4, 1778, should not have heard of wind instruments; whose mcrit in it. It could hardly have failed to have been known in Paris, through France,

• Aiei cutonon, MONTHLY Mac. No. 205,





306 Originals of the Scriptures--Frerich Term Massacrés.” [Nov.), Loth was acknowledged by unquestion For the Monthly Magazine, able judges; whose science, and taste, On a peculiar MILITARY ACCEPTATION and judgment, accompanied bin to the of the word Massacrés," in FRENCHI. grave, with lule earthly resvard. Some


EVERAL years past, I noted in the memoir of Mr. Claggett from some of Monthly Magazine, that our party your jausical correspondents, could not Newspapers, eagerly catching hold of fail to be useful and instructing: every object of reproach and contumely

And I should think it would be gra- against their enemies, the French, accused tiiying, if any one would lay before the them frequently of massacres, when a public some account of Zumpe.

body of men had been by the French put These notices,

to the sword in battle, merely because the

French writers themselves made use of qui solus honor tellure sub ima,

the term, massacrés. To this our news. are not useless to the living.

writers were accustomed to add, by way Troslon-hall.


of giving force to their insinuation, notes

of admiration-Massacred!!! A curre. For the Monthly Magazine.

spondent of the Magazine replied to me,

denying that the word in French had any Information requested on the ORIGINALS other than the usual signification, for of the HOLY SCRIPTURES of the new

example, as applied to the revolutionary

massacres. I was, however, at no rate CAVING of late, from motives of convinced by that argument, since the life looked into the opinions of learned offensire signification, to men cut down men as to the antiquity of the manu. in the defence of a military post? It was scripts of the Hebrew and Christian obvious they meant, put to the sword; Scriptures, I find, in respect to the latter, but in a very sharp conflict, none perhaps the late Dr. Harwood' assured himself being saved, or as we should say in Engthat Beza's manuscripts, and the Cler- lish, a mere carnage was made of them mont manuscript, approach the nearest they were cut to pieces. In this way, of any manuscripts now known in the the French described several of their world, to the original text of the sacred conflicts with the Mamalukes in Egypt; records.

and what confirms me in my old opinion We also learn, from the best autho as to this use of the word Massacrés, I rities, as lately collated by Mr. Dyer, have lately found it repeated in the same that there was scarcely such a thing to sense, in ile Moniteur. be found as manuscripts in the fourth

NORMA LOQUENDI. century; higher none at all: that the Codex Bezæ is of the fifth century, and

For the Monthly Magazine. generally belicved to be the most an- The Case of NR. GASCOIGNE'S DAUGHTER cient Greek manuscript in the world.

Information is requested of the learn LTHOUGH I cannot boast of being ed, as to the original text of those sacred records to which the Coder Bezee is those of justice and common sense, supposed to approach so nearly: what I must crave permission to give my ground we have of assurance that such ori- opinion on this case, so very interginals really existed in the times, or within esting to humanity. J. W. Gascoigne's the memory, of contemporaries of Jesus unfortunate situation, indubitably caused and the Apostles: in what country, and to devolve upon the officers their legal in whose power, such originals were de- right of putting his daughter in a way to posited: or whether, since 110 earn her living, without being burdensome scripts were ever to he found of higher to the parish, and also a considerable antiquity than the fourth century, the discretion in the exercise of that right; first manuscripts were copied from oral but I apprehend not to the extent of de tradition, delivered through a succession priving the parents of all vote, or choice, of generations, during between three and in the destination of their child at the four hundred years after the persons had early age of eleven years. I am not lived, and the reported facts had hap- aware that the law confers any such pened. Lastly, under what authority power, which however being granted, lewere the Codex Beza, and the Clermont gality and justice are by no means to be manuscript, written, or supposed to be taken for synonimes.' Much has been written. INDOCTUS.



A in


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