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determined to give them the full privileges of that Church to which they were so strongly attached, by forming the remaining British colonies into an episcopal see. The person fixed upon, as it were, by common consent, to fill it, was Dr. Chandler; but that admirable man was already suffering from a fatal malady, which compelled him to decline an elevation which he had so well merited. He, however, took the opportunity of recommending, for the office of chief pastor, one who had done and suffered much for the Church; and Dr. Charles Inglis, who had been obliged to fly to England for his life, in 1783, was consecrated bishop of Nova Scotia, on the 12th August, 1787.
“The second colonial diocese was formed in 1793, by the establishment of the bishopric of Quebec, with jurisdiction over the province of Canada; and both of these enormous dioceses were subdivided, in 1839, by the erection of Toronto and Newfoundland into separate bishoprics.
“But the American colonies were not the only part of the British dominions in which the settlement of our Church, in the completeness of her doctrine and discipline, had been too long neglected. Many years elapsed after the establishment of our power in India, before any systematic measures were adopted for the moral and religious benefit of that country. But neither here had their obligations been overlooked by churchmen. As early as the year 1694, Dr. Prideaux drew up proposals for the propagation of Christianity in the East Indies. In this paper he laid down, as the result of experience in the West Indies, as well as in the East, the position, which a century and a half's added experience has strengthened, 'That the existing evils and de. ficiencies cannot otherwise be remedied, than by settling bishops and seminaries in those countries, where ministers may be bred and ordained upon the spot.' Shortly after this, indeed, the East India Company was required, in the charter granted to them, and bearing date 1698, 'constantly to maintain in every garrison, and superior factory, one ininister [to be approved by the Bishop of London], and to provide there also one decent and convenient place for divine service only.'
“ Little, however, was done till the time of the renewal of the Company's charter, in 1813; when, after much opposition, and many warnings of the evils that would ensue from the introduction of our Church system into that heathen empire, the following resolution, apologetically introduced by the Government, was adopted by the House of Commons, and made the basis of a clause in tlie act:· " That it is expedient that the Church establishment in the British territories in the East Indies should be placed under the superintendence of a bishop and three archdeacons; and that adequate provision should be made from the territorial revenues for their maintenance.
" The immediate consequence was, the erection of British India into one vast diocese, which has since been subdivided into the bishoprics of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.
“ It only remains for us to mention the tardy organization of the Church in the West India islands. It has already been stated, that a plan was presented to Queen Anne, in 1713, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, for the erection of bishoprics in Jamaica and Barbados. This plan, so wisely and providently formed, was destined to wait more than a century for its accomplishment. At last, however, after the objections to it had been exhausted, the dioceses of Jamaica and Barbados were formally constituted, and the good effects resulting from episcopal superintendence have been most remarkably evidenced in both.
“After the foregoing references to the many ineffectual attempts made during a long series of years to introduce the full system of the Church of England into our colonies, and the opposition by which those attempts were defeated, it is consolatory to reflect on the improved feeling, both of the public and the government, in our own time. Out of fifteen colonial bishoprics, ten have been erected within the last nine years. But though much has been done, much remains to be accomplished.
“ By a reference to Document III., it will be seen that, of the thirteen additional bishoprics, which were declared, in 1841, by the unanimous voice of our bishops, to be required in various parts of the British empire abroad, four only have yet been constituted. The necessary endowment fund, indeed, has been, within a little, provided for New Brunswick ; but to mention no other, the important colony of the Cape of Good Hope remains entirely cut off from the benefit of Church government.
“It need only be added, that the following documents, connected with by far the most important movement in the Church of England since the era of the Reformation, are now published in a collected form, with a view of promoting the extension of the catholic and apostolic Church in every part of our colonial empire.
“ Ernest Hawkins.” Such is Mr. H.'s historical notice (April 16, 1844) introductory to the documents relative to the great movement originated by the Bishop of London in 1840, for the erection and endowment of additional bishoprics in the colonies. And here it may be well to quote a passage or two from his lordship's letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, explanatory of his general views and plan on this important point.
“I am persuaded,” he observes, " that I need not offer any apology for addressing a letter to your Grace upon a subject, which I know has occupied much of your thoughts, and which I consider to be of the most urgent importance to the interests of that branch of the Church of Christ, which looks up with reverence to your Grace as its chief spiritual ruler.
