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Can we behold the blessings He bestows, Those friends accurst, who fain, with sceptic From che proud cedar to the modest rose,

leav'n, Nor instant feel our rebel hearts subdu'd Would poison all his confidence in Hear'n. By that first duty humble gratitude ?

And tho calm Reason proves this world deTko' short our ken, yet e'en on earth we sign'd find

To try, but not to recompence, mankind, Sorrow oft proves a med’cine to the mind : Still he repines at ev'ry stroke of Fate, And when this mortal veil, which clouds our Nor trusts to blessings in an after-state. sight,

Insensate wretch! still suffer, still comIs pierc'd by immortality's clear light,

plain, Then, shall we learn the cause of every woe Still seek, with earthly balms, to ease thy Which blighted our upstable joys below:

pain; Then, causes and effects alike will shine Too late chou'lt learn, his conflicts ne'er can The emanations of a love divine.

cease, But man, too fond of earth, ne'er looks on Who madiy slights the only mean of peace ; high,

Too late thou'lt find, thy ev'ry hope will To read the mystic wonders of the sky;

fade, Or, if he read, no steady credence gives, If plac'd on human, not celestial, aid. Because he hears, and ott, alas! believes



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. hydrogen with great rapidity, and in WE,

E are now to give some account which these gases could be detonated,

of the experiments made and without the exposure of the water to described by Mr. Davy, to this learn- the atmosphere. The water used had ed body, on nitrogen, ammonia, and the been most carefully purged of air, and amalgam from ammonia. In reasoning after the first detonation of the oxygen on the phenomena produced by the ac- and hydrogen, there was a residuum ot tion of potassium upon ammonia, the about oth of the volume of gases, professor suggested, that nitrogen might and after every succeeding detonation possibly consist of oxygen and hydrogen, this residuum was found to increase, or, that it might be composed from till at length, after about fifty detonations water.

had been made, it equalled more than He has now made a great number of th of the volume of the water.

This laborious experiments, in the hope of solve being examined by the test of nitrous ing this problem, the results of which, gas, was found to contain no oxygen, though for the most part negative, he has but that it consisted of 2.6 of hydrogen, fully stated, with the hope of elucidating and 3:4 of a gas having the characters some points of the discussion. The of nitrogen. The experiment seemed formation of nitrogen has been often in favour of the idea of the production asserted to take place in many processes, of nitrogen from pure water, in these in which none of its known combina- electrical processes. Another experiment tions were concerner; and the discovery was instituted on still more accurate of Priestley, on the passage of gases principles, the result of which seemed through red-hot tubes of earthen-ware; to shew that 'nitrogen is not formed the accurate researches of Berthollet, during the electrical decomposition and and the experiments of Bouillon la recomposition of water, and that the Grange, have afforded a complete solu- residual gas is hydrogen, and that the tion of the problem. One of the most hydrogen should be in excess, was restriking cases in which nitrogen has been ferred to a slight oxidation of the pla. supposed to appear, without the pre- tina. The experiments of Mr. Cavensence of any other matter but water, dish on the detlagration of mixtures of which can be conceived to supply its oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, lead elements, is in the decomposition and directly to the conclusion, that the rocomposition of water by electricity. nitrous acid, sometimes generated in To ascertain if nitrogen could be gene- experiments on the production of water, rated in this manner, Mr. Davy had an owes its origin to nitrogen, mixed with apparatus made, by which a quantity of the oxygen and hydrogen, and is never water could be acted upon by Voltaic produced from these two gases alone; electricity, so as to produce oxygen and and Mr. Davy refers to facts ascertain


ed by himself, and described in the became white hot; the potassium róse Bakerian Lecture for 1800, which like- in vapour; and, by increasing the diswise seem to shew that the nitrous acid tance of the cup from the wire, the which appears in many processes of the electricity passed through the vapour of Voltaic electrization of water, cannot the potassium, producing a most brilliant be formed unless nitrogen be present. fame, of from half an inch to an inch

In answer to the objection that both and a quarter in length, and the vapour acids and alkalies may be produced from seemed to combine with the platina, pure water, other very demonstrative which was thrown off in small glubules, experiments were made, viz, one series in a state of fusion, producing an appearin a jar filled with oxygen gas, and ano- ance similar to that produced by the ther in

