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written and said, and with justice, against crossed a dreary uninviting tract of counthe common practice of transporting try, which continued for several miles, such nutubers of infant paupers to the we descended a hill, and entered on cotton manufactories, where they have the rich and fertile vale that extends on been too generally doomed to a life of either side the little town of Bakewell, misery. Such a destination indeed for which

a few good-looking their necessary maintenance would be houses, and a handsome church, with a voobjectionable, on the conditions of Lolerable inn, and a pleasing appearance their parent's approbation, and the obli- altogether of peculiar neatvess, cleanligations of those who have so great a pro- ness, and beauty. fit on the labour of the children, to take Passing by the ancient mansion be. due care of them, and to proviđe, in cer. longing to the Rutland family, called tain cases, for their return to their wa. Haddon Ilall, we pursued our route from tive home. As to the power of parish. Bakewell through a charming valley lo officers to take childen against the con the village of Worksworth, when, enter. sent of their parents, and send them to a ing on the narrow glen where Matlock's distant part of the country, into an ein- picturesque 'romantic dwellings adorn ployment unfavourable to their health, the mountain's side, we shortly came in and probably for their lives, it too much sight of that enchanting spot so freJesenibles the sale of young slaves in our quently described by tourists, and so colonies, and is a practice on which the universally admired by every one possesfriends of humanity should keep a watch- sing, or professing to possess, a taste for ful eye. In J. W. G's case, indepen- the picturesque beauties of nature. dently of right, surely the indulgence Some years ago, I am assured, that would have been reasonable, of the friend Matlock ivas infinitely more dese ving of who offered, being permitted to take and admiration, than since the increase of its provide for the girl.

buildings, and its having become the With respect to a remedy, perhaps, on resort of gay and fashionable visitors. application, the magistracy would inter. Be that as it may, it still possesses a fere; or a court of justice could give re thousand charms, of which it is scarcely Jief; as the judge would, in a late in. possible for the pen or pencil to convey stance, have compelled the restoration a just representation. The waters are of the young Jew convert to his father, efficacious in cases

of rheuinatism, but for the boy's own discretion, he scurvy, and bile. The baths are convehaving attained liis fourteenth year. But niently situated, and well attended; and the best advice in my power in give, is the water at the spring, has neither a an application of the father tv sir Francis sineli nor taste that is disagreeable. At Burdett, the friend and patron of the Buxton, there are hotels and private poor, who would, should it appear to him lodging. houses, good public tables, and eligible, undoubtedly move the House accomodations for persons of different of Commons on the subject, and yet classes and inclinations. reliet, if relief be attainable, from the Ilaring partaken of a slight repast, we fountain-head; a mode which, beside, ordered supper at a late hour in the cvenmight have the farther and yenersi ing, and commenced our ramble, round use of settling the point of legality, and the environs of this so justly celebrated of checking those oppressions which place, in which there is as singular a must almost unavoidably take place, of combination of grandeur and simplicity the poor and beipless. It is one of our as it is possible to conceive. The vale, common-place boasts, that the law of on one side of whose boundary the houses England is equally just to the rich and are entirely placed, is about three miles the poor; at any rate, it ought to be our in lengedi, in general marrow, and viver perpetual endeavour to realize in prac- sified by woods of finest verdure, rocks, tice, as far as possible, so just and excel- wild and jutting precipices, and small dent a maxim.

LIBER Humo. enclosures fringed with trees of various

kinds; while, in the centre of the narrow For the Monthly Magazine. plain, the Derwent smoothly flows along, LETTERS OF A WASDERER. overhung by a profusion of luxuriant

LETTER III.-To a Friend. becch, and other drooping trees; or bere H Н

AVING formed a party to visit and there, with haste impetien, dishes
Matlock, we proceeded at an

over fallen fragments of the adjacent preearly hour one charming morning, to- cipices, forminy miniature cascades, and svards that delightful spot, and having contributing, by the whiteness of itsfoam,

scene.

to increase the general beauty of the ties of the vale of Matiock, we proceeded

onward, and shortly came in view of the Crossing the river, by a boat kept for spacious mansion of Sir Richard, and the the purpose of conveying visitors to the numerous dwellings of the persons he opposite shore, a little way above the employs daily, to the number of several town, we ascended by a winding path, hundreds, in his extensive cotton manuand gained the summit of the height we factories. This is indeed a different. Jaboured to attain : we stood upon a scene from tne calm sequestered envio high projecting point of rock, some hun- rons of Matlock; but it is by no means dred yards above the lerel of the stream, an unpleasing one; for industry and and looked upon the vale in all its glory, neatness are combined to give an air of diversified by woods of various hues and confort and animation to the whole surspecies ; the windings of the Derwent, rounding district; and cold and unfeelthe greyish-coloured rocks, and whitened ing must be the heart which does not houses embosomed amidst groves of experience gratification at the sight of trees, which, sprouting from every crevice “happy human faces,” or know a sentie in the precipices, give variety and anima- ment of delight at hearing the sounds of tion to a scene of wonderful beauty. merriment and cheerfulness amongst the

