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“ Few things cản sliow more strongly the alienation at present subsisting between the differept classes of society in Germany, and the extent of the oppressions under which the lower orders groan, than the simple fact that. a mere act of justice on the part of the King of Hanover, in punishing a gross act of cruel oppression, committed by an officer in high rank in the army, was spoken of as a wonderful event, not merely in Hanover, but in all places. The king's conduct in the affair, it was said, had alienated the affections of the upper orders : but it had won for him the love and confidence of the rest of his people, who were beginning to see that 'old Ernest,' as he is commonly called, might have had their interests at heart when he refused the project of 'Reform' presented to him on his accession, which the world, in general, at that time, when the Reform mania was at its height, regarded as unprincipled despotism. ....
2. * I found the beneficial effect of the unobtrusive piety of the better class of English travellers, telling upon persons in ranks of life upon whom it would not at first seem likely that such an impression would be made. The landlords and waiters at the hotels, for instance, recounted with admiration, and apparently sincere gratitude, the traits of piety they had noted in the English: the books they used : their reference to the Supreme Being in cases of illness; their private devotion : their religious observance of the Lord's day : their unexceptionable morality: all tending to dispose them in the most favourable way towards our church and nation.
3. “ I found the religious among the upper classes teaching their children English, for this especial purpose, that they might have the benefits of the works of piety and devotion with which the press in our happy land teems...
4. “ I found the memory of the British missionaries, by whom the whole of that country was converted to the Christian faith, still held and cherished among all classes. The poorest peasantry in the neighbourhood of St. Suibert's shrine could tell me that he came from Britain. All these circumstances concur in disposing the religiously-inclined among them very favourably towards us and our Church; so that when I broached, as I did among all classes and all communions, the idea that was ever present to my mind, namely, that as the German Church was built at the first by Britons, and their Episcopate derived from us, so now their Episcopate would be renewed and their Church rebuilt from the same quarter; and that this would give religious peace to Germany, and stave off the horrors of the sanguinary revolution at the expectation of which they trembled: not the remotest offence seemed taken, certainly none was expressed by any. Some, as the hospitable R. C. Dean of — , considered it far from improbable: others, like the venerable R. C. Dean of --, regarded it as a prospect too blessed to be realized.
5. “Further, I found that at Amsterdam, where our Liturgy had been performed in the Dutch language, in a spacious church, holding several thousand persons, the building had been crowded, and the utmost attention manifested. And both here and elsewhere I found that a very large proportion, if not the majority, of the communicants in our congregations was composed of persons who had joined us from some of the foreign communions, and whom, in the absence of any bishop,-for even an occasional visit of one of which order request had been repeatedly and earnestly made in vain, -our clergy in those places are compelled, much to their own uneasiness, to admit to communion without episcopal imposition of hands."'-(pp. 35—39.)
From all these circumstances, Mr. P. concludes. “ It seems not unreasonable to entertain the hope, that the measure which the religious destitution of our own people in those countries renders it imperative in us to adopt for their sakes only, may, under the Divine blessing, be attended indirectly with the happiest results upon the Germans themselves, in allaying their now restless religious agitation : in arresting the pro
gress of sanguinary and unprincipled revolution : in drawing together with the surest bonds, nations of kindred race: and ulteriorly, in rebuilding the sheltered fabric of the Christian Church, and restoring religious peace and re-establishing catholic communion throughout the world."— (pp. 31, 40.)
Here, Mr. P. proceeds,
5. To suggest the institution of a British Bishop for Northern Europe, with a view to the “ relief of the spiritual destitution and spiritual danger of the members of our own communion, now scattered, like sheep without a shepherd, among the wolves of irreligion, scepticism and superstition.” For the title of his See, he thinks that “if the civil authorities offer no objection, the island of Heligoland, belonging to the British Crown, offers an unexceptionable designation, there being nothing in the terms of capitulation on which that possession was ceded to us by Denmark to interfere with such an arrangement.
For the residence of such a Bishop, if his charge is to extend (as is desirable) over Holland and Belgium, Northern Germany, and the shores of the Baltic, including St. Petersburgh, the free town of Lübec offers, he conceives, advantages not to be met with elsewhere." “ For the institution of such a Bishop,” Mr. P. reminds us, " a fund has been opened at the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts : the British factories in Europe having been one of the objects for the provision of which that Society was at the first employed,” and further suggests that if means " for establishing two bishops be provided, it would be well to appoint a coadjutor to the Bishop of Heligoland, to have his residence in the free town of Frankfort on the Maine, ... and to superintend the congregations of the British Communion in South Germany, Switzerland, and the dominions of the Emperor of Austria."