." The time appears to me to have arrived, at which a great effort is required, on the part of the Church of England, to impart the full benefits of her apostolical government and discipline, as well as of her doctrines and ordinances, to those distant provinces of the British Empire, where, if the Christian religion is professed at all, it is left to depend for its continuance, under the blessing of its Divine Head, upon the energies of individual piety and zeal, without being enshrined in the sanctuary of a rightly constituted Church, the only sure and trustworthy instrument of its perpetuation and efficiency.
" The duty, incumbent upon the government of a Christian country, of making provision for the spiritual wants of its colonies, a duty recognised and fulfilled by those states which have maintained their communion with the Church of Rome, was felt at far too late a period by the rulers of this Pro. testant country, and has at no time been completely and effectually carried out. At present it is openly called in question by a large proportion of the members of one branch of our legislature; and there does not appear to be much hope of our obtaining, at the present moment, in the actual state of the public revenue, any considerable aid from the national resources, for the purpose of planting and maintaining the Church of this country in its colonies. In the mean time, those colonies are rapidly increasing in extent and population, and the want of some effectual provision for the preservation of their Christianity is augmented, just in proportion as the chance of supplying it appears to be diminished.
“Every year's experience tends to prove, and the opinion is rapidly gaining ground, that in our endeavours to provide for our colonists that, which in the first instance they have not the means of providing for themselves, the ministration and opportunities of our holy religion, it is not enough that we send out with them, or amongst them, a certain number of missionaries; and that we contribute to build a certain number of churches and schools. No doubt, even this provision will be productive of inuch good; but if we desire the good to be complete, permanent, and growing with the Church's growth, we must plant the Church amongst them in all its integrity. Each colony must have, not only its parochial, or district pastors, but its chief pastor, to watch over, and guide, and direct the whole. An episcopal Church without a bishop is a contradiction in terms. The jurisdiction exercised in former times over the colonies by the Bishop of London, and still conventionally exercised by him over those clergymen of the English Church who have no bishop of their own, is an anomalous and very inadequate substitute for the practical authority of a diocesan bishop, residing amongst and superintending his own clergy, and giving unity, consistency, and efficiency, to their pastoral labours.
“The difference between our past labours in the work of erecting colonial churches, and those which are now called for, must be this : that whereas we formerly began by sending out a few individual missionaries, to occupy detached and independent fields of labour,-unconnected with one another by their relation to a common oversight in the execution of their task, although deriving their spiritual authority from a common origin;-and then, after an interval of many years, placing them under the guidance and control of bishops; we should now, after having supplied the wants of those older colonies, which are still destitute of the benefit of episcopal government, take care to let every new colony enjoy that blessing from the very first. Let every band of settlers, which goes forth from Christian England.... take with it not only its civil rulers and functionaries, but its bishops and clergy. * * * *
“Where a work is to be done for any part of a Christian community, confessedly most important to their best interests, as well as to the cause of our Divine Master, if it is not done by the Government of the country to which that community belongs, (which, however, I can never regard as otherwise than bound to act as a part of the Church Catholic, in respect of its worldly means and appliances,) it appears to me, that all the members of that community and Church are bound to take the work in hand, and to do that, which may in no case be left undone. It is on this principle that the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts has now acted for more than a century. It has done that inadequately, which the Government of the country ought to have done completely; and as there seems now to be but little prospect of its being relieved of its responsibility, it is to be hoped that every member of our Church, whom Providence has blessed with the means, will at length be brought to feel, that some portion of that responsibility rests upon himself. It is upon this principle, as it appears to me, that we must now proceed, with regard to the endowment of new colonial bishoprics. I would propose, for your Grace's consideration, the following plan:
“Ist. That a fund should be formed, by voluntary contribution, for the endowment of bishoprics in the colonies and distant dependencies of the British Crown.
" 2dly. That this fund should be held in trust and administered by the Archbishops and Bishops of the English Church.
" 5thly. That contributions may be made, specifically for the endowment of particular bishoprics.”—(Documents, No. I. passim.)