Proceeding along the edge of the poorest of their fellow mortals. woody height, the views continually

Of the interior of Cromfit House I varied as we advanced. Beneath our cannot give you a description, for we did feet, a steep and thickly-wooded bank not ask to view its apartments. We were stretched close along the margin of the assured it was elegant, and laid out for stream, while the opposite shore rose the convenience of the owner's family boldly from the water, and appeared and guests; but, as by far the greater almost wholly covered over with roman number of the houses of the affluent ric huınan habitations, huge masses of bear a striking similarity to each other, impending rocks, and a bare and lofty it is little worth while to explore the intehill broken by craggy precipices, and rior of each, or seek to fatigue others by forming a charming contrast to the softer descriptions of what can tend but features of the landscape.

slightly to the gratification of curiosity, Advancing still a little farther onward, nor in any manner interest the admirers the eye takes in a ich of the river, of Nature's unadorned scenery. şımooth and unruflled, and overhung The grounds we however sought and by dark and thickly-spreading wood, obtained permission to walk over, and some whitened houses at a little distance were amplyrepaid for our trouble, by the from the baths, with a rich variety of view of a part of the sweet vale of Matpointed rocks, tufted with trees, and lock, and an extensive tract of the adjaadding to the beauty of a view at once cent country. The walks are tastefully interesting and romantic as imagination formed; and, though not extensive, are

From thence a path leads extremely pretty, and deserving of a to the bottoin of the hill, by which the visit, views are reversed; and every object seen From Cromfit we crossed the country in a different point, forms new and in- to Ashburn, a sweetly situated, clean, teresting pictures of peculiar loveliness pretty town, on the road between Derby and diversity.

and Buxton, and twenty miles from the Till evening closed, and hid the charm- latter. ing landscape from our sight, we conti I had been there years before : but two nued to wander round the environs of of my companions never having been in Matlock; and it was with reluctance we that part of the county, I made no objec. retired to our auberge, where we had an tions to extending our tour thither. As excellent supper, and good beds. The we arrived at an early hour in the evene day had been delightfully fine, and we ing, we had a long stroll ere supper was were all charmed with our ramble, and announced to be upon the table; and eager for the ensuing morn to extend it found much to admire in the various still further, to the cleyant seat of Sir views upon the banks of the Dove, and Richard Arkwright, at Cromfit, about, in the vicinity of the town, where the tho iniles on the orher siile of Matlock. country is beautifully diversified, fertile, We accordingly prepared at an early and finely cultivated, and the air of neat. bour, to pist our former evening's plan in ness so conspicuous even in the buinblest execution; and having again taken a par- of the habitations, peculiarly pleasing. tial survey of the more immediate beau. The church is a tasteful structure, but

unfinished

can conceive.

narrow

unfinished. It had been meant to form intermixture of woods and rocks, and a cross, but has never been completed; patches of softest verdure, the picture was and the tower stands on the north side, one which could not fail to inspire the which was purposed to be elevated from most pleasing sensations, and wild, the middle of the building. The inns, of silent, and solemn as the scene appeared, which there are several in Ashburn, are we were inexpressibly delighted with it. good; and there is a considerable lace No trace of human habitation was seen; inanufactory carried on in the town and no sound was heard, save that of the neighbourhood. Sir Brook Bootheby rushing water, as it played amongst the has a beautiful seat adjoining the towni

, broken pieces of the rocks; we seemed which strangers often visit.

as if shut out from human intercourse; On the succeeding morning, having and a fertile, romantic imagination, inight breakfasted, we began our journey back have formed a variety of pictures, to to Buxton; and whien about a mile from charm the senses, and create ideal strucAshburn, we quitted the turnpike-road, cures of felicity. and sending on the car riages to meet us At the extremity of the dale, we found at a particular spot some miles distant, the carriages in waiting; when, seating we proceeded on foot to the entrance of ourselves again in them, we were shortly the celebrated Dove-dale, a

