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thankful that we have still, both in his country and ours—let us add too, in the sister island—the Established profession of a true faith, with the just latitude, in regard to individual conscience and the claims of necessity, which liberty and religion alike demand.
We must, however, just add Dr. M.'s conclusion on this subject.
“ There is no moral,” he observes, " which our recollections of Geneva will more emphatically impart, or which the progressive history of that republic will more clearly develop, than the utter incompatibility and impropriety of one man attempting to judge for his neighbour, or to overrule the opinion and freedom and conscience of his fellow-men in reference to religion. In the liberty of the people of Geneva, and in the general prevalence of civil freedom of the inhabitants of Schwyzerland, it is manifest there may be political liberty where there is no religious freedom. Political liberty and heroic achievement, connected with social liberty, may be exhibited and maintained, whilst the cause of political and enlightened Christianity does not prosper; and the noblest enjoyments of intelligent beings, in a moral and spiritual sense, are not promoted."'-(p. 467.)
Might not Dr. M. have paused to draw a favourable contrast between Schwyzerland and England ? We do not recollect that he has a word for his country in the course of his 548 pages, or so much as a single reference to her incomparable and glorious constitution.
The last chapter of the “ Recollections" is on “ Luther's Fatherland-the Reformation--its instrumentality-its progress-its memorials—its influence in Germany." The chapter is chiefly historical—a life in fact of Luther, which thus concludes :
“ In the year 1483 he was born, and he died in 1546, an old man from labour rather than from years; yet gathered to his grave, aged 63 years, and full of honour, rich in faith, and expecting a long reward of grace and glory. He had done the work of many men, and God preserved him immortal till his task was completed, and he was prepared to receive his Saviour's welcome. He finished his toil by God's blessing : yet the greatest and wisest man's work is imperfect; and it is an interesting question which is excited by the fact that Luther's reformation needs reform. What was the secret of his deficiency, or what the source of its weakness? Have his principles been applied, and his objects consistently pursued by his followers ? Christianity itself veeds no reformation : the Bible, which is the type of Christianity, suffers no change-the permanent matrix of every Divine form of truth. The doctrines of that book remain to-day what they were when first promulgated, or anew proclaimed by Luther. Let men of all ages and of all climes take that book as their only guide, and they will always have the pure Christianity of its early-its earliest age.
“ Why then, it may be inquired, does Martin Luther's Reformation require reform? That its present aspect and spirit betoken feebleness and formality, that its vital energies are dorinant, if inherent, and that there is more of the name to live--than of the power to influence or the resources to invigorate, will not be denied by those who have explored the land of the Reformation. Martin Luther's genius no longer inspires the religious forms of Germany; his doctrines of faith, his labours of love, his fervours of devotion, his spirit of zeal, his patience of hope, animate but few who fill the pulpits he once preached in, and who minister to the people whom he so fondly loved. The
Lutheran Church in Germany is not now Martin Luther's Church. The men who practise the rites, the clergy who minister at the altars, the professors who stand forth as the teachers of religious truth in Germany, their own flocks being judges, do not propagate Martin Luther's doctrine. A change has come over their spirits and their sentiments. A reason for this might be found, and it would afford me pleasure to trace it, and show the operation of what is evil, and the remedy which the case requires. Space interdicts at present any such attempt. I cannot, however, resist the temptation, at this moment, to specify one cause which has been assigned, as operating among the literati in Germany, to produce Rationalism, and to cause declension from the Scriptural orthodoxy and piety of Luther. The intellectual and moral condition of Germany has been described as suffering from a plethora : the reapers outnumber the sheaves to be gathered. Germany has been overstocked with students. The number of highly-educated scholars is very large in proportion to the population, in the states of Germany—much larger than the intellectual wants of the country demand! The Government, having in its hands nearly all the places of trust and emolument, looks, of course, to the abler and more promising candidates for public favour. This awakens among the thousands annually emerging from the university life a spirit of rivalry, and a strong desire for notoriety. Attention must be aroused-a name must be created at all events : if the promulgation of correct opinions will not effect the object, paradoxes may.' This is from America!”'-(pp. 522, 523.)
We have the following notice of Halle—its University, and Franke's Institut.
“ The University of Halle is one of the largest in Germany, but is dependent on royal bounty, and subject to ministerial inspection and control. A thousand to twelve hundred is said to be the present average number of students under the tuition of seventy-four professors. The sum granted by the government is nearly £2000 per annum, which is almost wholly expended on literature, and the physical sciences: while the proportion of students attending it is two for evangelical theology to one for other branches. The reputation of this university is based upon the character of its professors. Rationalism for a time prevailed, but it was gilded by the oriental splendours of Gesenius. Its glories have waned under the purer light, and the more hallowing lustre of evangelical truth, as shed abroad by the learning and piety of Tholuck, whose sweet and benign ascendancy has been strengthened by the more fervid, and scriptural, and equally philosophic and eloquent learning of Müller. When Tholuck delivered his inaugural lecture, he was despised by the learned, hissed by the noviciates: his piety and child-like simplicity awed the one and quelled the other. He has now the largest class in the university, and the most extended reputation among his colleagues."'-(pp. 541,542.)
