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allowed by the Liturgy or practice of the Church of England; or if any person shall suffer any such meeting in bis house, barn, yard, woods, or grounds; they should be for the first and second offence thrown into jail, or fined; for the third offence transported for seven years, or fined a hundred pounds; and, in case of return or escape after such transportation, death without the benefit of clergy! Troops of horse and foot were on the alert to break up such meetings; the ravages and forfeitures for this crime of religious worship according to conscience became very great; the jails were filled with prisoners; others were transported as convicts; other whole families emigrated; informers were multiplied; and the defence and security of life, liberty, and property, in the trial by jury, were broken down.
"Next came the great Plague, in which the nonconformist clergy, having before been driven from their pulpits by power of persecution, the established clergy fled from theirs through fear of death. But when men who feared death more than God fled, then those men who feared nothing but God entered their places. Then came those same persecuted and silenced clergy, when the court and parliament had removed to Oxford, and the hirelings had fled from their flocks; they came in defiance of law and contagion, and ministered the bread of life to pale multitudes, at altars from which they would have been driven with penal inflictions in the season of health. But this too must be stopped; and therefore, by this very parliament, sitting in Oxford through fear of the plague in London, and to shut out those men who entered with the gospel when others dared not enter, a fresh penal law was enacted, by which, unless they would take an oath that the Earl of Southampton declared in parliament no honest man could take, all nonconformist ministers were banished five miles from any city, town, or borough, that sent members to parliament, and five miles froin any place whatsoever where they had at any time, in a number of years past, preached. This savage act produced of course great suffering, but it also called into exercise great endurance and patience for Christ's sake. Ministers who would not sacrifice their duty to God and their people, and who had to be concealed at a distance, sometimes rode thirty or forty miles to preach to their flocks in the night, fleeing again from their persecutors before the dawn of day.
" In 1670, the barbarous Conventicle Act was renewed with still greater severity; the trial by jury in case of offenders was destroyed; no warrant to be reversed by reason of any default in the form ; persons to be seized wherever they could be found; informiers encouraged and rewarded, and justices punished who would not execute the law. Archbishop Sheldon addressed a circular letter to all the bishops of his province, commanding them to take notice of all offenders, and to aid in bringing them to punishment. The Bishop of Peterborough declared publicly concerning this law, that it hath done its business against all fanatics except the Quakers; but when the Parliament sits again, a stronger law will be made, not only to take away the land and goods, but also to sell them for bond-slaves.' The magistrates became, it has been truly remarked, under this law an encouragement to evil doers, and a punishment of those who did well.”-(pp. 9–14.)
Such is Dr. Cheever's “rapid and important glance of the age in which he (Bunyan) lived." Important indeed—most affecting and monitory : but we do not quite like the Dr's conclusion.
“We shall pursue no further,” says Dr. C., " the history of political and ecclesiastical cruelty in this arbitrary persecuting reign. It is enough to make the very name of the Union of Church and State abhorred in the mind of every man who has a spark of generosity or freedom in his composition.”
If this be intended as a slur upon the Church and Constitution of our land, we can only pity it. 'If from the times of the Stuarts
Dr. C. has concluded against the principle of Church and State, it is only a proof that men may philosophize very deeply, and yet not deeply enough. Had our able American brother looked Romeward with as keen an eye as he has cast upon the stormy progress of English principles during the seventeenth century, or had he called to mind the Blue Code of Connecticut, and some other matters connected with American history, we think he might have come to a gentler and wiser conclusion. The Church and Constitution of England are essentially tolerant : and we are bold to say it, both politically and religiously, the only breakwater against the tyranny of Rome. Rome has all along been the mischief-maker. But Dissenters will not believe this, and hence our perils. The Church of the Reformation, even during the seventeenth century, when but few of any party questioned the principle of alliance, was fruitful in great names; and as we do not wish to quarrel with Dr. C., we will thankfully accept his own tribute, as contained in the following passage, proud to say that though last, our own names are by no means least, in this partial list.