an apparatus, in which glass, combustion of iron in oxygen gas. In water, mercury, and wires of platina, all trials of this kind hydrogen was prowere present. In the first, the result duced, and in some of them there was a was, that in no instance in which slowly loss of nitrogen. This seemed to lead distilled water was employed, and in to the inference that nitrogen is decom. which the receiver was filled with pure posed, but in other experiments it was oxygen from oxymuriate of potash, certain there was no serisit : quantity of was any acid or alkali exhibited; even nitrogen lost. The largest proportion of when nitrogen was present, the indica- nitrogen which disappeared in any extions of the production of acid and periment was the ă of the quantity alkaline matter were very feeble. In used, and though it cannot be positively tbe. secund series of experiments, the inferred that it was not decomposed, yet oxygen and hydrogen produced from Mr. Davy thinks it more likely that water, were collected under mercury, the loss is owing to its combination with and the two portions of water com- nascent hydrogen; and its being sepamunicated directly with each other; and rated with the potassium in the form of in several trials, it was always found pyrophoric sublimate, which is always that fixed alkali separated in the glass produced when potassium is electrized negatively electrified; and that a very mic and converted into vapour in ammonia. nute quantity of acid was observable in Mr. D. mentions other experiments: the glass positively electrified: but whe- but after all, he candidly says, that the ther the acid was owing to impurities general tenor of these enquiries cannot which rise in the distillation with the be considered as strengthening in any the mercury, or to muriatic acid existing considerable degree, the suspicion which in the glass, Mr. Davy does not deter. he had formed of the decomposition of mine; he says, however, as common salt nitrogen. He stated all the strong obperfectly dry, is not decomposed by jections that occurred to him against the silex, it seems very likely that muriatic mode of explaining the phenomena, by acid in its arid state may exist in combi- supposing nitrogen decomposed in the nation in glass.

operation ; but, at the same time, obe Mr. Davy next states the results of serving that they must nut be considered the investigations which he had made as decisive on this complicated and obe on the production of nitrous acid and scure question; and he adds, the opposite aminonia, in various processes carried view of the subject may be easily der on by himself, and then proceeds to fended. notice some attempts which he made to The professor next treats of the dedecompose nitrogen by agent;, which he composition of ammonia; and, in refe. conceived might act at the same time on rence to former experiments, he says, the oxygen, and on the basis of nitrogen. production of an amalgam from ammonia, Potassium subliines in nitrogen without which regenerated volatile alkali, appaaltering it, or being itself changed, and renely by oxidation, confirmed the notion he suspected that the case might be of the existence of oxygen in this sub different, if this powerful agent were stance, at the same time it led to the made to act upon nitrogen, assisted by suspicion, that of the two gases sepa. the intense lieat and decomposing ener- rated by electricity, one, or perhaps gy of Voltaic electricity. The experi- both, might contain metallic matter ment was tried: the phenomena were united

to oxygen; and the results very brilliant; as soon as the contact of the distillation of the fusible subwith the potassium was made, there was stance from potassium and ammonia, always a bright liglit, so intense as to be may probably be explained on such a painful to the eye : the platina used, supposition.' Ile has made a number


of experiments upon the decomposi- matter existing in the amalgam of ammo. tion of considerable quantities of am- nia? and what is the metallic basis of the inonia, in which nothing was present volatile alkali? These are questions not

but the gas, the metals for conveying easily solved; but Mr. D. says, that, in the electricity, and the glass'; and every bis former communication on the anal.

possible precaution used to prevent error; gam of aminonia, he stated, that, under and in all instances it was found, that all the common circumstances of its there was no loss of weight of the appa- production, it seems to preserve a quan. ratus, vor any deposition of moisture ity of water adhering to it, which may during or after the electrization, but the he conceived to be sufficient to oxidate wires used were uniformly tarnished; and, the metal, and to re-produce the amo in one instance in which surfaces of monia. He is even unable to form it brass were used, a small quantity of from ammonia in a dry state; neither olive-coloured matter formed on the the amalgams of potassium, sodium, or metal; but though in this case nearly barium, produce it in ammoniacal gas; eight cubical inches of ammonia were and when they are heated with muriate decomposed, the weight of the oxidated of ammonia, unless the salt is moist, matter was so minute as to be scarcely there is no metallization of the alkali. sensible. In these experiments the in- The amalgam, wbich he has reason to be. crease of gas was uniformly from 100 to lieve can be made most free from ada 185, and the hydrogen was to the nitro. bering moisture, is that of potassiuin, gen in the average proportions of from mercury, and aimonium in a solid state: 73 74 to 27•20; and assuming the com- this decomposes very slowly, even in mon estimations of the specific gravity contact with water, and when it has of aminonia, of hydrogen, and nitrogen, heen carefully wiped with bibulous paper, Mr. Davy's former conclusions are sup- bears a considerable heat without altes ported by these new experiments: as

ration. The ratio between the hydrogen they were also when the relative specific and ammonia produced from the amalgravities of these gases were taken with gam; is taken as one to two; and if this the utmost degree of precision possible, be accurate, then it will follow, that by means of the delicate balance belong. ainmonia, supposing it to be an oxyde, ing to the Royal Institution. The speci- must contain 48 per cent, of oxygen, fic gravities thus taken are,

which will agree with the relations of Nitrogen, 100 cubical inches - 29.8 grains the attractions of this alkali for àcids to Hydrogen

