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108 309



ABERYSTW IT, improvements at 25: Artillery, improved method of increas;55 ,

the effects of Academy, meeting of the Royal 561 Artist's fund, account of the

54 Acadernies, pretended history of 70


357 Acts of parliament, new

546 Arts, retrospect of the fine, 52, 161, Addison, on the style of


261, 442, 560 Affairs, state of public, 73, 168, 272, As, on the improper use of the particle

364, 456, 562 African institution, report of the 54 Ashburn, description of Agoona country in Africa, accounts of Assa fætida, description of

132 the 215 Asses, used in agriculture

485 Agricultural report

194 Asthma, effectnal remedy for convalsocieties, proceedings of sive, 129. See Stramonium. the, 84, 85, 90, 93, 190, 285, 469, Avening, Gloucestershire, acvient

471, 476, 576 sculptores at Aienton, experiment relative to the 507 Axie-trees, improvement in

640 Alkalies, on the fixed 439 | Backsword playing, on

24 Alligator, account of a fossil

267 Balsam of Mecca, account of 133 Almonds, ancient account of

344 Banks, on the odiuin cast against coup. Aloe in flower, account of an


419 Aloes, where produced


number of one Pound notes, is. Amelia, princess, memoir of 462 sued by

554 America, travels in North

413 Bankers, proposed regulations for, 6, post office, establishment of

35. 103 on the abuses of

109 expeditions from


on the speculatious of 927 state of

579 Banking system, vindication of the proclamation of the presi

110 dent of

565 Bankruptcies, lists of, 78, 166, 263, (South) revolution in 1770

369, 460, 566 Aminoniac, description of guin 132 Bardolph, on Shakespeare's character Anecdotes of John Silieksi

350 of
of a painter
345 Baring, Sir F. memoirs of

of sir John Tabor
559 Barnes, Dr. memoirs of

134 Anholt, forifications of the isle of

168 Barometer, an improved mountain 449 Animal secretions, on the

151 Bath agricultural society, premiums Antiquary's visit to London

of the

93 Antiquities, discovery of, 153, 156,

description of an eye

155 192, 267, 284, 289, 357, 485, 591 improvement at

285 Apple tree, a reinarkable 189 dreadful accident at

587 Aquatic sledge, a description of 556 Baths, inventress of hot

249 Arches, on the Emersiou theory of

357 12 Bavaria, biography of the artists of Architectural essays 443 Bdellium, description of

132 Arms, artificial

69 Beans, method of keeping French 356 Armstrong, letters of general 76 Beaumaris, gift to the church of


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Bedford, on the statue of the duke of 123 Cambridge, annual prizes at
Bell, Dr. his benefaction 187, 354 Cannibals, account of a feast of
Bells, account of electric
449 Cannon, sure method of pointing

S17 Belvoir castle, description of

20 Canecbury, projected canal at Bencoolen, state of the plantations at 156 Caraccas declared independent Berkshire, walks in

15 Cari's, origin of agricultural meeting 295 Carey, Dr. on saving ships and Wilts canal opened 482 Carlisle, Mr. his anatomical lectures 561 account of a ride in

506 Carriages, improvements in 251, 017 Bethlem hospital, reinoval of 68, 266 Carter, John, account of Bible society instituted

52 Catalogues, on forming book
known to Virgil
557 Catullus, chararter of

119 Birmingham, report of the dispensary Caves, pscription of remarkable

381, 475 Cemetery, discorery of an ancient 191 report of the guardians Chalcographic sece'y vindicated 412 of the poor at 582 Chalıners, James, account of

1:3 Bishop, account of a Portuguese 565 Champneys, Mr, memoirs of Bishop Wearmouth, Bible society at 82 Change, scarcity of small

11 improvement at 575 | Charcoal, on the combustion of Black, an improvement in ivory 160

- accident from burning 593 Blenheim, a visit to

509 Charles II. account of the escape of 137 Blind, on the education of the

67 Chatsworth, description of an hospital for, at Plymouth 288 Cheltenham, completion of the rail. Bohan opas tree, account of the

road at

68 Lombycine, description of


letters from 117, 208, 509 Books, analyses of scarce, 44, 137,

chalybeate spring at 383 246, 342, 432, 532 Chemistry, improvements in animal 131 Booksellers, on the conduct of 121 Chesnuis, nises of horse

