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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

6. Knowledge of biblical languages and

Preliminary.

of comparative philology, 27.

1. Hermeneutics defined, 17.

7. Acquaintance with general litera.

2. General and Special Hermeneutics, 17.

ture, 27,

3. Biblical or Sacred Hermeneutics, 18.

C. SPIRITUAL QUALIFICATIONS:

4. Old and New Testament Hermeneu-

1. These partly a gift, partly acquired,

28.

tics should not be separated, 18.

2. Desire to know the truth, 28.

5. Hermeneutics distinguished from Intro-

duction, Criticism, and Exegesis, 19.

3. Deep and tender affection, 28, 29.

4. Enthusiasm for the Word of God, 29.

6. Hermeneutics both a science and an

5. Reverence for God and his laws, 29.

6. Communion with the Holy Spirit, 30.

7. Necessity of Hermeneutics, 20, 21.

8. Rank and importance of Hermeneutics

CHAPTER III.

in Theological Science, 21, 22.

Historical Sketch.

CHAPTER II.

1. Value and importance of the history

Qualifications of an Interpreter.

of interpretation, 31.

A. INTELLECTUAL QUALIFICATIONS:

2. Origin and variety of interpretations,

1. A sound, well-balanced mind, 23.

31.

2. Quick and clear perception, 23.

3. Ezra the scribe, 32.

3. Acuteness of intellect (Bengel and

4. Public instruction in the law, 32.

De Wette), 24.

5. Office and work of the scribes, 32, 33.

4. Imagination allowed but controlled, 6. Progress of Jewish exegesis after

24.

Ezra, 33,

5. Sober judgment, 25.

7. Halachah and Hagadah, 33.

6. Correctness and delicacy of taste, 25.

8. The Karaites, 34.

7. Right use of reason, 25, 26.

9. Methods of New Testament exegesis,

8. Aptness to teach, 26.

34, 35.

B. EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS:

10. Allegorizing tendency of post-apostolio

1. Knowledge of geography and his time, 35.

tory, 26.

11. School of Alexandria, 36.

2. Knowledge of chronology and an. 12. School of Antioch, 37.

tiquities, 27.

13. Theodore of Mopsuestia, 38.

3. Study of politics, law, and civil gov. 14. John Chrysostom, 39.

ernment, 27.

15. Theodoret, 40.

4. Knowledge of natural science, 27. 16. Schools of Edessa and Nisibis, 40.

5. Speculative philosophy and psychol. 17. Ephraim Syrus, 41.

18. Barsumas and Ibas, 41.

CHAPTER I.

3. Means of ascertaining the usus loquen-

Preliminary.

di :

1. General principles defined, 71.

(1) By the writer's own definitions, 79.

2. The Bible to be interpreted like other

(2) By the immediate context, 80.

(3) By the nature of the subject, 81.

books, 71.

(4) By antithesis or contrast, 82.

3. Importance of general principles, 72. (5) By Hebrew parallelisms, 83.

4. Ennobling tendency of hermeneutical

(6) By relations of subject, predicate, ard

adjuncts, 84.

study, 72.

(7) By comparison of parallel passages, 84.

(8) By common and familiar usage, 84.

CHAPTER II.

(9) By help of ancient versions, 86-88.

(10) By ancient glossaries and scholia, 88.

The Primary Meaning of Words,

1. Words the elements of language, 73.

2. Value and pleasure of etymological

CHAPTER IV.

studies, 73, 74.

Synonymes.

(1) Illustrated by the word ćkkanoia,

74, 75.

1. Some words have many meanings, 89.

(2) Illustrated by the word 727, 75, 76. 2. Many different words have like mean-

,

3. Value of comparative philology, 76. 3. Seven Hebrew words for putting to

4. Rare words and äraç heyóueva, 77.

death, 90–92.

(1) Illustrated by śrlouolos, 77.

4. Twelve Hebrew words for sin or evil,
(2) Illustrated by TIOTIKÓS, 77, 78.

92-95.

5. Study of compound words, 78.

5. Divine names in Hebrew Scriptures, 95.

6. Synonymes of the New Testament:

CHAPTER III.

(1) Καινός and νέος, 96, 97.

The Usus Loquendi.

(2) Βίος and ζωή, 97, 98.

1. How the meaning of words becomes (3) Αγαπάω and φιλέω, 98, 99.

changed, 79.

(4) Οίδα and γινώσκω, 99.

2. Importance of attending to the usus lo (5) 'Αρνία, πρόβατα, and προβάτια, 99.

quendi, 79.

(6) Βόσκω and ποιμαίνω, 99, 100.

ency, 121.

CHAPTER V.

CHAPTER VII.

The Grammatico-Historical Sense,

Comparison of Parallel Passages.

1. Grammatico-historical sense defined, 1. Some parts of Scripture without logical

101.

connexion, 119.

