A History of Lactic Acid Making: A Chapter in the History of Biotechnology

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 30, 1990 - Science - 478 pages
A thorough history. Lactic acid's chemistry has posed problems that required the large-scale preparation of the acid for study; its manufacture is a complicated process involving many subdisciplines of the science of chemistry; its use encompasses many fields of industrial activity and important asp
 

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Contents

LACTIC ACID IN EARLY ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 17801840
1
The industrial revolution and chemistry
3
Sulfuric acid replaces buttermilk in textile bleaching
4
Carl Wilhelm Scheele 17421786
6
Scheele discovers lactic acid
7
Antoine laurent lavoisier the father of modern chemistry
9
Berzelius about organic chemistry
11
Braconnot finds lactic acid in soured plant juices
12
The effect of the War on tartaric and citric acid
229
Citric acid by fermentation
230
World lactic acid production capacity increased by More than 100
232
BUTYRIC FERMENTATION CAN SPOIL LACTIC FERMENTATION
235
Purification of butyric acid
236
Butyric acid and the environment
238
THE CHEMICALIZATION OF THE NEW WORLD
241
Cars need coatings
243

Joseph Louis GayLussac 17781850
14
GayLussac addresses himself to the lactic acid controversy
15
The first quantitative analysis of lactic acid
17
Justus Liebig makes Germany the center of organic chemistry
18
THE PRESCIENTIFIC ERA OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
23
Spoilage and spontaneous generation
24
The chemistry of life and the causes of fermentation
26
The use of the microscope in fermentation studies
27
Liebig ridicules the use of the microscope
29
Lactic acid a new fermentation product
30
Liebigs theory of fermentation
32
The role of apothecaries in the preparation of chemicals
34
Iron lactate the first pharmaceutical based on lactic acid
35
Improvements in the preparation of lactic acid
36
MICROBIOLOGY BECOMES A SCIENCE
43
Pasteur on fermentation
45
Pasteur on spontaneous generation
47
Lister prepares a pure culture of a lactic acid bacterium
48
The preparation of pure cultures
52
Pasteur and the brewing process
53
Hansen introduces pure cultures in beer brewing
54
A research institute for the german fermentation industries
55
The study of lactic acid bacteria at Delbrücks institute
56
Wilhelm Henneberg introduces pure cultures in other industries
57
The end of the LiebigPasteur controversy
58
Biochemistry and citalism
59
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL ACTIVITY OF LACTIC ACID
63
Lactic acid is dibasic
64
The discovery of sarcolactic acid
65
The structure of the lactic acid molecule
66
Johannes Wislicenus 18351902
69
What is optical activity?
70
The stereochemistry of lactic acid
71
Modern nomenclature relating to stereoisomerism
73
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID BEGINS IN AMERICA
77
Chemistry in massachusetts
78
Chemical education in boston
79
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology
82
Developments after the civil war
84
Baking powder
85
Charles Ellery Avery the first manufacturer of lactic acid
86
Littleton site of Averys lactate factory
88
The first years of the Avery company
90
Charles Avery turns seriously ill
92
The fermentation and purification of lactic acid
94
Lactic acid in soft drinks
97
Lactic acid in the mordanting of textiles
100
Lactic acid in the tannery
103
TEXTILE COLORING AND LACTIC ACID
111
Chrome mordants need an organic acid
113
The dyeing and printing of cotton
114
Textile coloring demands much chemical skill
115
Induline dyes
117
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID COMES TO GERMANY
121
Albert boehringer acquires a chemical plant at NiederIngelheim
122
NiederIngelheim a rural village attracts industrial enterprises
124
Cream of tartar production by DAvis Klein
126
Tartaric acid production by Albert Boehringer
127
Boehringer is interested in the manufacture of citric acid
128
E Merck Darmstadt sells and maybe manufactures pharmaceutical lactic acid
129
When did lactic acid fermentation begin in Darmstadt?