69, 355 Botanical reports, 98, 197, 293, 388, Chester charity school, state of 579

487, 592 Chickens, on the diseases of 235, 404 Bottles, paper stoppers for

556 Children of the poor, on the treatBourton, (Dorset) new church at 94 ment of

105, 306 Bourbon, capture of the isle of 307

on defects in the pronunciaBreweries, state of the London 80 tion of

398 Brewing, an improvement in

445 China, an old embassy to Bridge, proposal for a new 570 Chinese charactrr, a

545 Brilges, improved inode of construct

woman in London

448 ing 449 Cholera, observations on

971 Brighton, proposal for supplying it Chorinzian Buates, account of the

358 with water

481 Cid, account of the play of the Bristol, proposed canal at 93, 154 Claget's aict in, experiment relative benevolent institution at 190 to

5117 Britford sheep fair

285 Clavi-cylinder, account of the S05 British Museum,on the Townley mar C'ay, discovery of a vein of fine oss bles in the

101, 206 Clifton, proposed chapel at on the management Clock, a living of the 237 Cloths, improreneutin woollen

63 vindicatel

329 Clumber-park, Nottinghamshire, deparliamentary grants scription of

20 69, 154, 275 Cock, anecdote of a British Institution, premiums of the 162 pit, suppression of the royal

remarks on 262 Cockermouth, improvements at 376, 469 Buenos Ayres, revolution at

170 Coins, discovery of aucient, 192, 28+, Buildings, iinprovement in the con

289, 455 struction of

159 Cold, method of producing artificial 269 Bulkeley, lord, donation of

288 Columbia, colony at the mouth of the 426 Bull, instance of gratitude in a 236 Colling's, Mr. sale of cattle

575 Bullion committee, report of the 491 Commercial reports, 95, 194, 291, Burke, on an expression of


387, 456, 591 Burns, the birth-placo of

289 Commons, on reform in the house of S05 Busaco, battle of

364 Consumption, observations on Buxton, description of

111 Copal, account of the gum Cadiz, recept voyage to, 34, 202, 315, 499 Copenhagen;questions of the academy Calculus, a remarkable 150 at

1 Calcutta, earthquake at


medal, adjudgincnt of the 2 Caledoo, lord, letter of 57 Corn, machine for threshing




is illustrated by the account which has been bank paper which will not be checked; the already given of the excess, and sub foundation being enlarged, the superstrucsegrent limitation, of the paper of the ture admits of a proportionate extension. Scotch banks, about the year 1763. If And thus, under such a system, the expess the bank of England paper itself should at of bank of England paper will produce it; any time, during the suspension of cash effect upon prices not merely in the ratio payments, be issued to excess, a

of its own increase, but in a much higher sponding excess may be issued of country proportion.


Number of coantry bank notes exceeding 21. 23. each, stainped in the years

ended the Vih of October 1508, and 10th of October 1909, respectively,



No. 666,071.. 198,473.

Exceeding 21. 2s. and not esceeding 51. Is.
Exceeding 5l. 5s. and not exceeding 201.
Exceeding 201. an: not exceeding 301.
Exceeding 301. and n it exceeding 501.
Escueding 501. and not exceeding 1001.

No. 922,073. 380,006. 2,425.

674. 2,611.