2. Observation of Davidson, 101, 102. 2. Value of parallel passages, 119.

3. Same methods required as in ascer- 3. The Bible a self-interpreting book,

taining meaning and usage of words, 120.

102, 103.

4. Parallels verbal and real, 121.

4. Words and sentences can have but 5. Parallels must have real correspond.

one meaning in the same place and

connexion, 103.

6. The word hate in Luke xiv, 26 explained

5. Narratives of miracles to be explained by parallel passages, 122, 123.

literally, 103.

7. Jesus' words to Peter in Matt. xvi, 18

6. Jephthah's daughter a burnt offering, explained by parallel texts, 123-127.

104, 105.

8. Many parts of Scripture parallel, 128.

7. Jesus' resurrection an historical fact,

105, 106.

8. Grammatical accuracy of the New

CHAPTER VIII.

Testament, 106.

The Historical Standpoint.

9. Significance of Greek tenses, 106, 107.

10. Importance of careful critical study, 1. Importance of knowing the historical

107, 108.

standpoint of a writer, 129.

2. Historical and geographical knowledge

CHAPTER VI.

essential, 129.

Context, Scope, and Plan. 3. Difficulty of transferring one's self into

1. Context, scope, and plan defined, 108. a remote age, 130.

2. Scope sometimes formally announced, 4. Personal sanctity of ancient worthies

109.

sometimes unduly exalted, 130.

3. Plan and scope of Genesis seen in a 5. Historical occasions of the Psalms, 131,

study of its contents and structure,

132.

109, 110.

6. Places as well as times to be studied:-
4. Plan and scope of Exodus, 110, 111.

(1) Shown by journeys and epistles of Paul,
5. Subject and plan of the Epistle to the

133, 134.
Romans, 111, 112.

(2) Historical and geographical accuracy of
6. Context, near and remote:

Scripture proven by modern research,

(1) Illustrated by Isa. lii, 13-liii, 12, 112, 113.

134, 135.

(2) Illustrated by Matt. xi, 12, 113-116.

(3) Illustrated by Gal. v, 4, 116, 117.

7. Historical standpoint of John's Apoc-

7. Historical, dogmatic, logical, and psy-

alypse :-

chological connexion, 117.

(1) The external evidence, 135–137.

8. Importance of studying context, scope,

(2) John's own testimony, 137.

and plau, 117.

(3) Internal evidence; six points, 138, 139.

9. Need of critical tact, and ability, 118.

(4) Great delicacy of discrimination neces-

sary, 140,

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PART SECOND.

CHAPTER 1

6. Metonymy:-

Preliminary.

(1) of cause and effect, 160, 161.

(2) of subject and adjunct, 161, 162

1. Special qualities of the Bible, 141.

(3) Of sign and thing signified, 162,

2. A text-book of religion, 141.

7. Synecdoche, 162, 163.

3. Variety of subject matter and style, 142. 8. Personification, 163.
4. Distinction between substance and

9. Apostrophe, 164.

form, 142, 143.

10. Interrogation, 164.

5. Special Hermeneutics calls for larger 11. Hyperbole, 165.

12. Irony, 165, 166.

6. The Bible its own best interpreter, 143.

CHAPTER IV.

CHAPTER II.

Simile and Metaphor.

Hebrew Poetry.

A. SIMILE:

1. Old Testament largely poetical, 144. 1. Definition and illustration, 166.

2. Parallelism the distinguishing feature, 2. Crowding of similes together, 167.

145.

3. Similes are naturally self-interprete

3. The speeches of Laban and Jacob, ing, 167, 168.

145, 146.

4. Pleasure afforded by similes, 168.

4. Form essential to poetry, 146, 147. 5. Assumed comparisons, or illustra.
6. Hebrew spirit and form may be tions, 168–170.

largely preserved in translation, 148. B. METAPHOR:-

6. Structure of Hebrew parallelism, 149.

1. Definition and illustration, 170.

7. Synonymous parallelism:-

2. Sources of Scripture metaphors :-

a. Identical, 150.

(1) Natural scenery, 171.

b. Similar, 150.

(2) Ancient customs, 171.

C. Inverted, 150, 151.

(3) Habits of animals, 171, 172,

8. Antithetic parallelism:

(4) Hebrew ceremonies, 172.

3. Elaborated and mixed metaphors,

a. Simple, 151.

b. Compound, 151.

173.

9. Synthetic parallelism :-

4. Uncertain metaphorical allusions:-

a. Correspondent, 152.

(1) Loosing of locks, in Judg. v, 2, 174, 175.

b. Cumulative, 152.

(2) Boiling of heart (Psa. xlv, 1), 175.

10. Irregular structure of impassioned (3) Buried in baptism (Rom. vi, 4; Col.

utterances, 153.

ii, 12), 175, 176.

11. Alphabetical poems and rhymes, 154.

CHAPTER V.

