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282.

6. Five classes of Old Testament types :-

CHAPTER XI.

(1) Typical persons, 248.

Symbolico-Typical Actions.

(2) Typical institutions, 249.

(3) Typical offices, 249.

1. Actions performed in vision, 277.

(4) Typical events, 249.

2. Symbolico-typical acts of Ezek. iv and

(5) Typical actions, 249, 250.

V:-

7. Hermeneutical principles to be ob-

(1) The acts outward and real, 278, 279.
served:

(2) Five objections considered, 279, 280.

(1) All real correspondencies to be noted, 250. 3. Other symbolical acts, 281.

1. The brazen serpent, 251.

4. Hosea's marriage:-

2. Melchizedek and Christ, 251, 252.

(1) The language implies a real event, 281.

(2) Notable differences and contrasts to be

observed, 252.

1. Moses and Christ, 253.

(2) Supposed impossibility based on misap-

2. Adam and Christ, 253.

prehension, 282.

(3) Old Testament types apprehended only by

(3) Gomer and Diblaim not symbolical names,

283.

the Gospel revelation, 254.

8. Limitation of types:-

(4) Hengstenberg's unwarrantable assertion,

283.

(1) Statement of Marsh, 255.

(5) The facts as stated perfectly supposable,

(2) Too restrictive a rule, 255.

284.

(3) A broader principle allowable, 256.

(6) Scope of the passage indicated, 285

(4) Qualifying observation, 256.

(7) The symbolical names (Jezreel, Lo-ruha-

CHAPTER X.

mah, and Lo-ammi), 285.

(8) The marriage of Hos, iii to be similarly

Interpretation of Symbols.

explained, 286.

1. Difficulties of the subject, 257. 5. Our Lord's miracles have symbolical

2. Principles of procedure, 257.

import, 287.

3. Classification of symbols, 257, 258.

4. Examples of visional symbols:-

CHAPTER XII.

(1) The almond rod (Jer. 1, 11), 258.

(2) The seething pot (Jer. I, 13), 259.

Symbolical Numbers, Names, and Colours.

(3) The good and bad figs (Jer. xxiv), 259.

Process of ascertaining symbolism of

(4) The summer fruit (Amos viii, 1), 259.

(5) Resurrection of bones (Ezek. xxxvii,) 260. numbers, names, and colours, 288.

(6) Golden candlestick, 260.

A. SYMBOLICAL NUMBERS :-

() The two olive trees (Zech. iv), 260–262. 1. The numbers one and three, 288,

(8) Image of Nebuchadnezzar's dream (Dan.

289.

ii), 262.

(9) The four beasts of Dan. vii, 263.

2. The number four, 290.

(10) Riders, horns, and smiths (Zech, 1), 263, 3. The number seven, 290.

264.

4. The nuruber ten, 291.

(11) Flying roll and ephah (Zech. v), 264, 265.

(12) The four chariots (Zech. vi), 265.

5. The number twelve, 291.

6. These examples, largely explained by 6. Symbolical does not always exclude

the sacred writers, authorize three literal significance, 292.

fundamental principles :-

7. Time, times, and half a time, 292.

(1) The names of symbols are to be literally 8. Forty-two months, 292.

understood, 266,

9. The number forty, 293.

(2) Symbols always represent something dif-

ferent from themselves, 266.

10. The number seventy, 293.

(3) A resemblance is always traceable between 11. Prophetical designations of time,
the symbol and the thing symbolized,

293.
266.
6. No minute set of rules practicable,

12. The year-day theory:

266, 267.

(1) Has no support in Num. xiv and Ezek.

iv, 294, 295.

7. Fairbairn's statement of principles, 267. (2) Not sustained by prophetic analogy, 295,

8. Same principles apply to material

296,

(3) Daniel's seventy weeks not parallel, 296.

symbols, 267.

(4) Days nowhere means years, 296, 297.

9. Symbolism of blood, 268, 269.

(5) The theory disproved by repeated fail.

10. Symbolism of the Mosaic tabernacle:-

ures, 297, 298.

(1) Import of the names employed, 269, 270.

13. The thousand years of Rev. xx, 298.

(2) A divine-human relationship symbolized, B. SYMBOLICAL NAMES :

270, 271.

1. Sodom and Egypt, 299.

(3) The

most holy place and its symbols : 2. Babylon and Jerusalem, 299.

