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“ This, then, is the substance of our Lord's commission; he is to come again with glory, of which the crown of victory given to him is the symbol; he is to appear the second time, not, as before, in weakness and humiliation, but' conquering and to conquer.'

“ That our Lord himself is represented by the horseman, in this portion of the vision, has been admitted by many commentators, both ancient and modern; and is strongly confirmed by the fact, that the emblem of a rider, on a white horse, is employed to denote the second coming of our Lord in another passage of the Apocalypse, where it can scarcely be doubted by any unprejudiced reader that he is intended, because we are expressly told that his name is called The Word of God;' and that' on his vesture and on his thigh was a name written, KinG OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.'

“It is worthy of remark, also, that our Saviour's second coming is represented in this vision not as completed, but as in progress: his conquests are not yet fully made, but he is seen going forth, 'conquering and to conquer.' Hence the other horsemen, seen on the opening of the second, third, and fourth seals, are to be understood as representing the concomitant signs and immediate consequences of his coming: and it is a very old observation made by one of the most ancient commentators on the Apocalypse, whose writings are preserved, that the judgments predicted by the seals agree, even in the order in which they are pourtrayed, with the signs given by our Lord him. self in answer to the inquiry of the disciples : 'What shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world ?: For even though it be admitted (which, however, I do by no means admit), that many things in that memorable prophecy of our Saviour, had an apparent or primary fulfilment in the destruction of Jerusalem, and in the Jewish wars, yet it is impossible to consider the whole as fulfilled in those events, and it has therefore been in all ages regarded as intended to predict mainly the future coming of the Lord to judge the world, to take vengeance on his enemies, and to give reward unto his saints.

“In our Lord's prophecy, we are told, that among the signs of his coming shall be 'wars and rumours of wars ; ' 'nation rising against nation, and kingdom against kingdom;' 'famines and pestilences, and earthquakes in divers places.' And all these, he further tells us, shall be but' the beginning of sorrows.'

“The same judgments, and in the same order, are evidently predicted in the second, third, and fourth seals : the horseman riding on a white horse, who goes forth conquering and to conquer, and who is the only one of the four horsemen to whom a crown of victory is given, is accompanied by another on a red horse, to whom power was given to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another, and there was given unto him a great sword.' The angel of famine follows on a black horse, having a pair of balances in his hand, the emblem of scarcity; and with him a voice proclaims the high price of the necessaries of life. And lastly: there was seen 'a pale horse :' ' and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him, and power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth."-(pp. 99-102.)

“ The opening of the seven seals predicts the judgments which are to be the signs and accompaniments of our Saviour's coming: wars and rumours of wars, famines, pestilences, and the combined horrors of all these plagues together, the sword, and hunger, and death, and beasts of the earth.

"These fearful judgments for these, as our Lord has said, are but the beginning of sorrows-shall be followed by still more terrible calamities; namely, by a persecution of the Church, and a great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to that time, no, nor ever shall be.' But à remnant of the Jewish nation shall be preserved, in the midst of these fatal yisitations: and a great multitude, which no man can number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, shall pass triumphant out of that


great tribulation, and shall wash their robes and make them white in the blood of the Lamb.

“ For the Jewish remnant also, as we learn from another vision of the Apocalypse, peculiar privileges are reserved. Privileges that may well raise our adoring wonder at the boundless Grace that has yet in store for that rebellious and stiff-necked nation, blessings and glories of such amazing maguitude. The Lamb himself, inasmuch as he has taken upon him our mortal nature, is of the tribe of Judah, of the root of David, of the race of Abraham; the twelve Apostles of the Lamb are also Hebrews, of the same highly-favoured people and nation. Nor is this all : twelve times twelve thousand Jews, sealed with the seal of the living God, having the Father's name written in their foreheads, and in whose mouths shall be found no guile, shall sing before the throne that new song, which none but themselves can learn,--and -O great and transcendant glory-shall stand upon Mount Sion with our Lord at his coming, and SHALL FOLLOW THE LAMB WHITHERSOEVER HE GOETH.'”—(pp. 122, 123.)

2. Of the Trumpets :“ After this introduction, the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.' And here it may be remarked, that the judgments foretold in the trumpets divide themselves into two classes: the first four trumpets denounce calamities upon inanimate things, or upon the inferior creation : the remaining three foretel the judgments with which mankind will be more directly visited.

Upon the sounding of the first four trumpets, 'hail and fire mingled with blood were seen to fall upon the earth, and the third part of trees was burned up, and all green grass was burnt up.' A great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea,' and the third part of the sea became blood, and the third part of all the living creatures which were in the sea died. A star, burning like a lamp, fell upon the third part of the rivers and fountains of waters, and they became wormwood,' and many men died of the waters because they were bitter.' And lastly, the heavenly bodies became also partakers of these judgments : 'the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars, so as the third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night likewise.'