12. Vividness of Hebrew expression, 155.

13. Force of ellipsis, 155.

Fables, Riddles, and Enigmas.

14. Special Hermeneutics must recognize 1. More notable figures of Scripture, 177.

rhetorical form and figures of 2. Characteristics of the fable, 178.

speech, 156.

(1) Jotham's fable, 178.

(2) Jehoash's fable, 178, 179,

3. Characteristics of the riddle, 180.

CHAPTER III.

(1) Samson's riddle, 180, 181.

Figurative Language.

(2) Number of the beast, 181.

1. Tropes many and various, 157.

(3) Obscure proverbs, 181,

(4) Lamech's song, 182.

2. Origin and necessity of figurative 4. Enigma distinguished and defined, 182,

language, 157, 158.

183.

3. Sources of scriptural imagery, 158, (1) Enigmatical element in Jesus' discourse

159.

with Nicodemus, 183.

4. Specific rales for determining when

(2) In his discourse with the woman of sem

maria, 184,

language is figurative, impractical, (3) Enigma of the sword in Luke xxii, 33, 185.

and unnecessary, 159, 160.

(4) Enigmatical language addressed to Peter

6. Figures of words and figures of

in John xxi, 18, 185, 186.

(5) Figure of the two eagles in Ezek. xvii, 186,

thought, 160.

187.

CHAPTER VI.

(4) Blending of meaning and Imagery, 218,

219.

Interpretation of Parables,

(5) Hermeneutical principles involved, 219,

1. Pre-eminence of parabolic teaching,

220,

5. Allegory of false prophets in Ezek.

188.

'xii -15, 220.

2. Parable defined, 188, 189.

6. Allegory of wise and unwise building

3. General use of parables, 189, 190.

in 1 Cor. iii, 10–15:-

4. Special purpose and reason of Jesus'

(1) Are the materials persons or doctrines ?

parables, 190, 191.

221.

6. Parables a test of character, 192.

(2) Both views allowable, 221, 222.

6. Superior beauty of the parables of

(3) The passage paraphrased, 223.

(4) A warning rather than a prophecy, 223,

Scripture, 192.

224,

7. Three essential elements of a parable, 7. Allegory of the leaven in 1 Cor. V,

193.

6-8:-

8. Three principal rules for the interpre.

(1) The context, 225.

tation of parables, 193, 194.

(2) The passage paraphrased, 225,

(3) study of the more important allusions,

9. Principles illustrated in the parable of

the sower, 194, 195.

8. Allegory of the Christian armour,

10. Parable of the tares and its interpre-

226, 227.

tation, 195.

9. Allegory of the door and the shep-

(1) Things explained and things unnoticed in herd:

modal expositions of Jesus, 196.

(1) Occasion and scope, 227, 228.

(2) We may notice some things which Jesus

did not emphasize, 196, 197.

(2) Import of particular parts, 228, 229.

(3) Jesus' explanation enigmatical, 229, 230.

(3) Suggestive words and allusions deserve 10. Paul's allegory of the covenants:-

comment, 197.

(4) Not specific rules, but sound and discrim (1) It is peculiar and exceptional, 231.
inating judgment, must guide the in-

(2) The historical allusions accepted as true,

terpreter, 198.

11, Isaiah's parable of the vineyard, 199.

(3) The correspondent clauses, 232.

(4) Paul's example as an allegorist, 232, 233.

12. Parable of the wicked husbandmen, (5) Such methods to be sparingly employed,

200.

234.

13. Comparison of analogous parables :-

11. Interpretation of Canticles :-

(1) Marriage of King's Son, and wicked hus-

(1) The allegorical method, 234, 235.

bandmen, 201,

202.

(2) Objections to this method, 235.

(2) Marriage of king's son, and great supper,

(3) Canticles a dramatic parable, 236.
202, 203.

(4) Literal basis under oriental poetry, 237.

14. Old Testament parables, 204.

(5) Details not to be pressed into mystical

significance, 237.

16. All Jesus' parables in the Synoptic

Gospels, 205.

16. Parable of the labourers in the vine-

CHAPTER VIII.

yard:-

Proverbs and Gnomic Poetry.

(1) Mistakes of interpreters, 205, 206.

(2) Occasion and scope, 206, 207.

1. Proverbs defined and described, 238.

(3) Prominent points in the parable, 208. 2. Their use among most nations, 239.
(4) Primarlly an admonition to the disciples, 3. Hermeneutical principles to be obo
208, 209.

served :-

17. Parable of the unjust steward:-

(1) Discrimination of form and figure, 240.

(9) Occasion and aim, 209.

(2) Unauthorized additions, 210.

(2) Critical and practical sagacity, 241.

(3) Jesus' own application, 210.

(3) Attention to context and parallelism, 242.

The rich man Mammon, 211, 212.

(4) Common sense and sound judgment, 242,

243.

(5) Geikie's Comment, 212, 213.

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