“At present,” he observes, “ for want of a proper bishop, the consuls and civil employés of the British Crown are sometimes in a manner obliged to exercise the functions of a sort of lay episcopate : a position which must needs be as painful to every right-minded and well-informed person among them, as it is plainly subversive of the first principles of an ecclesiastical polity:
“ The present year, 1846,” Mr. Perceval proceeds under this head," is the 300th anniversary of that which witnessed the promulgation of the Decree of Trent concerning the Sacred Scriptures, of which something has been said above. Rome is preparing to celebrate it, on the very spot where the iniquity was perpetrated, with empty fanfaronade and display. Let Britain also prepare to celebrate it, even by introducing into the country what was polluted by that decree, the germ of a free Episcopacy: and by extensively promulgating, in the native language of the same, the pure compendium of Primitive and Catholic worship, which is to be found in the Book of Common Prayer, according to the rites of the British Churches, in the excellent edition lately published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
“This year is also remarkable as being the 300th anniversary of the death of one concerning whom it may well be asked, whether his method of oppos
ing the errors of Rome has not occasioned more vital injury to Christianity in the countries which have adopted his principles, than the very corruptions against which he bore his earnest and painful testimony.
“ The natural and necessary progress of Lutheranism, from the first principles broached by the founder of the sect, to the full · development' of infidelity by which the face of once Christian Germany has been overspread, and which has in this very month been celebrated with rejoicings by the followers of that extraordinary man, has been traced in a manner only too convincing by Mr. Dewar, the present British chaplain at Hamburgh.
“ If those of the clergy and theological students at our two great universities, who purpose taking recreation on the Continent in the course of the present year, would divide Germany between them, Oxford taking the North, where one of her members has already broken ground, and Cambridge the South : each university arranging that every portion of its allotted field should be visited: the missionaries taking with them copies of our Liturgy, in German, for general distribution, and seeking out in every place the heads of religious communions or communities, with whom to enter into frank and affectionate, respectful, but unflinching communication on religious subjects, they would find throughout a soil in a fit preparation to receive the good seed which they might sow: and might look, under the Divine blessing, to behold its produce at the day of the great harvest, and rejoice therein for ever with joy unspeakable, and full of glory.' Let it plainly be put to the simple Germans, whether they are willing to receive at our hands anew that pure doctrine which our British fathers in the faith, St. Willibrod, St. Suibert, and St. Boniface, whose shrines are to be found respectively at Utrecht, Kaiserswerth, and Fulda, once proclaimed, and in behalf of which the black and white Hewalds, and many others, were content to shed their blood upon the plains of Germany, and leave their bones to enrich her soil : and who that knows the noble character of that nation can doubt the hearty and generous response which, at such an appeal, would ring through aļl their borders, from a people as much disgusted with the infidelity of the Rationalists, as they are with the (mis-called holy) frauds of the Papists: and who only have erred from the faith through want of true and faithful guides? The Cambridge men will probably find ample exercise for their clear heads among the keen Jesuits of Bavaria; while, among the unjesuitical Romanists of Silesia, the Oxonians would meet with men of fervent piety like their own, well qualified both to receive and to repay the utmost exertions they might use. Let this be Britain's mode of celebrating the ter-centenary of the blasphemous Tridentine decree concerning the sacred Scriptures, and of the death of the Rationalising Luther, and who can tell how vast a progress one single year may witness towards the restoration of religious peace and of a catholic communion throughout Europe, and throughout the world! For the kingdom of heaven is not like those of earth, of every one of which it might be said, as we say of Rome, that it 'was not built in a day :' concerning. It the prophet has foretold her instantaneous growth, saying, ' Who hath heard such a thing? Who hath seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be born at once? For as soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her children.' (Isa. Ixvi. 8.)"
6. Such are the general views of Mr. P. His last chapter is on the state of the Episcopate in Northern Europe.
1: " Holland - The Dutch episcopate is legitimately and canonically exercised by the Archbishop of Utrecht, and the Bishops of Haarlem and Deventer, by whom the succession is carefully maintained. Rome : . . . sends in her own bishops (in partibus infidelium) to set up schismatical altars and jurisdiction.
2. “ Belgium. There is no Belgian episcopate. The Belgian sees are not filled up. Episcopal functions are exercised there by Roman bishops in partibus infidelium.
