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accordingly, essential to make one person or event the type of another.

1. There must be some notable point of resemblance or analogy between the two. They may, in many respects, be to

Likeness and tally dissimilar. In fact it is as essential that there be unlikeness. points of dissimilarity as that there be some notable analogy, otherwise we should have identity where only a resemblance is designed. Adam, for instance, is made a type of Christ, but only in his headship of the race, as the first representative of humanity; and in Rom. v, 14-20, and 1 Cor. xv, 45-49, the apostle notes more points of unlikeness than of agreement between the two. Moreover, we always expect to find in the antitype something higher and nobler than in the type, for “much greater honour than the house has he who built it” (Heb. iii, 3).

2. There must be evidence that the type was designed and appointed by God to represent the thing typified. This Divinely proposition is maintained with great unanimity by the pointed. best writers on scriptural typology. “To constitute one thing the type of another,” says Bishop Marsh, “something more is wanted than mere resemblance. The former must not only resemble the latter, but must have been designed to resemble the latter. It must have been so designed in its original institution. It must have been designed as something preparatory to the latter. The type as well as the antitype must have been pre-ordained, and they must have been pre-ordained as constituent parts of the same general scheme of divine providence.” “It is essential to a type,” says Van Mildert, "in the scriptural adaptation of the term, that there should be competent evidence of the divine intention in the correspondence between it and the antitype-a matter not to be left to the imagination of the expositor to discover, but resting on or pattern of Christian character and conduct. But the more technical theological sense of the word appears in Rom. v, 14, where Adam is called a “type of him who was to come.” On this passage Meyer remarks: “The type is always something historical (a person, thing, saying) which is destined, in accordance with the divine plan to prefigure something corresponding to it in the future—in the connected scheme of sacred historical teleology, which is to be discerned from the standpoint of the antitype.” The word is used in the same sense in 1 Cor. x, 6: “These things (the experiences of the fathers, verses 1-5) became types of us.” That is, says Meyer, they were “historical transactions of the Old Testament, guided and shaped by God, and designed by him, figuratively, to represent the corresponding relation and experience on the part of Christians." In verse 11 of the same chapter we have the word tunckws, typically, or, after the manner of type ; and it here bears essentially the same sense as verse 6. These things came to pass typically with them; and it was written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the ages are come.”

Lectures on Sacred Criticism and Interpretation, p. 371. Lond., 1838.

some solid proof from Scripture itself.” But we should guard against the extreme position of some writers who declare that nothing in the Old Testament is to be regarded as typical but what the New Testament affirms to be so. We admit a divine purpose in every

real type, but it does not therefore follow that every such purpose must be formally affirmed in the Scriptures.

3. The type must prefigure something in the future. It must Foreshadowing

serve in the divine economy as a shadow of things to of the future. come (Col. ii, 17; Heb. x, 1). Hence it is that sacred typology constitutes a specific form of prophetic revelation. The Old Testament dispensations were preparatory to the New, and contained many things in germ which could fully blossom only in the light of the Gospel of Jesus. So the law was a schoolmaster to bring men to Christ (Gal. iii, 24). Old Testament characters, offices, institutions, and events were prophetic adumbrations of corresponding realities in the Church and kingdom of Christ.

The principal types of the Old Testament may be distributed into five different classes, as follows:

1. Typical Persons. It is to be noted, however, that persons are typical, not as persons, but because of some character or relation which they sustain in the history of redemption. Adam was a type Typical Per- of Christ because of his representative character as the

first man, and federal head of the race (Rom. v, 14). “As through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one the many shall be made righteous” (Rom. v, 19). “ The first man Adam became a living soul; the last Adam a life-giving spirit” (1 Cor. xv, 45). Enoch may be regarded as a type of Christ, in that, by his saintly life and translation he brought life and immortality to light to the antediluvian world. Elijah the Tishbite was made, in the same way, a type of the ascending Lord, and these two were also types of God's power and purpose to change his living saints, “in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump” (1 Cor. xv, 52). In the spirit and power of his prophetic ministry Elijah was also a type of John the Baptist. Abraham's faith in God's word, and consequent justification (Gen. xv, 6), while yet in uncircumcision (Rom. iv, 10), made him a type of all believers who are justified by