The system adopted in all the modern popular expositions of the Apocalypse renders it necessary for their authors to assume that the earth, the sea, the rivers, the sun, the moon, the stars, the day, and the night, in this prediction, are to be taken as symbols ; denoting either the spiritual warfare and corruptions of the Christian Church; or, as very many of these expositors would persuade us, the overthrow of the Roman empire by the Goths and Vandals in the fourth and fifth centuries.

“No proof, however, is even attempted to be given that the language is symbolical: the sacred text itself contains no intimation that such is the case, much less does it afford any clue to the interpretation of the symbols, and consequently if the language be symbolical, all is left to conjecture and uncertainty.

“ In the absence, therefore, of all evidence of the contrary, we are warranted in assuming that the judgments predicted are to be understood liter. ally, unless there should appear to be anything inconsistent with reason or religion in so understanding them. This however can scarcely be said, when it is admitted that the plagues of Egypt, which all commentators agree to interpret literally, were judgments remarkably similar in their character; and when it is remembered that our Lord has predicted a visitation of the same kind as one of the signs of his future coming : 'and there shall be signs in the sun and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; men's hearts failing

them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth : for the powers of heaven shall be shaken.'

“Why then should we hesitate to believe that the judgments foretold on the sounding of the first four trumpets are equally literal ? and that they describe a revival of some of those awful and miraculous visitations with which the sins of men were punished in the early ages of the world ? namely, hail and fire from heaven, mingled with blood, which will burn up and destroy the trees and grass of the field; fire falling into the sea; the sea, like the rivers of Egypt, converted into blood; fish destroyed, and ships overwhelmed; rivers and fountains made bitter and poisonous: the heavenly bodies darkened, and perhaps annihilated, or their lights extinguished.

And yet in the midst of all these fearful judgments God will remember mercy; a third part only of the earth, and sea, and rivers, a third part only of the sun, and moon, and stars, shall be thus smitten; for otherwise, if such a visitation were universal, no flesh could be saved.

“And these are the judgments upon inanimate things, and upon the inferior part of creation, which shall be employed to usher in the great tribulation of the latter times."'-(pp. 132–136.)

Of the 1st Woe-Trumpet. " After the restoration of the Jewish people to the land of Canaan, and the re-establishment there of their national polity, Satan will be permitted to raise up against them, from the darkness of the bottomless pit, a formidable persecution under the agency of evil spirits. Whether these infernal agents shall appear in a bodily form resembling locusts, according to the literal description given of them, or whether they shall be permitted to employ the instrumentality of natural locusts or of men, I do not venture to decide ; but this is certain, that they shall have no power to destroy vegetation, but only to inflict on men a torment, which is described as similar to the torment of a scorpion when it striketh a man,' but which nevertheless shall not be mortal, and shall be of a limited duration. And in the midst of these judg. ments, the sealed of the children of Israel shall be protected from the evils which shall fall upon all around them; evils of such magnitude, that in those days shall men seek death and shall not find it, and shall desire to die, and death shall flee from them.'"-(pp. 147, 148.)

Of the 2nd Woe-Trumpet.

“ The vision exhibited to the apostle on the sounding of the sixth or second woe trumpet, was an arıny of horsemen, whose numbers were revealed as 'two hundred thousand thousand;' and whose appearance and power are described in the following words: • And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them, having breastplates of fire, and of jacinth, and of brimstone; and the heads of the horses were as the heads of lions; and out of their mouths issued fire, and smoke, and brimstone.'

The locusts of the foregoing vision were prohibited from killing, and could only torment their victims; but the army of horsemen, now sent forth, were not so restricted : ' by these three' (we are told) was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths.'

“But the most remarkable circumstance revealed respecting this great army of horsemen is, that they appear to have been called forth by the setting free of the four angels who were bound in the river Euphrates; for with the loosing of these angels the prophecy begins. Immediately on the sounding of the sixth trumpet the apostle heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God, saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.'

“ It has been inferred from this, that the four angels here spoken of must be evil angels, because it can hardly be supposed that good angels should have been bound; and hence many commentators have concluded that the army to whose motions their liberation gives birth, shall be, like the locusts, an army of evil spirits; sent forth with still more formidable powers than their predecessors, and permitted, not to torment only, but to kill' the third part of men.'

“ It seems clear, however, that the loosing of the four angels will in some way be the cause of the invasion by this fearful army; for the slaying of the third part of men, which in one place is spoken of as occasioned by the fire, and smoke, and brimstone, which proceeded out of the mouths of the horses, is in another place attributed to the angels themselves. It is not unreasonable, therefore, to infer that they will be in some eminent degree the leaders or directors of the army of horsemen.