conveyed over the excellent lime-stone winding valley, to which a guide con- roads, for which that part of the country ducted us, and where we found ourselves is remarkable, and reached our quarters enclosed betwixt two rocky ridges varied at the hotel early in the evening, when in height, and diversified by an assem we concluded the day's ainusement by a blage of broken craggs and jutting preci. visit to the theatre, and laughed away a pices, partly shaded over by groupes of couple of hours at the representation of trees shooting from their crevices, and a popular comedy, and the buttouneries hanging from the sunmits of the frowning of a no less fashionable tarce. cliffs, or wholly bid from sight by thick My stay at Buxton being now com. embowering woods; while, at the bottom pleted, and my anxiety to pursue my meof the dell, the Dove winds amidst an ditated wanderings returning as the peinfinity of shrubs, and broken pieces of riod of departure drew nearer, I deterrocks, sometimes assuming a more hold mined to begin my journey to the northappearance as it dashes over stones and ward; and, two days after my return from fragments that impede the progress of its Matlock, bidding adieu to the friends in waters; at others, smoothly Rowing over whose society I had passed some very its narrow channel with gentle murmur, pleasurable moments, and the newly, reflecting the varied colours of the pen- formed acquaintances whom I had found dant boughs that droop and dip their agreeable during my stay at Buxton, I beautiful luxuriant foliage in the lucid proceeded across the inountainous and streanı. On the rocky boundaries of the dreary tract that intervenes between that dale, some wonderfully picturesque pre. place and the populous smoky town of cipices rise in wild confusion, and give Sheffield; a tract so bleak and uninteradded beauty to the scene: in these, esting as any you can forin an idea of, there are several arches formed as it were excepting for a little space in the vale hy the hand of art, but which, upon where stands the village of Middleton, ascending the steeps to examine, we the approach to which upon the Burton were satisfied were wholly the work of side, is singularly wild and romantic, the nature, and only serving to render the road passing through a very narrow dell scenery around more beautifully pictue of nearly a mile in length, the bouudaries resque.

of which are principally coinposed of The walk we here enjoyed was indeed rocky precipices of a greyish colour, Jelightful; and we were all enchanted formed into a variety of fantastic shapes, with the whole of our excursion. The and in many places resembling the ano weather was charming, the air was clear, cient turrets of a castellateid mansion, or and the softened light thrown on the dif. a ruined fortress; while,broken fragments lerent objects from the sky, contributed scattered on the ground, give adiled with the mildness of the air, to "send force to the idea of their having once into the heart a sunımer feeling." The belonged to the dilapidated monuments sun occasionally only peeped through of grandeur that imagina ion icads the white and slowly-sailing clouds floating observer to fancy bare at some far disa upon the azure horizon, and from the tant period surin unted the craigny partial gleans it cast upon the beautiful boundaries of the way. Tuou be less

ta!ked

talked of than many other wonders of the general benefit; but the local oppression country, this is, in my opinion, a scene still remains. that is peculiarly interesting. It is wild, In an adjacent market-town, we have romantic, solenm, and impressive; recal. a benefit club, by which I have found ling the memory of former times, and in that a very comfortable provision is made the contemplation of the mutilated frag- for members who have been necessi. inents of the proudly soaring precipices tated to recur to its pecuniary assistance. that seem as if fixed for ages in the carth, There are, perhaps, already made, calreminding the observer, that even the culations where such institusions can be world, and the most apparently durable of conducted upon a sure principle ; and I nature's works, are subject to decay; submit it to the candid and benevolent, while in ourselves

whether the following ideas bear an asSwift down the pathway of declining pect of absurdity, and whether philanyears,

thropic and enlightened gentlemen As on we journey through this vale of tears :

would find them of difficult execution. Youth wastes away, and withers like a They do not require balf the concern flower,

which is bestowed upon the game; and The lovely phantom of a fleeting hour; they would find the benefit much greater Mid the light sallies of the mantling soul, than from pulling down cottages, and The smiles of beauty, and the social bowl, taking measures which, in a general Inaudible, the foot of chilly Age

view, are not politie. Steals on our joys, and drives us from the

I would suggest, that a plan upon a stage. Hodgson's Translation of Juvenal. proper footing, upon the principle of a

benefit-club which cannot fail, be estab. Farewell. My next will contain an lished in districts or parishes, as found hasty sketch of my journey to the north, best. I would then recoinmend gentleand scenes more congenial to my taste, men to give notice to their tenants, (mathan are to be found ainongst the din of nufacturers exercising the same power in Lorges, or the busy countenances of mo- relation to their workmen,) not to em31ey-making manufacturers.

ploy persons who did not belong to such a The WANDERER. fund, and pay a proportion, by no means

oppressive, but rated according to their To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine, earnings and families. This fund I

would aid by contributions of the HE

nister, is one of those which are assessment settled among themselves; overburthened with poor; and the cir- such suis being suffered for the first secumstances of distress on one hand, and ven years to accumulate, and thus have injury to the estates on the other, are the operation of a tontine survivorship, equally melancholy in contemplation. in aid of the future demands. For in. Any man possessed of common pru- stance, the population of this parish is dence, must know the peril of letting off more than 3000 persons, and the poor's. projects; but I trust that, what I have rate exceeds 12001. yet the rent-roll of to state, does not come under that denu- the parish scarcely exceeds 3000l. The mination. I conceive, that poor's raies manufacture is cloth-working; and, may be abolished gradually, and that, by when trade has been commonly good, the means absolutely practised by the the weavers, shearmen, and others, can Viser poor themselves.

earn 11. 21. 31. or even 41. per week. The principle of all legislation is to Where would be the cruelty of a manucompel men tv consult what is, in fact, facturer saying, “ John, I pay you so their own good; and prevent their annoys much.. I insist upon your belonging to ance of their neighbours, in life, pro- our institution, according to the ratios of perty, or reputation. The necessity of your family and earnings;" the workman Cncentrating a disproportionate mass of refuses. The natural answer is, Then, I rie population upon one spot, for the will not give you but so much ; and he purposes of manufacture, is a grievous deducts the amount.