1. The ark, 271, 272.

2. The capporeth, or mercyseat, 272.

3. Returning to Egypt, 300.

3. The cherubim, 272, 273.

4. David and Elijah, 300.

(4) The holy place and its symbols :-

5. Ariel, 300.

1. The table of showbread, 273.

2. The golden candlestick, 274.

6. Leviathan, 300.

3. The altar of incense, 274,

C. SYMBOLISM OF COLOURS:

(5) Great altar and laver in the court, 274,

1. Rainbow and tabernacle colours,

(O) The graduated sanctity of the holy places,

301.

275.

(*) Symbolico-typical action of the high priest

2. Import and association of blue, 301.

on the day of atonement, 275, 276. 3. Purple and scarlet, 301.

CONTENTS AND ANALYTICAL OUTLINE.

13

4. White a symbol of purity, 302. C. ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF SIMILAR

5. Black and red, 302.

PROPHECIES :-

Symbolical import of metals and jewels,

1. Verbal analogies, 324.

2. Twofold presentation of prophetic

303.

revelations, 324.

CHAPTER XIIL

3. Analogies of imagery, 325.

Dreams and Prophetic Ecstasy.

4. Similar imagery applied to different

subjects, 325.

2. Methods of divine revelation, 304.

6. General summary, 326.

2. Dreams recorded in the Scriptures,

304, 305.

CHAPTER XV.

3. Evince latent powers of the soul, 305.

Messianic Prophecy.

4. Jacob's dream at Bethel, 305, 306. 1. Messianic prophecy defined, 327.

5. Interpretation of dreams, 306.

2. To be studied on its divine and humani

6. Repetition of dreams and visions, 307. sides, 327.

7. Prophetic ecstasy :-

3. Two schools of extremists to be dis.

David's Messianic revelation, 307.

carded, 327, 328.

Ezekiel's visional rapture, 308.

4. Five Messiainc prophecies adduced for

(3) Other examples of ecstasy, 808, 309.

(4) The prophet personating God, 310.

illustration, 328.

8. New Testament glossolaly, or speaking | A. THE MOUNTAIN OF JEHOVAH'S HOUSE (Isa.

with tongues:-

ii, 2-4): –

1. Translation, 328, 329.

(1) The facts as recorded, 310, 311.
(2) The miracle of Pentecost symbolical, 311.

2. Absurdity of a literal interpreta.

(3.) A mysterious exhibition of soul-powers,

tion, 329.

312.

3. The four essential prophetic

thoughts, 329, 330.

CHAPTER XIV.

B. THE BRANCH OF JEHOVAH (Isa. IV, 2-6);-

Prophecy and its Interpretation.

1. Translation, 330.

1. Magnitude and scope of Scripture

2. Two possible interpretations, 330,

331.

prophecy, 313.

3. The four essential prophetic

2. Not prediction merely, but utterance

of God's truth, 314.

thoughts, 331.

C. IMMANUEL (Isa. vii, 14-16):

3. Prophecies of the future require 1. The prophecy difficult and enige

special hermeneutics, 315.

matical, 331.

4. History and prediction not to be con. 2. Translation, 331, 332.

fused, 315.

3. The various expositions, 332.

A. ORGANIC RELATIONS OF PROPHECY :-

4. The most simple explanation iden.

1. Progressive character of Messianic

tifies the virgin with the prophet's

prophecy, 316.

wife, and the child Immanuel with

2. Repetition of oracles against heathen

the Maher-shalal-hash-baz of chap-

nations, 317.

3. Daniel's two great prophecies D. THE GALILEAN KING (Isa. ix, 1-7):-

ter viii, 1-3, 333, 334.

(chaps. ii and vii) compared, 1. Translation, 334.

317, 318.

2. The essential prophetic thoughts,

4. The little horn of Dan. vii, 8, and

335.

viii, 9 the same king seen from E. THE SHOOT OF JESSE AND THE FINAL EX.

different points of view, 318, 319. ODUS (Isa. xi, xii) :-

5. Other prophetic repetitions, 319.

Ten notable Messianic ideals, 335.

B. FIGURATIVE AND SYMBOLICAL STYLE OF 5. Messianic prophecy an organic series,

PROPHECY

336.