" There is in Halle an institution there called the Wisenhaus, or Franke's Institut, so designated from its object as an asylum for orphans, and from the name of its founder, Professor Franké. I had long felt an interest and desire to examine and ascertain its principles and operations, more especially as I had soinehow identified it with several eminent servants of Christ, as missionaries. One the sons of my widowed friend went with me. It was on a Sunday, and in a fruitless search we passed from court to court, and from one gallery to another, in quest of the assembly for worship or instruction ; the whole previous time had been spent, and what remained was to be spent, without any public act of Christian worship. My inquiries concerning the number of pupils, of schools, and of various classes in the schools, obtained more positive information. I found there were between two and three thou: sand youths connected with the institution, but not all orphans.....
“When Franké originated this establishment, Halle was in a state of great religious activity,-what would be called a revival prevailed: devout and fervid piety characterized the people as well as their teachers. Professor Tholuck assured me that Franké had often prayer-meetings in almost every street of the town, and enjoyed the warmest affections of the people of his pastorate ; and that the community generally were zealously affected for evangelical truth, and excited to a concern for religion above any subsequent experience. Striking contrast to the scene I witnessed !-when these thousands of children had, so far as I could learn, no religious exercises whatever in their own chapel or in a sabbath-school, or yet by prescribed attendance at any place of worship beyond the bounds of their institution, while regularly only once a fortnight is their attendance required at public worship. The inspector-a government appointment, having power to direct, control, remove, and dismiss-is, I was informed, the most distinguished and zealous neologian, a rationalist sceptic and antagonist to the inspiration of Scripture, in that part of Prussia. It is under his direction the preaching and religious teaching of these orphans and scholars are placed. So much for government control. No doubt his object is to bring the children under the influence of his own religious peculiarities. What the seed sown by such a husbandman may produce can be imagined....
A fine majestic statue of Franké, the founder, in bronze, by Rauch, to which king and people contributed, has been erected in front of the Waisenhaus. How much better a monument would be a man of like spirit with Franké in charge of the Institut! His labours prospered by voluntary liberality-what is the fruit of state bounty ?”—(pp. 541-545.)
In our opinion this is no logic. Dr. M. would “like to see some such institution founded in Manchester, in connexion with a university of the highest reputation, which would supply the sons of wealthy persons, without the necessity of removing them to Oxford or Cambridge." “ How much better," he observes, “ thus to make provision, than by unequal and odious taxation, and the infringement of liberty in teaching or of conscience, by overbearing or exacting rulers and legislators, to force knowledge and propagate opinion !” Thus true is Dr. M. to his ruling idea : thus zealous in giving it a practical phase. We only wish that the voluntary principle, taking a right direction, left no other task for Government but to protect and cherish it. Dr. M. can hardly complain that in this country it is checked. Free scope and no favour appears to us just now to be the government maxim-or if favour there be, we all know who are the gainers. But in fact, governors and subjects need alike to have their attention roused to the one thing needful. The claims of truth—the truth of God-are imperative, and till all conspire to do it honour, and become sensible that this alone is "the sovereign good of human nature," the wellspring of health to states and individuals, we shall in vain look for the measure of national prosperity we desire. In our opinion the view of Dr. Dwight is the true one--" The legislature has not only a right, but is obliged by an authority which it can neither oppose nor question, to pursue cvery lawful and expedient measure
for the promotion of the public welfare;" consulting therein, (he might have added, and no doubt intended,) the glory of God and the good of his Church. We sincerely trust Dr. Massie may yet be brought to adopt this view ; and perhaps he will allow us to say, that we should think it a great improvement of his interesting and useful “ Recollections," as a work “ for permanent reference and perusal," if in another edition he could feel himself at liberty to expunge the passages which give so disproportionate a prominence to his voluntary theories and other kindred topics. We have quoted them in no unfriendly spirit: and are sure that the author's generous nature will excuse our thus adverting to what we consider the greatest “ imperfection” of his otherwise valuable work. He will not expect that we can recommend it in extenso as a safe guide-book.
Since the above was written, we have had put into our hands Mr. Perceval's “ Results of an Ecclesiastical Tour in Holland and
not be unacceptable to our readers, and will in some respects complete the view—that affecting view–presented by our copious extracts from the larger work of Dr. Massie.