Assuming that the notes in the two first actual circulation, which cannot have been of these classes were all issued for the lowest very considerable, and also making an aldenomination to which the duties respec. lowance for some increase in the amount of tively attach, and such as are most coin such country paper, as, though stamped monly met with in the circulation of country may not be in actual circulation. This is paper, viz. notes of 51. and 101. (although crease in the general paper currency in in the second class there is a considerable last year, even after these deductions, number of 201.] and even omitting altoge- would probably be little short of the ther from the comparison the notes of the amount which in almost any one year,since three last classes, the issue of which your the discovery of America, has been added committee understands is in fact confined to the circulating coin of the whole of to the chartered banks of Scotland, the Europe. Although, as your committee result would be, that, exclusive of any has already had oecasion to observe, no increase in the number of notes under 21. certain conclusion can be drawn from the 2s. the amount of country bank paper numerical amount of paper in circulation, stamped in the year ended the 10th of Oc- considered abstractedly froin all other cir. tober 1309, has exceeded that of the year cumstances, either as to such paper being ended on the 19th of October 1808, in the in excess, or still less as to the proportion sum of 3,095,340. Your committee can of such excess; yet they must remark, that form ao positive conjecture as to the amount the fact of any rery great and rapid inof country bank paper cancelled and with crease in that amount, when coupled and drawn fiom circulation in the course of the attended with all the indications of a delast year. But considering that it is the preciated circulation, does afford the in tres and praciire of the country bankers strongest confirmatory evidence, that, to use she saine putes as long as possible; from the want of some adequate check, the that, as the law now stands, there is no li- issues of such paper have not been restrain. mitat ur of time to the re-issuing of those ed within their proper limits. not exceeding 21. 25.; and that all abore Your committee cannot quit this part of that amount are re-issutable for three years the subject without further observing, that from the date of their first issuing; it ap- the addition of between four and five milpears difficult to suppose that the amount lions sterling to the paper circulation of of notes above 21. 25. caricelled in 1809, this country, has doubtless been made at could be equal to the whole amount stamp a very small expence to the parties issuing ed in 1808 ; but eren upon that supposi- it, only about 100,0001. baving been paid tion, there would still be an ipcrease for therenpon in stamps to the revenue, and 1809 in the notes of 51. and 101. alone, to probably for the reasons already stated, no the amount above specified of 3,095,3401., corresponding deposits of gold or Bank of to which must be added an increase within England notes being deemed by the cuunthe same period of Bank of England notes try banks necessary to support their addito the amount of about 1,500,0001., mak- tional issues. These parties therefore, it ing in the year 1809, an addition in the may be fairly stated, have been enabled whole of between four and five millions to under the protection of the law, which vire the circulation of Great Britain alone, de- tually secures them against such demands, ductiog only the gold which may bave been to create within the last year or fifteen withdrawn in the course of that year from months, at a very trifling expence, and in MONIHLY MAG. No. 208.

4 2

a manner almost free from all present risk the very high price of bullion, and next to to their re-pective credits as dealers in pa- that, the low state of the continental ex. per money, issues of that article to the changes; that this exress is to be ascribed ainount of several millions, operating, in to the want of a sufficient check and conthe first instance and in their hands, as trol in the issues of papir frum the bank capital for their own benefi', and when used of England ; and originally, to the suspenas sucb by them, falling into anil in suc sion of cash paymen's, which removed the ce«sion mixing itself with the mass of cir- natural and true control. For upon a geculation of which the value in exchange neral view of the subject, your committee for all other conmodities is gradually low are of opinion, that no safe, certain and ereil in proportion as that mass is ang constantly adequate provision against an meniel. If your committee could be of excess of paper currency, either occasional opinion that the wisdom of parliament or perinanent, can be found, except in the would not be directed to apply a proper convertibility of all such paper into specie. rem-ry !o a state of things so uunatural, Your committee cannot, therefore, but see and teeming, if not corrected in time, with reason to regret, that the suspension of cash ultimale eus querces so prejudicial to the payments, which, in the most favourable public welfore, they would not hesitate to liglit in which it can be viewed, was only a declare an opinion, that some mode ought temporary measure, has been continued se to be derived of enabling the state to par- long; and particularly, that by the manticipate inuch more largely in the protits ner in which the present continuing act is accruing from the present systein ; but as framed, the character should have been this is by no means the policy they wish to given to it of a permanent war measure. recommend, they will conclude their ob Your committee conceive that it would servations on this part of the subject, hy be siperduous to point, out in detail, the observing, that in proportion as they inost disadvantages which must result to the fully agree with Dr. Adam Smith and all country, from any such general excess of the most able writers and statesmen of this currency as lowers its relative value. country, in considering a paper circulation The efiect of such an augmentation of constantly convertible into specie, as one prices upon all money transactions for of the greatest practical improvements time; the unavoidable injury suffered by which can be made in the political and do- annuitants, and by creditors of every demestic economy of any state ; and in view. scription, both private and public; the ing the establishment of the country banks uniutended advantage gained by govern- issuing such paper as a most valuable aud meut aud all other debtors ; are conseessential oranchof that i'n provenient in this quences too obvious to require proof, and kingdom; in the same proportion, is your too repugnant to justice to be left withcoinmittee anxious to revert, as speedily out remedy. By far the most important as possible, to the former practice and state portion of this effect appears to your of things in this respect: convinced on the committee to be that which is communione hand, that any thing like a permanent cated to the wages of common country and syste natic departure from that prac. labour, the rate of which, it is well known, tice must altimately lead to results, which adapts itself more slowly to the changes ainong other attendant calamities, would which happen in the vaiue of money, than be destructive of the system itself ; and the price of any other species of labour or on the other, that such an event would be cominudity. And it is enough for your tbe more to be deprecated, as it is only in committee to allude to some classes of the a country like this, where good faith, both public servants, whose pay, if once raised public and private, is held so high, and in consequence of a depreciation of money, where, under the happy union of liberty cannot so conveniently be reduced again to and law, property and the securities of its former rate, even after money shall every description by which it is represented bave recovered its value. The future proare equa'ly protected against the encroach- gress of these inconveniencies and evils, if ments of power and the violence of popular not checked, miist at no great distance of commotivi, that the advantages of this time, work a practical conviction upon the system, unaccompanied with any of its minds of all those who may still doubt dangers, can be permanently enjoyed, and their existence; but even if their progrescarried to their fullest extent.