3. “ Northern Germany.—The sees here have for the most part never been filled up since the 16th century....... Even Saxony, where the king is of the Roman communion, has no canonical bishops. Episcopal functions for the Saxons being discharged by another Roman bishop in partibus.
4. “ Denmark.—There are no canonical bishops in Denmark. The Lutheran superintendents, who bear the titles of the Danish sees, derive their orders from the presbyter Bügenhagen, who acted in Denmark the part which Calvin, Knox, and Luther did in Switzerland, Scotland, and Germany in the 16th century; and which Wesley pursued in later times in England.
5. “ Sweden.- Whether there is a valid episcopate in Sweden or not is very doubtful.
6. “ Russia.--The episcopate in Russia is legitimate and canonical : and being understood to be very friendly towards the British Church, is more likely to welcome with satisfaction the presence of a British bishop to superintend the members of our communion, with whom they have no wish to interfere, than to regard it with the remotest feelings of jealousy."-(pp. 51 -54.)
Mr. P. adds a list of the episcopal sees formerly existing in Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; and has further, three Appendices, containing interesting matter, but not very clearly connected with the object of his pamphlet, or our immediate design in quoting it so fully as we have done. We have simply wished to complete our view of the religious state of the countries brought under notice, and to put our readers in possession of the opinions and plans in regard to those countries, of one who (according to his own confession) is of the class generally called “ Puseyites;" and who (to quote his own words to a Roman Catholic priest) is “ glad they are increasing ...... because he hopes that by the pure Catholic truths, which it is their object to teach, our differences may at length be removed, and we may worship God again in one.” For ourselves, we have as little sympathy with Mr. Perceval's Puseyite as with Dr. Massie's Voluntary nostrums; and we lament that, in calling attention to the important and awakening facts which have come under their notice, neither of these able, sincere, and zealous men has struck the keynote which we could have wished. Luther laid the right foundation, but others have not built upon it. He was not a rationalist, as Mr. Perceval would represent him : nor will Mr. P.'s Apostolical Succession and free Episcopacy have the talismanic effect he anticipates in revivifying the German and Dutch Churches: Luther's faith and spirit must again animate his degenerate sons : men of like mind must enter into his labours : and then, with God's blessing, great will be the increase. Churches are not indefectible, and whether Episcopal, Lutheran, Presbyterian or Voluntary, they must live by faith, or they will all be alike dead.
SIX DISCOURSES ON THE PROPHECIES RELATING TO
ANTICHRIST IN THE APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN. By J. H. TODD, D.D., &c. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, Dublin : Hodges and Smith. 1846.
at this art, at som by different ad vend all his stars, a
Dr. Todd is a very unfortunate man; and we can afford most sincerely to condole with him. He resembles nothing so much as an artist in pyrotechnics, who, after preparing for a grand display of his art, at some rural fete, finds his performance postponed, hour after hour, by different adverse circumstances, till the glorious sun of July rises upon him, and all his stars, and wheels, and fiery serpents, become simply ridiculous.
Ďr. Todd preached these Six Donnellan Lectures in 1841. That was, in prophetical studies, a gloomy, night-like, period; and this volume might have emitted some rays, among the Burghs, and Goyetts, and Tysoes of that day. It belongs to their school, being a sketch of the literal and futurist interpretation; and it is inore scholar-like, and not more absurd, than most of their volumes. But who reads any of these works now ? Mr. Elliott's Hore Apocalypticæ has utterly exterminated the whole sect, for all public purposes, leaving merely the leaders, but making a clean riddance of the followers. There never was an instance of a greater triumph. The first edition of that book was published, and cagerly read, in 1844. It became a work of the highest estimation almost instantly; and a new edition was quickly called for. Fifteen months having been occupied in printing this, it appeared in the spring of the present year, and in one week, the whole edition, of a thousand copies, of this bulky work, in four octavo volumes, was taken off, and nearly as many clamorous customers disappointed. These external circumstances show the deep and firm hold the book has taken of the public mind. And grotesque, indeed, does it appear, after this, to find Dr. Todd putting forth his six little lectures, delivered in 1841, to prove that “ the Revelation is Literal and Future."
His system of interpretation will be most fairly given, by presenting it in his own words. And, first, of the Seals :
" I shall now proceed to show, that the revelations made on the opening of each seal, all pourtray the circumstances of our Lord's second coming; re. presenting that event under various aspects, and, if we may so say, in various stages of development or completion..
"Upon the opening of the first seal, there appeared ' a white horse,' and 'He that sat on him had a bow; and a crown (OTéPrvos) was given unto him, and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.' 1846.