“Bunyan's life and times,'' says Dr. C., “were also Baxter's; Baxter being but thirteen years the oldest. Bunyan died in 1688, Milton in 1674, Bastet in 1691. Owen was another contemporary, 1616–1683. John Howe w another, born 1630. Philip Henry was another, born 1631. The sweet por George Herbert should be named as another. Matthew Poole was another born 1623. Thomas Goodwin was another, born in 1600. Lord Chief Justice Hale was another, born in 1609. Cudworth was born in 1617: Henry More a born in 1614, and died in 1687, a year before the death of Bunyan. Archbisbop Usher and Bishop Hall both died in 1656. Taking these names together, you have a striking picture of the richness of the age both in piety and genius: 1 ascending series of great minds and good men from every rank and party
We are happy in this agreement: and if we are unfortunate enough to differ with Dr. C. on the principle of Church and State; perhaps he will excuse our saying that the list he has given wila all events decide the difference in our favour. We are content refer it to this decision—and who would wish for nobler judges
On the whole, while we very highly appreciate Dr. Cheer lectures on the Pilgrim's Progress, we must repeat that we.. by no means approve of his line of remark on Church-estabusu ments in the Life and Times. We the more regret this, as passages in question (pp. 9—14, 78--81, 85–94, passim) ou render it impossible for us as Churchmen to promote it culation to the extent we could wish. We know not whe the Tract Sociēty's Edition is an expurgated one—but sure. would be no sacrifice of principle to furnish a valuable Exposit of so Catholic a book as the Pilgrim's Progress free from objectionable matter — objectionable, that is, to conscien members of the Church of England.
1. CODEX EPHRAEMI RESCRIPTUS: sive Fragmenta utri
usque Testamenti, è Codice Græco Parisiensi quinti ut videtur post Christum seculi, eruit atque edidit CONSTANTINUS TISCHENDORF. Lipsiæ: sumtibus et typis Bernh. Tauch
nitz, Jun. 1845, folio. 2. CODEX FRIDERICO-AUGUSTANUS: sive Fragmenta
Veteris Testamenti è Codice Græco omnium, qui in Europa supersunt, facile antiquissimo. Ex oriente detexit, in patriam attulit, ad modum Codicis edidit CONTANTINUS TischENDORF. Lipsiæ: sumtibus et typis Bernh. Tauchnitz,
Jun. 1846, large (imperial) 4to. 3. MONUMENTA SACRA INEDITA: sive Reliquiæ Anti
quissimæ Textus Novi Testamenti Græci ex novem plus mille annorum Codicibus per Europam dispersis. Eruit atque edidit CONSTANTINUS TISCHENDORF. Lipsiæ: sumti. bus et typis Bernh. Tauchnitz, Jun. 1846, folio.
Dr. TischenDORF, who is Professor of Theology in the University of Leipzig, is one of the most successful explorers of the remains of sacred antiquity : and his splendid publications are not undeserving of a place on the same shelf with Dr. Woide's fac-simile edition of the New Testament after the celebrated Alexandrian Manuscript in the British Museum, published at London in 1786, and with Mr. Baber's magnificent and accurate fac-simile edition of the Old Testament in Greek, after the same manuscript, also published in London in 1816–28. As Dr. Tischendorf's publications are but little known in this country, and the high price which they necessarily bear, render them accessible to but few biblical students, we think (at least we hope) that we shall gratify our readers by offering to them an outline of their various and important contents.
1. The fac-simile of the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus was published in two parts, viz. (1.) The New Testament in 1843; and (2.) The Old Testament in 1845, with separate title-pages. The title above given is that of the volume into which these two parts are collected. The Codex Ephraemi derives its name from the circumstance of several Greek ascetic treatises of Ephraim, a deacon of the Syrian Church at Edessa, being written over some more ancient writings which had been erased. These writings contained the Septuagint version of the Old Testament and the entire New Testament: but these venerable remains of the Scriptures were so completely intermingled, inverted, or transposed, by the unknown later copyists of Ephraim's treatises (who lived at the
close of the twelfth or more probably in the thirteenth century, as to be rendered almost useless. Bs the application of chemical means, Professor Tischendorf has suceeded in rendering a large portion of this manuscript legible.