sive increase were less probable than it Upon a review of all the facts and rea. appears to your committee, they cannot sonings which have been submitted to the help expressing an opinion, that the inconsideration of your committee in the tegrity and bonour of parliament are concourse of their enquiry, they have formed cerned, not io authorise, longer than is an opinion, which they submit to the required by imperious vecessity, the conhouse :--that there is at present an excess tinuance in this great commercial country in the paper circulation of this country, of of a system of circulation, in which that which the most unequivocal symptom is natural check or controul is absent which



Letters from lord Caledon, 57. Dr.

Roxbargh 59. General Armstrong,
&c. 76, 169. Of a wanderer, 111,
170, 211, 307, 412. From Chel-
tenham, 117, 228, 509. General
Crausord, Lord Wellington, 172,
273, 361, 454. Col. Keating, 367.
Mrs. Montague, 435. Sir J. Stu-

Literature Landi's Deseription of the
Feroe Islands

Hamiltnn's Remarks ou sc-
Veral Parts of Turkey 663


Chaliners's History of the

University of Oxford 664
Hutton's Trip to Coatham 667
Sir R. Hare's History of
ancient Wiltshire

art, 459.


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Lewes, account of the town hall at 188
Lewis, John, account of

Lightning, ruck split by

Lincoln heath, pillaron

Lincolnshire, great storm in.

improvements in

dreadful inundations in

425, 471
Lint, description of a new species of 355
Literary and philosophical intelligence

65, 152, 265, 343, 496, 562
Literature lycæum of anrient, 81, 119, 398


Dr. Hales's Analysis of

Bruce's Annals of the East
India Company

Playfair's British Family

Southey's History of Brazil ib.
The Annual Register for1795 655


Bruwi on Vaccination
Cooke's Treatise on linea

Capitis contagiosa
Dr. Faulkener's Considera-
tions on the Establishment
of an Hospital
Cursory Remarks on Corpu-




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Biblia hebraica, or the He-
brew scriptures of the Old

Bevans's Brief Review of

Christian Doctrines ib.
Works of the Rev. Thomas
Townson, D.D.

The Wisdom of the calvinis-
tic Methodists, by T. Wit-

Dr. Valpy's Address to his
Parishion ers

Moore's Attempt to throw

farther Light on Isaiah ib.
Culinson's Analysis of
Hooker's Ecclesiastical

Dr.Pearson on Church Com.

Dr. Haggitt's consecration

Peacock's Genius of the

Sotheby's Constance deCas.

Southey's Curse of Kehama 674
Miss Mitford's poems 675
Pratt's Lower World

Ritson's Northern Garlands 676


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Aiton's Hortus Kewensis 656
Martin's Petrificata Derbe-

Haynes's Interesting Dis-
coveries in Horticultare 658




Dr. Clarke's Travels
HoxTALT Mac. No. 206.

Dr.Sherwin on the Cbatter-
tonian Manuscripts 676

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