1. Imagery the most natural form for 6. Prompted by the times in which the

expressing revelations obtained

prophet lived, 336.

by dreams and visions, 320, 321. 7. Cast in metaphorical forms, 336, 337.

2. Poetic form and style of several 8. Not to be literally interpreted, 337.

prophecies adduced, 321, 322.

3. Prominence of symbols in the apoc-

CHAPTER XVI.

Old Testament Apocalyptics.

alyptic books, 323.

4. The hermeneutical principles to be 1. Apocalyptics defined, 338.

observed:

2. Distinguished from prophecy, 338, 339.

(1) Clear discrimination of symbols, 3. Scope of biblical apocalyptics, 339.

323,

4. Formal elements of apocalyptics, 339,

(2) Their most striking aspects to be 340.

noted, 323.

(8) Ample and self-consistent compari- 5. Hermeneutical principles to be ob

son, 223,

served, 340.

ets, 361.

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A. REVELATION OF JOEL:

4. Artificial form of the Apocalypse, 358.
1. Analysis of Joel's prophecy, 340, 5. The great theme announced, 358.

341.

2. First Part: Jehovah's judgments,

A. REVELATION OF THE LAMB:

1. In the epistles to the seven Churches,

341, 342.

359,

3. Second Part: Jehovah's triumph and

2. By the opening of the seven seals,

glory 342.

4. Joel's prophecy a generic apocalypse,

359, 360.

3. By the sounding of the seven trump-

343.

B. EZEKIEL'S VISIONS:

(1) The plague from the abyss, 361, 362.

1. Peculiarities of Ezekiei, 343.

(2) The armies of the Euphrates, 362.

2. Analysis of Ezekiel's prophecies,

(3) The mighty angel arrayed with cloud

and rainbow, 363.

3. The vision of new temple, land, and (4) The last trumpet, 364, 365.

city, 344.

B. REVELATION OF THE BRIDE, THE LAMB'S

4. The three different interpretations,

WIFE:-

344, 345.

1. Vision of the woman and the dragon,

365.

C. REVELATION OF DANIEL:

1. Principles illustrated by Daniel's

2. Vision of the two beasts, 366.

double revelation of empires, 345.

3. Vision of Mount Zion, 367.

2. Three current errors touching the

4. Vision of the seven last plagues, 368.

exposition of Daniel, 346.

5. Vision of the mystic Babylon, 368.

3. All dogmatism and a priori as-

(1) Mystery of the woman and beast, 369.

(2) The beast from the abyss, 370-372.

sumptions fatal to sound interpre.

(3) Fall of the mystic Babylon, 372, 373.

tation, 346, 347.

6. Vision of parousia, millennium, and

4. Three prevalent interpretations, judgment:-

347

(1) It is a sevenfold vision, 373.

5. Arguments in favor of Roman (2) The millennium is the gospel period, 374

(3) The chiliastic interpretation without

theory :-

sufficient warrant, 374, 375.

(1) Importance of Rome, 348.

(4) The last judgment, 376.

(2) Iron strength and violence of Rome, (5) Visions transcending time-limit of the

348, 349.

book, 377.

(3) Set up in “days of those kings," (6) Millennium of chap. xx now in progress,
349.

377, 378.
(4) Unsatisfactory character of the ar 7. Vision of the New Jerusalem :-
guments, 349.

(1) Meaning of the vision; three views,
6. Daniel's historical standpoint, 350.

378, 379.

7. Prominence of the Medes in Scrip. (2) Comparison of Hag. ii, 6,7 and Heb. xii,

ture, 350.

26-28, 379, 380.

8. The varied but parallel descriptions,

(3) Allusion of Heb. xii, 22, 23, 380, 381.

(4) New Jerusalem a heavenly picture of

350, 351.

what the tabernacle symbolized, 381,

9. The prophet should be allowed to

382.

explain himself, 351, 352.

Conclusions touching biblical apocalyptics,

382.

10. The prophet's point of view in

chap. viii, 352.

11. Inner harmony of all the visions to

CHAPTER XVIII.

be sought, 352, 353.

No Double Sense in Prophecy.

12. Alexander and his successors not

viewed as two different world-

1. Theory of double sense unsettles all

sound interpretation, 383.

powers, 353, 354.
13. Conclusion: Daniel recognized a

2. Typology and double sense not to be

Median dominion as succeeding 3. Suggestive fulness of prophetic Scrip-

confounded, 384.

the Chaldean, 354.