Of the Septuagint version of the Old Testament he has published forty-three folios, containing fragments of the books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, of the apocryphal books of the Wisdom of Solomon and of the Wisdom of Sirach. Of the New Testament, he has printed fragments of all the books, in three hundred and six folio pages. Concerning the age of this manuscript critics are not agreed. Michaelis in general terms asserted its great antiquity: his translator and annotator, Bishop Marsh, referred it to the seventh century; and Dr. Scholz (the latest critical editor of the Greek Testament) to the sixth century. Dr. Tisehendorf, however, is of opinion that the most ancient of the four different sorts of writing, which he has discovered in this manuscript, was written in the fifth century; and in his judgment we may acquiesce. Such of the fragments as could be decyphered were collated for Kuster's edition of Dr. Mill's Greek Testament, published at Rotterdam in 1710; and subsequently, with greater accuracy, for Wetstein's edition, published at Amsterdam in 1751 -52. Wetstein's collations were adopted and printed by Griesbach and Scholz, in their respective critical editions of the Greek Testament. Future editors, however, may now derive a copious harvest of various readings, from Dr. Tischendorf's valuable labours. Lithograpbed fac-similes are given, accurately representing the original manuscript.
2. The Codex Frederico-Augustanus, in all probability, was written in the fourth century. It was brought from the East by Professor Tischendorf, who has caused it to be beautifully lithographed in eighty-six imperial quarto pages, each containing four columns, of forty-eight lines in a full column. This manuscript contains parts of the two books of Chronicles, the second book of Esdras, Nehemiah, the whole of the book of Esther, the prophecies of Jeremiah, from chap. x. ver. 32, to the end of the book, and the Lamentations from chap. i. ver. 1, to chap. iv. ver. 20. This manuscript is written on very thin vellum, in uncial or capital letters, with tawny-coloured ink of various shades; and, in Dr. Tischendorf's judgment, exhibits vestiges of corrections made by four different hands. The earliest of these, he is of opinion, is co-eval with the writing of the original manuscript, but the other three are of posterior date. This manuscript has never been collated.
3. The fragments of nine manuscripts, which are written in uncial or capital letters, and all of which are upwards of one thousand years old, comprise various portions of the Greek Testament.
Of these precious remains of antiquity very few have been collated for the critical editions of the New Testament; and such of them as have been examined have been but imperfectly collated.
(1.) The Codex Tischendorfianus was brought from the East by Dr. Tischendorf, by whom it has been deposited in the library of the university of Leipzig. It comprises some very small portions of the gospel of St. Matthew, chap. xiii. ver. 46–55, and larger fragments of the same gospel, chap. xiv. ver. 8—29, and chap. xv. ver. 4-15. These fragments are written on vellum, and are referred by Professor T. to the seventh century.
(2, 3, 4.) Contain fragments of the four gospels, written with silver letters on purple vellum, at the latter end of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century; the writing of which, though these fragments are now severally found at London, Vienna, and Rome, evidently proves that they originally formed one and the same manuscript.
(1.) The Codex Cottonianus (Titus C. XV.) is preserved in the Cottonian Library, in the British Museum. It contains St. Matthew's gospel, chap. xxvi. ver. 57—65, and chap. xxvii. ver. 26–34; and portions of St. John's gospel, chap. xiv. ver. 1-10, and chap. xv. ver. 15-22. This manuscript was imperfectly collated by Wetstein, whose readings were adopted by Griesbach. The chapters of Ammonius and the Eusebian Canons are noted in the margin.
(2.) The Codex Cæsareus Vindobonensis consists of two folios or leaves, forming four pages, which are preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna: it contains the gospel of St. Luke chap. xxiv. 13–49. . (3.) The Codex Vaticanus, noted by Drs. Scholz and Tischendorf with the letter f. contains the gospel of St. Matthew, chap. xix. ver. 6–13; xx. ver. 6–34; and xxi. ver. 1-19.
(5.) The Codex Barberinus, No. 225, at Rome, was inaccurately collated by Dr. Scholz, for his critical edition of the New Testament. It is in uncial characters, in the eighth century, and consists of six leaves (not eight, as Scholz erroneously stated), containing the gospel of St. John, chap. xvi. ver. 3, to chap. xix. ver. 41.
(6.) The Codex Parisiensis Regius, No. 314, in the Royal Library at Paris, is a fragment of a manuscript of the eighth century, containing the gospel of St. Luke, chap. ix. ver. 33–47, and chap. x. ver. 12-22.
(7.) The Codex Parisiensis, No. 62, also in the Royal Library, is a quarto manuscript, written on vellum, in uncial letters, in the beginning of the seventh century, according to Wetstein ; in the eighth or ninth, according to Griesbach ; but in the judgment of