apart from works of law” (Rom. iii, 28). His offering of Isaac, at a later date (Gen. xxii), made him a type of working faith, showing how “a man is justified by works and not by faith only” (James ii, 24). Typical relations may also be traced in Melchizedek, Joseph, Moses, Joshua, David, Solomon, and Zerubbabel.

* Bampton Lectures for 1814, p. 239.


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2. Typical Institutions. The sacrificing of lambs and other animals, the blood of which was appointed to make atone

Typical Instiment for the souls of men (Lev. xvii, 11), was typical tutions. of the offering of Christ, who, “as a lamb without blemish and without spot” (1 Pet. i, 19), was once offered to bear the sins of many” (Heb. ix, 28). The sabbath is a type of the believer's everlasting rest (Heb. iv, 9). The provision of cities of refuge, into which the manslayer might escape (Num. xxxv, 9–34), was typical of the provisions of the Gospel by which the sinner may be saved from death. The Old Testament passover was typical of the New Testament eucharist, and the feast of tabernacles a foreshadowing of the universal thanksgiving of the Church of the latter day (comp. Zech. xiv, 16). The Old Testament theocracy itself was a type and shadow of the more glorious New Testament kingdom of God.

3. Typical Offices. Every holy prophet of the Old Testament, by being the medium of divine revelation, and a mes

Typical Offices. senger sent forth from God, was a type of Christ. It was in the office of prophet that Moses was a type of Jesus (Deut. xviii, 15). The priests, and especially the high priest, in the performance of their priestly duties, were types of Him who through his own blood entered into the holy place once for all, and thereby obtained eternal redemption (Heb. iv, 14; ix, 12). Christ is also, as king, the antitype of Melchizedek, who was king of righteousness and king of peace (Heb. vii, 2), and of David and Solomon, and of every other of whom Jehovah might say, “I have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion” (Psa. ii, 6). So the Lord Christ unites in himself the offices of prophet, priest, and king, and fulfills the types of former dispensations.

4. Typical Events. Under this head we may name the flood, the exodus from Egypt, the sojourn in the wilderness, the

Typical Events. giving of manna, the supply of water from the rock, the lifting up of the brazen serpent, the conquest of Canaan, and the restoration from the Babylonish captivity. It is such events and experiences as these, according to Paul (1 Cor. x, 11), which

came to pass typically with them; and it was written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the ages are come.”

5. Typical Actions. These partake so largely of the nature of symbols that we may appropriately designate them as

Typical Actions. symbolico-typical, and treat them in a chapter by themselves. So far as they were prophetic of things to come they were types, and belong essentially to what we have defined as typical events; so far as they were signs (nink, onueta), suggestive of lessons of