A visit to Holland, Germany, and Denmark, in 1845, afforded Mr. Perceval an opportunity of inquiring into the spiritual condition of the members of the British Communion in those parts : and also of ascertaining our ecclesiastical position as respects the foreign communions. We will give the results in brief, as he has stated them, under their several heads.
1. The first has reference to the spiritual destitution of the members of the British Communion in Northern Europe. This Mr. P. conceives “ is to the full as great as that of their brethren in Canada is represented to be ; and that their spiritual danger, arising from the irreligion, scepticism, and superstition with which they are surrounded, is far greater.” Of their spiritual destitution he gives the following instances :
“I found in Holland," he says, “ members of our communion glad and thankful to attend our service, and earnestly pressing for a renewal of the opportunity : provided, indeed with prayer-books, but, from long disuse, quite unable to follow the service in them, not knowing where to look to find the proper places; and obliged to take their children for baptism to the Calvinist ministers of the country. I found at Cologne, where on any given Sunday in the season I was assured that at least 200 British could be found in the different hotels, the British communion had never been administered, nor the British service celebrated, within the memory of man. The same I found at Weimar, at Brunswick, and at Lübec, all places of residence for the British ; Weimar being seldom without British families, as well as young men studying the language; and Lübec having as many as thirty students, besides a few resident families. The tears of joy and thankfulness with which
in can conceives British Cose to the
the holy communion was received at Weimar can never be effaced from my memory; nor the anxious and desponding fear that was expressed, that no other opportunity would ever again be presented. In the absence of any bishop of their communion, or means of access to one, they are constrained to go through what I must needs consider the mockery of confirmation at the hands of the Lutheran superintendent, or at the hands of the ordin ministers, to whom (as in Denmark) the superintendents (there called bishiops) delegate the performance of this ceremony. I say compelled, because in most Lutheran countries civil privileges are annexed to the reception of this rite, which renders it in a manner compulsory. In the interment of their dead, again, they meet with obstructions and difficulties (especially at Copenhagen), very painful to the individuals, and very degrading to our communion. The wish for a better order of things is universal; and the most hearty and earnest desire exists among our clergy in these countries for the support, comfort, authority, and direction of a bishop."--(pp. 8, 9.)
2. Under the next head Mr. P. gives us the result of his inquiries as to the spiritual danger of the British in Northern Europe from irreligion, scepticism, and superstition.
“ Some judgment,” he observes, “ may be formed by the following notices :
“ 1st, Of Irreligion. This is carried to so fearful an extent among the Protestants, that even in thickly-populated cities, as Brunswick, the churches are opened only once on the Lord's day, and then miserably attended; and, awful to relate, the Lord's Supper, rarely received by any above once in the year, has ceased to be a communion; the poor receiving it in church on Sundays, the wealthy classes on a week-day in the vestry. Their celebration of divine service, as far as fell under my inspection, was of the most painfullychilling description. At the thriving city of Hesse-Cassel and in the principal church, it consisted almost exclusively of wretchedly-discordant singing of charity children, in which not one of the adult congregation joined. At Hildesheim the men joined in the singing, and when the Gospel was read the women stood up: with these exceptions, there was no outward appearance of taking part in what was going on: all sat immoveably fixed to their seats; and, except during the singing, the snuff-boxes were being opened and handed about. For the place of worship, for the house of prayer, which is called by God's name, no reverence whatever is felt. Among the Calvinists in Holland, who thronged the cathedral of Haarlem on Sunday, my head was the only one uncovered. Nor is the case different among the Lutherans. And the act of being uncovered is regarded, not as an act of homage to the Most High, but as a mark of civility to those present. ' Pray, Sir, be covered,' said a Lutheran minister, himself wearing his cap, and who was kindly showing me his church. Not in the house of God?' was the reply: Nor was it without effect. The Lutheran minister said nothing, but immediately himself likewise became bareheaded. When, commenting upon the non-public celebration of baptism, upon the scanty eucharists, and awful separation of rich and poor at the holy communion, I observed, “These things ought not so to be;, the Lutheran shook his head in sadness, while he assented to the remark, “ The fault rests with the ministers; ' I added, 'The amendment must be effected by them.' The Lutheran shrugged his shoulders, and cast a look of despairing helplessness.. 'Be of good cheer,' continued I'; 'twelve years ago things were almost as bad in England; but we set our shoulders to the wheel, and, with God's blessing, a great change for the better has been effected. I trust it may be the same with you.' A fervent pressure of the hand, with a God bless you,' showed how earnestly the Lutheran coincided in the wish : but I was grieved at my inability to trace in his countenance a single ray of hope. From many incidents it struck me, that (however ready