those of other salifiable bases. If hya Ammonia

18.4 drogen be a simple body, and nitrogen The lately-discovered facts in chemis, an oxyde, then on the hypothesis above try, says Mr. Davy, concerning the im. stated, nitrogen would consist of nearly portant modifications which bodies may 48 of oxygen and 34 of base: but if hya undergo by slight additions or subtrac- drogen and nitrogen are both oxydes of tions of new matter, ought to render us the same metal, tien the quantity of cautious in deciding upon the nature of oxygen in nitrogen must be less. These the process of the electrical decompo- views are the most obvious on the antisition of ammonia. It is possible, he phlogistic hypothesis of the nature of adds, that the minute quantity of oxygen metallic substarces; but if the facts which appears to be separated, is not concerning ammonia were reasoned upon, accidental, but a result of the decom- independently of other chemical phenoposition, and if hydrogen and nitrogen mena, they might be more readily exve both oxydes of the same base, the plained the notion of nitrogen being possibility of the production of different a base, which became ulkaline by comproportions of water, in difcrent ope- bining with one portion of hydrogen, and rations, might account for the variations netallic by combining with a greater ouserved: but on the whole, the idea proportion. that ainmonia is decomposed into hy. The solution of the question concern. drogen and nitrogen alone by electricity, ing the quantity of matter added to the and that the loss of weight is no inore mercury in the formation of the amalgam than is to be expected in processes of so depends on this discussion: for if the delicate a kind, is in his opinion, the phiogistic view of the subject be adopted, most defensible view of the subject. The amalgam must be supposed to conBut it will be asked, If ammonia be ca. tain nearly twice as much matter as it is pable of decomposition into nitrogen and conceived to contain on the bypothesis hay drugeuWhat is the nature of the of deoxygenation. Mr. D. did forinerly



rate it at the robooth part only, but this results, yet he conceives that they may
is the least quantity that can be assumed, not be devoid of useful applications. It
the mercury being supposed to give off does not seem improbable that the pas.
One-half its volume of ammonia; and he sage of steam over het manganese, may
is now inclined to think it may contain be applied to the manufacture of vitrous
the roooth of new matter on the anti- acid: and there is reason to believe that
phlogistic theory, and about goth on the ignition of charcoal and potash, and
the phlogistic theory. The professor their exposure to water, may be advan-
concludes this part of his subject by obe tayeously applied to the production of
serving, that though the researches on volatile alkali, in countries where fuel is
the decomposition and composition of cheap.
nitrogen, have produced only negative

(To be concluded in our next.)

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MONTHLY RETROSPECT OF THE FINE ARTS. The Use of all New Prints, Communications of Articles of Intelligence, &c, aro

requested under Cover to the Care of the Publisher. Mr. Landseer's Obserwations on the Plan of the which the title-page promises; and we are Chalcographic Society.

deluded (after purchasing this plan to FEW months ago, the writer of improve our stock of knowledge in plangazine, thought it necessary to speak in reserved it for the private inspection of praise of a plan submitted to the public such gentlemen as may chuse to consult for improving the art of engraving in him. We marvel he did not add, acEngland by the Chalcographic Society; companied with the fee of a Bank of and neither the ill-natured remarks of England note. If we believe the very Mr. Landseer thereon, a re-consideration modest Mr. Landseer, it would seem of both pamphlets, his own commen

that all talent, and all wisdom, is centred datory article, nor the patronage the in himself, and that no share whatever scheme has received, induces him to belongs to the respectable men who forma alter his opinion. The circumstances the society he opposes; and because they shat led to Mr. Landseer's ill-tempered love quiet and attention to their art, bet. letter on this praise-worthy society, and

ter than those disputes and bickerings bis illiberal, ungentlemanly, abuse ofsome that must be the consequence of admitof its members, are brietiy as follows, and ting into their society a man, who was which are here inserted in support of the justly defined, a short time since, by an former observations offered on the pub

artist of high rank and talents, as a " lite lished plan of the Chalcographic Society.

tie man who is always vexed." It is Mr. Landseer was proposed, at his own truly astonishing and lamentable, that request, to be a member of the society, a man of Mr. Landseer's talents as an and rejected at the ballot. In the spleen engraver, should desert bis burin for of his disappointment, he published the the pen, and enter into unprovoked hospamphlet now under consideration. Its tility against his contemporaries. It is object appears, from the title-page, to be

a misfortune even for the public, but a fair observations on the plan; but its real greater to himself; for its consequences objects are the excitement of mistrust must recoil upon him. He would do well and disunion between the members of

to consider that, before he so broadly at" the Society for the Encouragement of tacks the characters of others, that his own the Art of Engraving,” and those of the is not of that unsullied nature that will