133
Jacquemin obtains a patent for lactic acid production
134
Who was George Jacquemin?
135
Wehmer makes citric acid by fermentation
140
Boehringer tries to make citric acid
142
Boehringer decides to manufacture lactic acid
144
Boehringers production method
145
Applications of the new product
148
Dreher sets up a consultancy business
150
LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA The discovery and fate of Lactobacillus delbrueckii
157
Lactic acid bacteria in the distillery industry
159
Mashing in the distillery
160
Kunsthefe
161
The origin of Lactobacillus delbrueckii
162
Henneberg defines Lactobacillus delbrueckii more exactly
164
French pharmaceutical lactic acid must be racemic
165
Confusion about the enantiomer produced by L delbrueckii
166
Is Bacillus coagulans the culprit?
167
How stable are lactic acid producing bacteria?
168
EFFORTS TO MAKE FOOD GRADE LACTIC ACID
171
Is lactic acid fit for human consumption?
174
Opposition to the use of lactic acid in food and beverages
176
The competitive situation
177
Did Boehringer have a technological or economic advantage?
178
Problems in the production of edible lactic acid
179
Purification through crystallization of calcium lactate
180
A trick of the trade
181
The Boehringer company fared well with lactic acid
183
The first social charter of the company
184
Boehringer tries to increase his influence in city matters
185
Lactic acid and cellulose films
187
An American lactic acid plant
189
Did US lactic acid producers cooperate in the market?
190
Trusts and antitrust actions in america
191
Purpose of Club
192
Did lactic acid really compete with tartaric and citric?
193
TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN MAKING EDIBLE LACTIC ACID
199
Precipitation of the calcium salts of the food acids
200
The purification of the three food acids
202
Interesterification lactic acid disturbs its own purification
203
What purification processes existed for lactic acid?
204
LACTIC ACID AND OTHER FERMENTATION INDUSTRIES IN WORLD WAR I
209
The role of chemists and chemistry in the war
210
The war of 19141918 a war of chemicals
211
The fermentation industry supplies glycerol
212
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute is mobilized
214
Sodium and potassium lactate as glycerol substitutes
215
German lactic acid production in World War I
216
How did France and Britain react when imports of German lactic acid stopped?
218
a British war baby
220
The butanolacetone fermentation process
222
Chemical problems of the United States
223
American production of organic acids
224
The American lactic acid industry during World War I
225
Introduction of edible lactic acid in America
227
Raw material for lactic acid in the United States
228
Ethyl lactate a potential lacquer solvent
245
More about Cellosolve and the beginnings of petrochemistry
249
Why ethyl lactate did not make it
251
Production of lactic acid almost disappears from the American scene
253
Lactic acid production in Germany in the aftermath of World War I
257
French troops occupy the Ruhr
260
Merck reports severe raw material problems
261
What happened to Boehringer?