Unmarried men, oppression upon the local landbolter, in and servant-maids, could afford to pay 11 any places. He derives no benefit something. Day-labourers could afford fio:r'the labours of that trading popula- little, it is true, wiih families; cottages, tion, and the rent of his farm is propor- with an acre or two of land, and a good Lionally diminished. I do not deny the garden, are the best provision for them; tational profit; I do not deny the but they should never be their own, be

SIR,

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cause they are apt to mortgage or sell form or other expended upon the popu. them; they should be permitted to live Jation; and whether through the con. in them, on condition of never having quests of the enemy, the decay of trade, parochial relief, and paying to the insti. may not render the poor's rates an into tution; and so many cottages of this lerable burthen, will, to politicians who kind, as the quantity of annuai workmen do not consider it scientific to adinit requires upon cacli tarm, should be an mere hope into their calculations, be a nexed to each farin. I would also sug. subject which merits very serious reflecgest, that twice a year accounts should tion. be taken of the state of the population

THOMAS DUDLEY FOSBROOKE, by the vestry, and the increase or de

Horsley, Aug. 26, 1810. crease noted, as well as the sex. I

P. S. If any of the local newspapers think would then suggest, a bounty to be of that my ideas would bo attended with any fered to buys not wanted, upon condi utilicy, at least excite attention to the sube tion of enlisting in the navy, or army; ject; perhaps, in the present scarcity of news, and apprenticing girls. The advantage they may copy this article. of females in trade is inconceivable. They spend, if single, most of their mo For the Monthly Magazine. ney'in dress, all manufacture; and, if OBSERVATIONS on the PRESENT STATE of married to labourers or workinen, the

the COTTON COLONIES. income is consequently doubled of the

(Concluded from page 234.) husband and family.

of reasoning is have proposed no more (ratios of the po the manufacturing interest, which would pulation excepted) than what is abso. accrue from any restriction being imlutely done by the wise and prudent posed on the introduction of foreign propoor themselves. To render wisdom duce.

This would be very true, if we and prudence compulsory in them by bad any great manufacturing rival, which the authority of the master, is no hard. possesed similar naval resources to our ship, unless it can be deemed one, to own; but as no such power bas existence, convert a fool into a sensible man, or the reasoning is inapplicable. There is make a thoughtless fellow less injurious no market in Europe that can enter the to society. The advantages to the poor

lists with that of Great Britain, for cotthemselves, to men of property, and to ton-wool; and America, from moral governent, are self-evident, and the causes, cannot be a manufacturing couns trouble infinitely less. Nothing but mi try for a very long time. Ages may yet litary, discipline can reform the drunken revolve, ere such events take place, or worthless character, and the custom Great Britain therefore is, and must be, of sending such persons ou board a ten the great mart for this kind of produce. der, is the wisest that can be adopted. Ainerica must pour it in increasing quan.

Parliament rarely interferes to any ex ticies ; nor can she be restricted from tent in the internal concerns of the coun doing so, but by regulations which 110 try; but how any body of inen can accu man in his senses would wish to see prorately legislate, without annual returns of mulgated. the population, and their several employs One means of bringing the American and avocations distinguished, is to me in and the British cotion-planter to an explicable. I am satisfied that it would equality, is to double the duty on all be wholly in its power, by easy means, foreign cotton, now taxed the same as and better, perhaps, than I have sug that of our own colonists, and to take off gested, for the Quakers have actually the whole of the duty paid by British done it, gradually to abolish poor's rates; cotton-wool. By doing this, the public but it is the curse of every honest heart, revenue would be increased to a sum and every friend to improvement, that exceeding the present duties on cottonhe is.compelled to find “ oracular dog. wool of British as well as furoogn mas,” and “lions in the way,” let the growth, by several thousand pounds, good, proposed be ever so inighty. In while the average price would remain tiie the imposition of taxes, difficulties are saine, the exorbitant proties of the fo. only made to be overcome; in the alle reign cotton-planter being reduced; and viation of them, the converse is the fact. those of the Britisha proprietor reasonably In every country where interest is paid increased : or, in fact, by making too for money, its wbole income is in some reigners contribute something to a coun,

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