Chalcographic Society;" to thwart the put him out of the reach of retaliation: views of the latter by misrepresentation let him remember the old Spanish proand calumny; and to distract the former verb: "That he who has a house of glass, in the exercise of their patronage, by a

should not begin to throw stones at his confusion of doubts and scruples.

neighbour's.” The letter (for so it is called, although Essays of the London Arcbitectural Society no name is given to whom it is addressed)

Published by order of the Society. Taylor, is a curious specimen of absurdity, spleen,

Holborn. malignity, and, we might say, falsehood; This is the second volume of essays by for we in vain look for the « view of imó a Society of gentlemen, who have incorproving their scheme of patronage," rated themselves for the mutual study



and improvement of this branch of the siderable ability; and, as the conclusions Fine Arts. The first essay is by the pre- are the result of practice, there can be sident, (Joseph Woods, jun. F.L.S.) on 110 hesitation in recommending it to the Dodern theories of Taste, and is rather a attention of the profession at large. D. review of Allison, Burke, Price, and The Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain, Knight's theories, than an original pro- displayed in a Series of Engravings, with an ject. The author combats some, and bistorical and descriptive Account of each Sub. argues ably on others, of the ingenious, ject. By John Britt01, F.S.A. Part II. but con fine drawn, speculations of mo- No. IV. of Vol. III. Longman and Co. dern theorists. This essay adds consider- Taylor, and obe Author. ably to the general stock on this undefi- This is the fourth Number of the third ned, and perhaps undefinable, feeling; but volume of this very useful work, both it is not so closely applied to architecture, to the architect and the antiquary. The as might have been expected from a pro. plans are architecturally faithful, and the fessor in the art. The second essay is views at once scientific, useful, and picBrg Mr. Savage, (vice-president), on

turesque. This Nurnber contains seven Bridge-building, and displays much know- engravings, froin St. George's Chapel, ledge of the subject, and sound reasoning. Windsor, viz. 1. A View of Beauchamp's The theories of Di. Huiton, Ar. Atts Monument, &c. 2. Fine Specimens wood, and the Encyclopædists (in Dr. of Groininy, &c. 3. Groininys over the Rees's edition) are carefully and ably organ screen to the Great Western examined, and their defects boldly Window. 4. The Great Western Winpointed out, Mr. Savage, as might be dow. 5. Fitzwilliain's Monument. 6. expected from a practical architect, South-west view of the Chapel. 7. In. (which Dr. Hutton expressly declares his terior View of the North-aisle: wbich last treatise not to be written with the feels is one of the inost beautiful specimens ings uf) gives examples as well as pre- of perspective engraving, particularly cepe; but, as only part of bis essay is the distance, which has appeared for a printed in this volume, a close investio long sine, and reflects great credit on gation of the author's principles must be Mr. H. Le Keux, the engraver. deferred till its conclusion. The next and lasť essay is on Foundations, by Mr. James Elmes, (vice-president), in which this The Arts have sustained another loss fundamental branch of architective skill, of an able son, and the Royal Academy as practised by the greatest architects, of a worthy member, in Mr. Zifanij, who is brought to the test of practice, and as " sbuffled off his mortal coil” in the be. boldly condemned where he considers ginning of last month. Johann Zoffanij, them erroneous. This is a practice esq. R.A. (sometimes called Sir Johann that deserves commendation, and should Zoffanij) portrait and historical painter, be oftener done; for great names often was born at Frankfort; and arrived in countenance great errors. Of the inten- England to study the arts, about the tion and contents of this highly-useful, year 1764, and suffered much from poessay, Mr. Elmes shall speak for hin- rerty and want of encouragement; fron self in the following quotation. “Having which state he was rescued by lord Barthus quoted the opinions of some archi- rington, whose portrait he painted. tects, whose practical and theoretical Shortly after this he visited Italy, with knowledge have procured them the just recommendations from his Majesty to the distinction of masters in the science, I. grand duke of Tuscany; and while at shall proceed in the first section of the Florence, he painted his celebrated picfollowing essay, (by way of suinmary,) to ture of the Florence Gallery. He altercollect them to a focus, which I shall wards returned to England, which he denoininate the Ancient Practice. In left for India, where he received much the second, to narrate my own method encouragement; and has of late lived in in common cases, detailing some diffi- privacy. The style of Zoffanij's works, culties that have occurred, with the are truth of expression, a fine deep tone methods used to overcome them, and the of colour, and high finishing in the de. event of their success. And in the tail. His principal works are portraits of third, a compendium of rules drawn dramatic perforniers of the time of Care from the aboie-sources, wiich I shall rick, King, Shuter, &c.; a picture einfcall the Modern English Practice of bracing portraits of all the iné onbers of forming Foundations." These investiga-, the Royal Academy; a similar one of tions the author has executed with con, the Royal Family, &c. MONTULY Mag, No. 206.




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