14. Prophecy of the seventy weeks, 4. No misleading designations of time in

ture no proof of double sense, 385.

354, 355.

15. Revelation of Dan. xi, 2-xii, 3, 355. 5. Misuse of the phrase " a thousand

prophecy, 385.

years as one day,” 386.

CHAPTER XVII.

6. Bengel's fallacious treatment of Matt.

xxiv, 39, 387, 388.
The Apocalypse of John.

7. Practical applications of prophecy may

1. Systems of interpretation, 356.

be many, 388.

2. Historical standpoint of the writer, 8. False prophetic interpretation some-

356.

times due to mistaken notions of

3. Plan of the Apocalypse, 357.

the Bible itself, 389.

CONTENTS AND ANALYTICAL OUTLINE.

15

422.

CHAPTER XIX.

3. Hebrew style and usage, 408.

4. Substitution of names, 409.
Scripture Quotations in the Scripture.

5. Desire to have a definite and suggest

1. Four classes of quotations:

ive number, 410.

(1) Old Testament quotations in Old Testa (2) The two genealogies of Jesus:

ment, 390.

1. Different hypotheses, 411.

(2) New Testament quotations from Old Testa 2. Views of Jerome and Africanus, 412.

ment, 390.

3. No hypothesis can claim absolute cer.

(3) New Testament quotations from New Test-

tainty, 413.

ament sources, 391.

4. Hervey's theory, 413.

(4) Quotations from apocryphal sources, 391, 4. Genealogies not useless Scripture, 414.

2. Only Old Testament quotations in the 5. Numerical discrepancies, 415.

New Testament call for special her. 6. Doctrinal and ethical discrepancies:-

meneutical study, 392.

(1) Supposed conflict between Law and Goge

A. SOURCES OF NEW TESTAMENT QUOTATION:

pel, 416.

1. Septuagint version the principal

(2) Civil rights maintained by Jesus and Paul,

41.

source, 392.

(3) Avenging of blood, 418,

2. No uniform manner of quotation, (4) Difference between Paul and James on
392, 393.

justification :
3. Currency of inaccurate quotation,

1. Different personal experience, 419.

2. Different modes of apprehending and

393.

expressing great truths, 420.

B. FORMULAS AND METHODS OF QUOTATION : 3. Different aim of each writer, 421.

1. The verbal formulas employed, 394. 4. Individual freedom of each writer, 421.

2. Appropriation of sentiment without | 7. Value of biblical discrepancies:-

formal quotation, 394.

(1) To stimulate mental effort, 422.

(2) To illustrate harmony of Bible and nature,

3. Furnish no law of general herme-

neutics, 395.

(3) To prove absence of collusion, 422.

4. Not necessarily decisive of questions

(4) To show the spirit above the letter, 442.

(5) To serve as a test of moral character, 422.

of literary criticism, 395.

5. The formula iva Tampwoń:

CHAPTER XXII.

(1) Peculiar to Matthew and John, 395.

(2) Views of Bengel and Meyer, 396.

Harmony and Diversity of the Gospels.

(3) The telic force of iva generally to be

maintained, 396, 397.

1. The life of Jesus a turningpoint in the

(4) The ecbatic sense need not in all history of the world, 423.

cases be denied, 397.

2. The Gospels a chief ground of conflict

(5) The telic sense in formulas of prophetic

citation, 398.

between faith and unbelief, 4.23, 424.

(6) Hosea xi, 1, as cited in Matt. il, 15, 398, 3. Attempts at constructing Gospel Har-

399.

O. PURPOSES OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATION :-

monies, 424.

1. For showing its fulfilment, 399.

4. Use of such harmonies, 425.

A. THE ORIGIN OF THE GOSPELS :

2. For establisliing doctrine, 400.

1. An original oral Gospel, 426.

3. For confuting opponents, 400.

2. No absolute certainty as to the par.

4. For authority, rhetorical purposes, ticular origin of each Gospel, 427.

and illustration, 400.

3. Probable suppositions, 427, 428.

B. DISTINCT PLAN AND PURPOSE OF EACH

CHAPTER XX.

GOSPEL :-

The False and the True Accommodation.