present or permanent value, they were symbols. The symbol

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may be a mere outward visible sign; the type always requires the presence and action of an intelligent agent. So it should be noted that typical characters, institutions, offices, or events are such by bringing in the activity or service of some intelligent agent. The brazen serpent, considered merely as a sign-an object to look to—was rather a symbol than a type; but the personal agency of Moses in lifting up the serpent on a pole, and the looking upon it on the part of the bitten Israelites, places the whole transaction properly in the class of typical events; for as such it was mainly a foreshadowing of things to come. The miracle of the fleece, in Judges vi, 36–40, was not so much a type as a symbolical sign, an extraordinary miraculous token, and our Lord cites the case of Jonah, who was three days and three nights in the whale, not only as a prophetic type of his burial and resurrection, but also as a symbolical "sign” for that "evil and adulterous generation (Matt. xii, 39). The symbolico-typical actions of the prophets are: Isaiah's walking naked and barefoot for three years (Isa. xx, 2-4); Jeremiah taking and hiding his girdle by the Euphrates (Jer. xiii, 1-11); his going to the potter's house and observing the work wrought there (xviii, 1-6); his breaking the potter's bottle in the valley of Hinnom (xix); his putting a yoke upon his neck for a sign to the nations (xxvii, 1-14; comp. xxviii, 10-17); and his hiding the stones in the brick-kiln (xliii, 8-13); Ezekiel's portraiture upon a brick of the siege of Jerusalem, and his lying upon his side for many days (Ezek, iv); his cutting off his hair and beard, and destroying it in different parcels (v); his removing the baggage, and eating and drinking with trembling (xii, 3-20); his sighing (xxi, 6, 7); and his peculiar action on the death of his wife (xxiv, 15–27); Hosea's marrying “a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms” (Hos. i), and his buying an adulteress (iii); and Zechariah's making crowns of silver and gold for the head of Joshua (Zech. vi, 9-15). The hermeneutical principles to be used in the interpretation of

types are essentially the same as those used in the inprinciples to be terpretation of parables and allegories. Nevertheless,

in view of the peculiar nature and purpose of the scriptural types, we should be careful in the application of the following principles : 1. The real point of resemblance between type and antitype

should, first of all, be clearly apprehended, and all farspondences to fetched and recondite analogies should be as carefully

avoided. It often requires the exercise of a very sober discrimination to determine the proper application of this rule,



All real corre

be noted.




Every real correspondence should be noted. Thus, the lifting up of the brazen serpent, narrated in Num. xxi, 4-9, is one

The brazen of the most notable types of the Old Testament, and was explained by Jesus himself as a prefiguration of his being lifted up upon the cross (John iii, 14, 15). Three points of analogy are clearly traceable: (1) As the brazen serpent was lifted up upon a pole, 80 Christ upon the cross. (2) As the serpent of brass was made, hy divine order, in the likeness of the fiery serpents, so Christ was made in the likeness of sinful flesh (Rom. viii, 3) a curse for us (Gal. iii, 13). (3) As the offending Israelites, bitten and ready to die, looked unto the serpent of brass and lived, so sinful men, poisoned by the old serpent, the devil, and ready to perish, look by faith to the crucified Christ, and are made alive for evermore. Other incidental analogies involved in one or another of these three may be allowed, but should be used with caution. Thus, Bengel says: “As that serpent was one without venom placed over against venomous serpents, so the man Christ, a man without sin, against the old serpent.” This thought may be incidentally included in analogy (2) above. Lange's observation, however, seems too far-fetched and mystical: “The fiery serpents in the wilderness were primarily the form of a divine punishment, presented in a form elsewhere denoting sin. The elevated serpent-standard was thus the type of punishment lifted in the phantom of sin, and transformed into a means of salvation. This is the nature of the cross. The look at the cross is a look at the curse-laden One, who is not a sinner, but a divine token of evil and penalty, and of the suffering of [a substitute for penalty which is holy, and therefore transformed into deliverance.”: Such incidental analogies, as long as they adhere consistently to the main points, may be allowed, especially in homiletical discourse. But to find in the brass—a metal inferior to gold or silver-a type of the outward meanness of the Saviour's appearance; or to suppose that it was cast in a mould, not wrought by hand, and thus typified the divine conception of Christ's human nature; or to imagine that it was fashioned in the shape of a cross to depict more exactly the form in which Christ was to sufferthese, and all like suppositions, are far-fetched, misleading, and to be rejected.

In Hebrews vii the priesthood of Christ is illustrated and enhanced by typical analogies in the character and position of Melchizedek. Four points of resemblance are there and Christ. set forth. (1) Melchizedek was both king and priest; so Christ. (2) His timelessness—being without recorded parentage, genealogy,

1 Gnomon, on John iii, 14. ? Commentary on John, in loco.


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