" Again, it must be observed, that the four angels are said to have been bound at or in the river Euphrates ;' and we are therefore probably to look to that region as the scene of this great judgment; inasmuch as the prophecy seems distinctly to assert, that from thence shall issue the great multitude of horsemen who are to be the instruments of the predicted massacre, wherein * the third part of men'shall be slain.

“ This conclusion is in exact conformity with the inference, to which, in a former course of Lectures, we were led from a consideration of the prophecies of Daniel ; namely that the countries in the region of the Euphrates, once the seat of such mighty empires, are destined, at some future period, to recover their political power, and to become the scene of the last great struggle between the prince of this world, and the people of God.”—(pp. 149–152.)

3. Of the measuring of the temple :-“ We cannot, therefore, doubt that the literal sense of the prophecy before us speaks of Jerusalem as the scene of the events foretold. The measuring of the temple denotes, as we have seen, its restoration; after which the holy city shall be encompassed with armies, and trodden under foot of the Gentiles forty and two months.”--(p. 171.)

4. Of the Two Witnesses :"All that can be with certainty affirmed from the prophecy is, that two prophets will be raised up within the Jewish branch of the Church, after the apostacy and rejection of the Gentiles, who will continue to prophesy, clothed in sackcloth, during the entire period of twelve hundred and sixty days, the period of Antichrist's dominion: that the last act of his tyranny will be to make war with these witnesses, and to kill them: that their dead bodies will lie unburied in the streets, amidst the rejoicings of the world, 'because these two witnesses tormented them that dwelt on the earth;' that the witnesses, after three days and a half, will stand upon their feet, and will ascend into heaven, causing great fear to fall upon all who see them. Then shall follow, 'in the very same hour,' a great earthquake, in which a tenth part of the city shall be destroyed, and seven thousand men shall perish: and the remnant shall be affrighted, and shall give glory to the God of heaven."(pp. 212, 213.)

5. Of the Woman who fled into the wilderness :

“I would observe that the woman, seen by the apostle in the vision, must denote, not the Christian Church, for the reasons already suggested, but the Jewish nation.

“ This interpretation is in strict accordance with the language of the Old Testament, in which Israel is frequently spoken of under the emblem of a woman; and it is also remarkable, as tending to explain the symbols employed in the prophecy, that the dispersed and rejected state of the Jewish nation is represented by the prophets under the emblem of a barren woman. The prophet Isaiah, for example, thus predicts the restoration of Israel from her dispersion. Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear; break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail with child; for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, saith the Lord. Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habitations; spare not, lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes; for thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate cities to be inhabited.' And again, 'For the Lord hath called thee as a woman forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast refused, saith thy God. For a small moment have I forsaken thee, but with great mercies will I gather thee. In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment; but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the Lord, thy Redeemer.'

“ These passages are sufficient to show that the emblem of a woman, as a figure of the Jewish people, was already familiar to all who were acquainted with the ancient prophecies. And if by the barren and deserted state of a for: saken wife, were pourtrayed the rejection of Israel, and the wrath which caused the Lord to hide his face from her, we may perhaps fairly infer, that the sign of the woman, 'travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered,' would denote the removal of that wrath, and the reception of Israel once more, into the favour and covenanted love of God.”—(pp. 239-241.)

6. Of the first and second Beasts :

" On the whole, then, we see from this prophecy, if the view I have taken of it be correct, that in the latter days, when the Gentiles shall have fallen away into the great apostacy, and the candlestick of the Christian Church shall be removed from amongst them, the Jewish nation, after their restoration to the promised land, shall again be subjected to fearful persecutions, and the great body of them forced to abandon Judea, and to take refuge in 'a place prepared for them of God,' where they shall be preserved until the indignation be overpast;' that a formidable power shall then arise, headed by two remarkable leaders, who shall fix their seat and establish their authority among the apostate Gentiles, setting up a gross and blasphemous system of idolatry, persecuting the saints, the holy people, and putting all to death, whether Jew or Gentile, small or great, who shall refuse to conform to the idolatrous worship that shall be then the established religion of the world ; that one at least of these blasphemous potentates shall have power to work miracles, whereby he shall deceive them that dwell on the earth; and that the kingdom which shall thus be set up on the ruins of the Gentile Church, and in open defiance of every thing divine and sacred, shall be destroyed only by the immediate presence and sudden appearing of Him,'out of whose mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations; who shall rule them with a rod of iron; and who treadeth the wine-press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.''-(pp. 260, 261.)

It will be apparent, from these passages, that Mr. Todd does so effectually, by his interpretation, make the Book of Revelation Literal and Future,-as to remove it, for all practical ends, “ far away out of our sight." Yet he himself strives to represent the matter very differently in a passage towards the close of his Lectures. He says :

“ It follows, therefore, that the question of the right interpretation of the

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