Such were the general views and plan of the Bishop of London on raising the great question touching colonial bishoprics,--a movement which Mr. Hawkins has described as the most important. ... in the Church of England since the era of the Reformation ;-" that his lordship regards it in much the same light, is pretty clear from the closing paragraph of his letter.” He observes
"My own deeply-rooted conviction is, that if the Church of England bestir herself in good earnest, and put forth all the resources and energies which
she possesses, and for the use of which she must give account, she will in due time cause the reformed episcopal Church to be recognised, by all the nations of the earth, as the stronghold of pure religion, and the legitimate dispenser of its means of grace; and will be a chosen instrument in the hands of God for purifying and restoring the other branches of Christ's holy Catholic Church, and of connecting them with herself, as members of the same mystical body, in the way of truth, in the unity of the Spirit, and in the bond of
The final result of this scheme, and the state of episcopacy as connected with our Church up to the date of Mr. Hawkins' “ Historical Notices," is-seventeen colonial dioceses, viz.—Nova Scotia, Quebec, Toronto, Newfoundland, Jamaica, Barbadoes, Antigua, Guiana, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Gibraltar, Fredericton, Columbo: and if to this list be added bishops for the congregation of the Church of England in France, and the Anglican Church at Jerusalem, we had at that date last year, Mr. H. reminds us, forty-seven “ bishops of our communion in other countries,” including the American bishops : " and, singularly enough, the number at home, including England, Ireland, and Scotland, is at present precisely the same-making in all NINETY-FOUR.”
This is certainly a remarkable development within little more than half, and, mainly, within a quarter, of a century. The importance attached to it by most of the writers whom we have classed together in the list of books which heads this article, might be placed in a striking light, did our space admit of extended quotation. They are all more or less connected with the great movement of 1840; and, though touching upon a great variety of topics, seem especially to challenge attention to this one-the importance of the episcopal element as a main principle on which the missionary or expansive efforts of the Church ought to be conducted! This appears to us to be the radical pervading idea of the works referred to : and, in close connexion with it, as completing the view,the co-ordinate importance of a suitable preparation for colonial and missionary service. A single extract will present the combined view, and to this we must confine ourselves. We could not indeed develop it more clearly as entertained by a large and influential body in the Church, and as presenting the all-important subject of Christian missions under what appears to us a somewhat new phase. We quote from—a review of “the Past and Prospective Extension of the Gospel by Missions to the Heathen, considered in Eight Lectures," delivered before the University of Oxford in the year 1843, by Dr. Grant, recently preferred by the Bishop of London to the Archdeaconry of St. Albans. The Reviewer-himself, it is well known, an individual whose talents,
character, and influence give to his opinions more than common weight-thus opens the general question of Church missions.
“ The subject of missions,” he justly observes, " is a vital question for the Church of England. Clearly as we may distinguish in our minds the work of the Church at home and abroad, a moment's reflection will show us the distinction is not one of principle, but of accident: that home and abroad express no more than the distinct localities in which one and the same power of life and of expansion manifests itself. It is the Church of England, as one living and identical person, whether in the mines of Staffordshire or in the plains of Central India. The missions of the Church abroad are the surest tests of its true spiritual vitality, Custom, interest, Christian civilization, domestic policy, may set in motion schemes of Church extension at home; but nothing except the force of charity and faith will suffice to send forth missions to the heathen world. It is, therefore, nothing less than a test whether faith and charity are yet alive in our Church. Moreover it is most certain that neither worldly interest, nor Christian civilization, nor enlightened policy, have ever excited the British Government to attempt the systematic extension of Christianity in the colonies of this empire : nor to trace the social and political order of our foreign dependencies on any surer foundation than that of secular measures and experiments. Whatever has been done, or is likely to be done, in the way of Christianizing our colonies upon any lasting principle, has been, and will be, the work of the Church alone. The British Government, so far from initiating, or even heartily co-operating in such hallowed undertakings, has not only treated them with coldness, but has in times past even set up positive obstructions."
“ Indeed,” as he again observes,-after taking a very able and comprehensive survey of the history of missions up to the establishment of the Church Missionary Society in 1800—" it will one day be thought incredible that Great Britain should bave been a colonial power for 200 years before the episcopate of the English Church set a foot upon its foreign shores. It will scarcely be believed, that at a time when one-seventh of the habitable earth obeyed its rule, there was not one organized church or diocese throughout its world-wide dimensions."
This reproach, however, is now to some extent, rolled away : and the view presented by the colonial and missionary field is such as to demand at once our warmest gratitude and warrant our liveliest hopes. We cannot, before we proceed to the point more immediately under notice, deny ourselves the pleasure of quoting the Reviewer's “ summary of what the Church of England has been permitted to do.” It will suffice to show, as he observes, “ that results fully proportioned to the means have actually folfowed upon its missions," and will also suggest, we would add, the great importance of well weighing the principles and measures which he proceeds so earnestly to advocate.
“And, first,” he remarks, "let us cite the American Church. Who would have dared to expect, after nearly two centuries of neglect, and the fatal effects of two internal convulsions, that the seed we planted with so niggard and repulsive a hand, should have sprung up into such fruitfulness and sta