262
Lactic acid production in GreatBritain
263
Bowmans Warrington Ltd
264
Howards Son later named Howards of Ilford Ltd
265
Bowmans also make edible lactic acid
267
Industrial cooperation and cartels in Germany
268
The German lactic acid industry fixed sales prices
270
Concluding remarks about the state of the lactic acid industry around 1930
272
THE RAW MATERIAL CHOICE SUGAR OR STARCH
275
Starch sugar
276
Malt sugar or maltose
277
Dextrins
278
The raw material situation in Germany
279
Why sugar was not used in Germany
280
Potato starch and starch sugar for the German fermentation industry
283
Potato starch in World War I
285
Raw material use in Germany during the interbellum
286
Developments in the United States
288
American sugar prices were too high for lactic acid manufacture
291
Sugar is gradually replaced by dextrose
293
Cheap chemically pure dextrose is invented by Newkirk
294
Markets for dextrose hydrate
296
FOOD ACIDS GREW DURING THE GREAT DEPRESSION Citric becomes the soft drink acid of choice
299
Pfizer makes citric acid a large volume commodity
301
Lactic acid producers do not meet the challenge
302
Price developments
303
American production of edible lactic acid
305
A new method to manufacture edible lactic acid
306
New raw materials
308
The chemurgy movement
309
From the microbiology of cheese making to lactic acid fermentation
312
Enters National Dairy
313
Starch manufacturers introduce dextrose as raw material
315
Repeal of the eighteenth amendment
316
Corrosion problems
320
The importance of calcium lactate
323
The position of lactic acid as food acid in America
324
Developments in Europe
325
Growth of lactic acid in Germany
326
Beverages
328
Boehringer tackles the food industry
329
Other European lactic acid manufacturers
330
BOEHRINGER PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
341
Purification of lactic acid by crystallization
343
Crystallization of enantiomeric lactic acid
345
Allied intelligence reports on lactic acid manufacture in Germany
346
Boehringer knowhow in French eyes
347
Conclusions of the French party
348
Sundry observations of other visiting expert parties
349
PETROCHEMICALS PREVAIL OVER FERMENTATION CHEMICALS Lactic acid from 1940 to 1965
351
Why did the fermentation industry stay so much behind?
352
Is whey the right raw material for Lactoprene?
354
Lactoprene was made from starch
355
A new purification method for lactic acid
358
Corrosion problems are finally surmounted
360
Large scale production of lactic acid from molasses?
363
The effect of USDA research on lactic acid sales
364
Ethyl lactate from petrochemical feedstock
365
European developments From 1945 to 1960
369
Europe counts too many producers of lactic acid
371
Bowmans introduces buffered lactic acid
372
Bowmans becomes the leading lactic acid manufacturer
374
Société Normande de Produits Chimiques RhônePoulenc
377
Introduction of ion exchange resins in lactic acid purification
379
Luis Ayuso SA
382
Lactic acid in olive production
384
Kemisk Vaerk Køge AS
385
European lactic acid producers establish a research association to promote lactic acid
386
The first five years of ILRA
389
Arnold chairman of ILRA
390
Boehringer temporarily halts lactic acid production
391
Boehringer joins ILRA
393
CJ PATTERSON FINDS A NEW USE FOR LACTIC ACID The story of stearoyl lactylates conditioners of bread
397
CJ Patterson cereal chemist and industrialist
398
Patterson forms his own company
399
CJ Patterson establishes a bakery research laboratory
400
The FDA scrutinizes bread emulsifiers
402
The supply of lactic acid
404
Patterson approaches European lactic acid producers
405
Synthetic lactic acid enters the picture
407
A new bread additive may push it into chemical big time
408
Clues to lactic requirement
409
Fate of US producers of lactic acid
410
FERMENTATION LACTIC ACID CONSOLIDATES ITS POSITION
417
Indústria Química de Sínteses e Fermentaçôes
419
HVA buys Schiedamsche Melkzuur Fabriek
421
HVA establishes a research laboratory
423
Why did the D isomer cause so much concern?
424
Reactions of ILRA members
425
HVA Research develops a method for making pure L+lactic acid
426
The fate of L+lactic acid in baby food
427
SMF penetrates the United Kingdom
428
Lactic acid companies want to diversify
430
Calcium lactate in the treatment of calcium deficiency
431
Chemie Combinatie Amsterdam CCA is founded
432
Two competitors stop manufacturing lactic acid
434
The European Economic Community
435
The Common Agricultural Policy CAP of the EEC
436
The World Market Boom of 1974 and European Community Sugar Policy
439
The original production refund system did not return
440
A new watereddown production refund system
442
The cost of sugar again nears world market level
443
RhônePoulenc tries to make synthetic lactic acid from propylene
444
Combined oxaliclactic acid production
446
A second explosion hits RhônePoulenc
448
SUBJECT INDEX
453
NAME INDEX
471
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