1. Tradition of the early Church, 428,429.

1. The rationalistic theory, 401.

2. Matthew's Gospel adapted to Jewish

2. Such a theory to be repudiated, 401.

readers, 429.

3. The true idea of accommodation, 402.

3. Mark's Gospel adapted to Roman

4. Illustrated by Matthew's citation of

taste, 429.

Jer. xxxi, 15, 402, 403.

4. Luke's the Pauline Gospel to the

Gentiles, 430.

CHAPTER XXI.

5. John's the spiritual Gospel of the

Alleged Discrepancies of the Scriptures.

Christian life, 430, 431.

1. General character of the discrepancies,

C. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL EVAN-

GELISTS:-
404,

1. Noticeable characteristics of Mat.

2. Causes of discrepancies:

thew's Gospel, 421.

(1) Errors of copyists, 404, 405.

2. Omissions of earlier Gospels may

(2) Various names of one person, 404,

(3) Different methods of reckoning time, 404.

have had a purpose, 432.

Different point of view and aim, 404. 3. Harmony of the Gospels enhanced

3. Discrepancies in genealogical tables :-

by their diversity, 433, 434.

(1) Jacob's family record, 405.

5. Unreasonableness of magnifying the

1. The different lists compared, 406-407.
2. The historical standpoint of each list,

alleged discrepancies of the Gospels,
407, 408.

435.

son, 453.

CHAPTER XXIII.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Progress of Doctrine and Analogy of Doctrinal and Practical Use of Scripture,

Faith.

1. Paul's statement of the uses of Scrip.

1. The Holy Scriptures a growth, 436.

ture, 452.

2. Genesis a series of evolutions and rev 2. Romish doctrine of authoritative in.

elations, 437.

terpretation, 452.

3. The Mosaic legislation a new era of 3. Protestant principle of the use of reae

revelation, 437, 438.

(1) Doctrine of God, 438, 439.

4. Statement and defence of Scripture

Superior ethical and civil code, 439.

doctrine must accord with correct

Pentateuch fundamental to Old Testa-

ment revelation, 440.

hermeneutics, 453.

4. Divine revelation continued after

5. Biblical and historical theology dis-

Moses, 440.

tinguished, 454.

5. Theology of the Psalter, 440, 441.

6. Human tendency to be wise above

6. The Solomonic proverbial philosophy,

what is written, 455.

441.

7. True and false methods of ascertain.

7. Old Testament revelation reached

ing biblical doctrine:

highest spirituality in the great

(1) The doctrine of God, 456-459.

(2) The doctrine of Vicarious Atonement, 460,

prophets, 442–444.

461.

8. Prophetic link between the Old and (3) The doctrine of Eternal Punishment :-

New Testaments, 445.

1. Absence of scriptural hope for the

wicked, 461, 462.

9. Christ's teaching the substance but

2. Import of Matt. xii, 32 and Mark iil,
not the finality of Christian doc-

29, 462.

trine, 445.

3. Preaching to the spirits in prison, 462.

10. Revelation continued after Jesus' as-

(4) Doctrine not confined to one portion,

class, or style of Scripture, 463.

cension, 446.

(5) Eschatology taught mainly in figurative

11. The New Testament epistles contain

language, 464.

the elaborated teaching of the apos-

(6) Doctrine of the resurrection, 464.

(7) Freedom from prepossession and presump-

tles, 446, 447.

tion, 465.

12. The Apocalypse a fitting conclusion of (8) Texts not to be cited ad libitum, 465, 466.

the New Testament Canon, 447, 448.

8. New Testament doctrine not clear

13. Attention to progress of doctrine a

without the help of the Old, and vice

help to interpretation, 448.

versa, 466, 467.

14. THE ANALOGY OF Faith:-

9. Confusion of Hebrew and Aryan modes

1. Progress of doctrine explains anal-

of thought, 467.

ogy of faith, 449.

10. Practical and homiletical use of Scrip.

ture:-

2. Two degrees of analogy of faith:-

(1) Must be based on true grammatical inter-

(1) Positive, 450.

pretation, 468.

(2) General, 450.

(2) Personal experiences, promises, admoni.

3. Limitation and use of analogy of tions, and warnings have lessons for all

faith as a principle of interpretation,

time, 468, 469.

(3) No true application of Scripture without

451.

correct interpretation, 469, 470.

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